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This Volume is for 


From the collection of the 






San Francisco, California 


New Series 




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Vol. 8 ctofcer, 1928 










Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 
1103, Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 


Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



H. H. Smith 


W. H. Vogel C. G. Schoewe Dr. H. L. Tilsner 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. W. Oilman 

A. T. Newman Dr. A. L. Kastner 


Dr. S. A. Barrett Dr. F. C. Rogers Dr. E. J. W. Notz 

A. P. Kannenberg E. F. Richter Mrs. H. E. Koerner 

VetalWinn L.R.Whitney Geo. A. West 

W. C. McKern 


G. M. Thome 

National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. S. A. Barrett, J. P. Schumacher, W. G. Mc- 
Lachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, C. E. Brown, W. C. McKern, T. L. 
Miller, A, W. Pond, C. W. Beemer, and Frank Thomlinson. 

MOUND PRESERVATION W. W. Gilman, Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. 
A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Louise 
P. Kellogg, Mrs. H. A. Main, R. A. Maas, J. W. Norris, Mrs.i 
F. R. Melcher, Dr. A. Gerend, and G. L. Pasco. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Dr. G. L. Collie, A. C. 
Neville, A. P. Kannenberg, E. P. Hamilton, William Horlick, 
Mrs. H. A. Olson, Mrs. H. E. Koerner, R. S. Van Handel, Mrs. 

E. T. Wiswall and T. M. N. Lewis. 

MEMBERSHIP C. G. Schoewe, A. P. Cloos, Dr. W. H. Brown, A. R. 
Rogers, A. Sohrweide, Jr., Vetal Winn, C. G. Weyl, Mrs. Theo. 
Koerner, W. P. Morgan, A. E. Koerner, Louis Pierron, C. Baer- 
wald, D. S. Rowland, and Geo. Overton. 

MAN MOUND PARK E. A. Gilman, Miss Emma Richmond and 
M. F. Hulburt. 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, M. G. Troxell, and W. W. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Mrs. W. F. Bauchle, M. C. Richter, E. R. 
Mclntyre and R. K. Coe. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thome, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce. Mil- 


Vol. 8, No. 1, New Series 



Harry E. Cole 7 

The Historic Brule, Louise P. Kellogg 10 

Effigy Platform Pipe, Charles E. Brown 12 

Importance of Skeletal Remains in Wisconsin Archeology, 

Alton K. Fisher 14 

The Reedsburg Cache, Milton F. Hulbert 18 

The Ceramic Repository, Carl E. Guthe 20 

The Importance of Pottery in Wisconsin Archeology, W. C. McKern 26 

The Dickson Mound Builders' Tomb, Theodore T. Brown 29 

Wisconsin Shell Beads, Anton Sohrweide 32 

The Rockford Mound Group, Charles E. Brown 35 

Family Names of Civilized Indians, Vetal W T inn 36 

A "Lost Art" That Was Never Lost 39 

Archeological Notes 41 

Effigy Platform Pipe Frontispiece 

Plate Facing Page 

1. The Reedsburg Cache 18 

2. Indian Burials in the Dickson Tomb 30 

3. Rockford Mound Group __ 36 

Albion Township, Dane County, Wisconsin. 


Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin. Archeological Society 

Vol. 8 MADISON, WIS., OCTOBER, 1928 No. 1 

New Series 


Harry E. Cole, for many years a very active member of 
the Wisconsin Archeological Society, died at his home at 
Baraboo, Wisconsin, on Friday, April 13, 1928. Mr. Cole 
was a charter member of the state society and at different 
times during the many years of his membership one of its 
vice presidents and a member of its board of directors. At 
the time of his death he was the chairman of its committee 
on State Survey, an office which he had held for a number 
of years. At the time of his death he was also the president 
of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 

"Mr. Cole was a native of Indiana. He was born on a 
farm near Pierceton, his parents Thomas and Caroline Cole. 
He finished his common school education at Pierceton high, 
then took a course at DePauw, graduating in '92. The bril- 
liant Beveridge was but one year before. For a time he was 
principal of Pierceton high school, then, having determined 
upon journalism as a life calling, he went to La Crosse in a 
reportorial capacity, but, after about a year, bought the 
Baraboo Daily News, in association with A. D. Dorsett, a 
college classmate. That was 33 years ago. Since then he 
was editor .for many years before Harlan K. Page pur- 
chased a half interest, and also was business manager. 
Twenty-five years ago last May Mr. Cole was married to 
Miss Dorothy Matchett. The two were friends from child- 
hood and attended the Pierceton high school together. Mr. 
Cole was editor of his college paper, and a member of Delta 
Upsilon; also he was a Pythian and a Kiwanian. His par- 
ents were Methodists. 

"Mr. Cole figured large in Baraboo affairs for more than 
33 years, bringing the community distinction and many 


notables more by far than any other citizen in all the 
history of the city. His interest in archaeology was sincere, 
and due to his activities in a great measure do we have a 
gratifying mapping of the mounds of Sauk and neighboring 
counties. He likewise was especially fond of geology and 
local history. 

"His inclination was strongly historical, and early he 
joined the Wisconsin State Historical Society, of which he 
was president for three years. For many years he had been 
a curator. Also he was a member of the Wisconsin Acad- 
emy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, of the Baraboo humane 
society, of the Sauk County Historical society, of the Bara- 
boo Fortnightly club, which he organized and served as 
president, of the Men's Book club, likewise organized by 
him, of the Heart of the Hills Walking club, of the Friends 
of Our Native Landscape, of which he was treasurer. 


"These associations clearly indicate the trend of his 
thoughts and his activities. In conjunction with Dr. A. B. 
Stout, now of the New York Botanical Garden, Mr. Cole 
was instrumental in securing the site of a mound four miles 
east of Baraboo, where reclines the effigy of a giant 214 feet 
long by 48 broad at the shoulders a mystifying object of 
unusual interest. 

The work of Mr. Cole in the archeological field began with 
Dr. Stout in making a survey of the Indian remains in the 
eastern half of Sauk county. Some 700 mounds of various 
types were mapped, village sites located, and other evidences 
of aboriginal occupation recorded. Over a period of three 
years Mr. Cole made a number of trips to Adams county 
where a like survey was made and hundreds of mounds 
listed. This was followed by a survey of the western half 
of Sauk county, where more mounds were mapped, and one 
trip was made up the Baraboo river valley with the late 
Prof. A. S. Flint, some interesting remains being located. 
More recently, in connection with Charles E. Brown, secre- 
tary of the Wisconsin Archeological society, a survey of 
Columbia county was made. Extensive reports have been 
printed of the work completed. 

Harry E. Cole. 


"Bronze tablets have been placed on many mounds at 
Madison, Delavan, Waukesha, Milwaukee, Devils Lake 
State Park, Baraboo and elsewhere, Mr. Cole attending with 
fidelity and often assisting with the accurate placing and 
the unveiling. The fine bronze tablet which marks the 
great bird effigy mound at Kirk's hotel in Devils Lake State 
Park was one of his personal gifts to Wisconsin archaeol- 
ogy. In recognition of his services, covering over 25 years, 
the Lapham medal, bearing the following inscription, was 
presented to Mr. Cole by the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society : 



MARCH 15, 1926 

"The Sauk County Historical society was incorporated 
more than 20 years ago and Mr. Cole always was its presi- 
dent. Largely through his efforts a highly creditable mu- 
seum was established in the Baraboo courthouse. Here are 
placed some of the rare archaeological relics of the region 
and objects of pioneer interest. 

"Mr. Cole was the author of "Stage-coach and Tavern 
Days in the Baraboo Region," "Baraboo, Dells and Devils 
Lake Region," "Baraboo and Other Place Names in Sauk 
County," "Baraboo Bear Tales," "The Quest of Life's 
Meaning," and other books and brochures. The one relat- 
ing to the Baraboo region has gone into the third edition. 
This book is used largely by geologists and tourists who 
come to see the unusual scenery, archaeological remains 
and geology of the Baraboo valley. At the time of his death 
Mr. Cole had finished an extended revision of his stagecoach 
story, which he had expanded into an important volume of 
several hundred pages, covering the entire state, finished 
except for printing. 

"Numerous articles from his pen, usually historic, ap- 
peared over many years in magazines and the press. Be- 


fore the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 
he spoke a number of times and at his death he was vice- 
president of that organization. 

"Mr. Cole had been to Europe twice, and was widely 
traveled over his own country. One visit was made to 
Alaska. Notable friends he had everywhere, and with 
many he maintained a lively and intimate correspondence. 
He had a wide knowledge of books, his library extensive and 
of solid literary, historic, scientific and philosophic merit."* 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society has never had a 
more devoted, active or unselfish member than Harry E. 
Cole. His interest in its undertakings and his activity in 
its behalf never ceased until the day of his death. In years 
past he frequently spoke at its Milwaukee meetings and 
helped to organize its state field assemblies. He often ap- 
peared before the committees of the state legislature in be- 
half of its appropriation and other bills. To call on Harry 
E. Cole for any public educational service was to secure his 
assistance. The doors of his hospitable home at Baraboo 
were ever open to archaeologists, historians, geologists and 
nature lovers, and his automobile was ever at their com- 
mand for expeditions into all parts of the state. The offi- 
cers and members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
especially mourn the loss of so great a friend as he was. 
He sleeps in beautiful Walnut Hill cemetery at Baraboo, 
near some of the men and women whose achievements his 
ready pen has helped to perpetuate and within sight of the 
beautiful Baraboo range whose scenic beauties, geology, 
archaeology and history no man has ever known so well. 


Far up in the northwest corner of Wisconsin, near the 
western end of Lake Superior issues a small river, which 
has had a long and varied history and has considerably in- 
fluenced the destinies of Wisconsin. The headsprings of 
this stream lie almost a hundred miles to the south where 

The Wisconsin State Journal,April 14, 1928. 

.The Historic Brule. 11 

they interlock with those of the St. Croix River, a tributary 
of the Mississippi. It is due to this fact that both the rivers 
have become historic, for by following either and portaging 
to the other the shortest way between the water systems of 
the Great Lakes and the great river is found. ' The north- 
ern stream makes a swift descent of over five hundred feet 
to the waters of Lake Superior, forming it is said, two hun- 
dred and forty distinct rapids, some of which are consider- 
able cascades ; it is navigable only by the frail birch canoes 
of the Indians. These skillful canoemen can run down the 
river making only four portages; in ascending, however, 
the portages and decharges 1 are numerous and a birch bark 
flotilla needed five or more days for the voyage. 

This waterway was known to the redmen long before the 
advent of the whites; through the thick bordering forest 
they urged their frail craft, intent upon seeking game or 
bent on a war expedition against their enemies. The first 
Indians, who lived thereabouts were the Sioux tribesmen 
and their name for the river was the Nemitsakouat, by that 
name it is called in a letter of La Salle written in 1861. 

The year before had taken place the first recorded jour- 
ney of a white man along this river no less a personage 
than La Salle's great rival, Daniel Greysolon Sieur Duluth. 
This brave adventurer had come to the far Northwest to 
reconcile the Sioux Indians with their hereditary enemies, 
the Chippewa, whose habitat lay at the eastern end of Lake 
Superior. The rival war parties made all routes unsafe 
either for hunting or for discovery. Duluth was very suc- 
cessful in his pacification, having brought the chiefs of both 
tribes together and held a peace council where the city now 
stands that bears his name. "In June, 1680," he writes in 
his journal, "not being satisfied with my exploration by land 
I took two canoes, with a savage who was my interpreter, 
and with four Frenchmen, to seek the means of making it 
by water. For this purpose I entered into a river which 
has its mouth eight leagues from the extremity of Lake 
Superior on the south side, where after having cut down 
some trees and broken through about one hundred beaver 

1 A decharge is a place where only the load is taken from the canoe 
and the craft itself poled through the rapid. 


dams, I went up the said river, and then made a carry of 
half a league to reach a lake, which emptied into a fine river, 
which brought me to the Mississippi." 

The French guarded this waterway by rudely built forts, 
one on Madeline Island in Chequamegon Bay, one on an 
island in the Mississippi, and a third was placed for a time 
on upper Lake St. Croix. They were, however, obliged to 
abandon this region because of the outbreak of the Chip- 
pewa-Sioux war, the great battle of which was fought near 
the falls of St. Croix, early in the eighteenth century. The 
Chippewa won and drove the Sioux from these hunting 
grounds. They renamed the river Wis-a-ko-da (Misacoda) 
which means burnt pines; this the French translated to 
Bois Brule from which is derived the modern name of Brule. 
One other title was borne by this stream during the 
eighteenth century when it was named Goddard's River for 
an early fur trader by the famous Jonathan Carver, first 
English traveler in Wisconsin. When he was here in July, 
1767 he says "this [the river] was so scant of water we 
were obliged to raise it with dams for passage." 

Among the first Americans to visit this stream were 
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft in 1831 and his party guarded by 
Lieutenant James Allen of the Fifth United States Infan- 
try with a number of troops. Schoolcraft, who was Indian 
agent at Sault Ste. Marie came out to vaccinate the Chip- 
pewa of this locality, among whom w r as the famous Chief 
Pezhicki, or Buffalo, who had visited President Monroe at 
Washington and wore a silver medal on his breast bearing 
the president's effigy. Schoolcraft speaks of moose hunting 
on the Burntwood River, while Allen says "the river is ex- 
ceedingly cold and clear and is filled with thousands of the 
real mountain brook trout" a fisherman's paradise a hun- 
dred years ago. Allen, however, had hard work to descend 
this rapid stream with awkward soldiers unaccustomed to 
guiding canoes in strong water, the craft struck so often on 
the rocks that the supply of gum to mend the birch bark was 
exhausted, and part of the soldiers had to take to the woods 
and clamber among the rocky steeps of the river's bank. 
"Often," says Schoolcraft, "on looking down its channel 
there are wreaths of foam constituting a brilliant vista. 

Effigy Platform Pipe. 13 

This stream might appropriately be called Rapid or Mad 

Thus the many-named stream Nemitsakouat, Wisakoda, 
Bois Brule, Burntwood, Goddard, Brule or Mad River has 
threaded the dark forests of northwest Wisconsin, an his- 
toric stream, known formerly to a few, now of world wide 
fame, as the summer home for the chief executive of the 
nation. In 1803 it was the route of a French-Canadian fur- 
trader who gives us some of the Indian names for localities. 
He slept one night at "le petit Pakouijawin," a native term 
for a bayou or lake just above the last quick water and not 
far from Cedar Island lodge. Near by was "le grand Pa- 
kouijawin" and from its head there ran an old Indian trail 
to where Superior now stands. 

Thus this river justifies its title of the historic Brule, 
frequented in prehistoric times by the Sioux who were 
driven thence by their rivals the Chippewa; traversed in 
the seventeenth century by French discoverers and soldiers 
of fortune; a well-known waterway in the eighteenth cen- 
tury for British explorers and fur traders, it became in the 
nineteenth century a lumberer's stream, until with more 
leisurely days came the sportsmen and tourists who have 
placed the historic Brule on the map of the world. 


The very interesting Indian ceremonial pipe illustrated 
in the frontispiece of this issue of The Wisconsin Arche- 
ologist was plowed up in the year 1925 from a gravel hill 
on the Atwood farm, in the Si/ 2 of Section 5, Albion Town- 
ship, Dane County, Wisconsin. 

The disk, with slightly concave surfaces, probably repre- 
senting a discoidal stone, has in front of it a headless kneel- 
ing female figure, both on a rather thick and broad plat- 
form base. 

This pipe has the following dimensions, and weight : 

Height 5% inches. 

Length 6% inches. 

Base Length 5% inches, width 2 3 /4 inches, thickness T % to 1 inch. 

Diameter of discoidal 5% inches, thickness 2% inches. 

Height of kneeling figure 4% inches. 

Weight 5% pounds. 


The bowl of this pipe is on the top of the discoidal. It is 
conical in form, li/2 inches in diameter and 1% inches deep. 
The "stemhole" is placed on the side of the disk at a dis- 
tance of % of an inch beyond the edge of the bowl. It is of 
about the same size and depth as the bowl. It is very prob- 
able that the kneeling figure once possessed a head. 

This pipe is one of the largest and heaviest pipes ever 
found in Wisconsin. It is likewise one of a very small num- 
ber of human effigy pipes found which are probably prehis- 
toric. In a number of places it shows traces of a former 
polish. The material from which it is fashioned is crinoidal 
limestone of the same character as that of an outcrop of 
this material which, according to geologists, occurs in south- 
eastern and western Kentucky, southern Indiana, southern 
Illinois and eastern Missouri. Its character indicates that 
it was probably made by some one of the prehistoric Indian 
tribes of the Middle Mississippi valley or of regions further 

The kneeling figure is suggestive of some of the kneel- 
ing effigy vessels obtained from mounds and stone graves 
in the Middle Mississippi valley. This very interesting 
pipe (A8954) is the property of the State Historical Mu- 
seum at Madison. 

In his monograph, "The Aboriginal Pipes of Wisconsin," 
George A. West, describes and figures some other effigy 



One of the most interesting fields in the realm of arche- 
ology is the Wisconsin region. Here the problems which 
confront the investigator are many, but the means of solv- 
ing these problems are often very meager and sometimes 
apparently absent. This apparent absence of archeological 
evidence is due in part, I believe, to the climate of this field. 
In the spring the ground is saturated with water and in the 

* Wis. Archeologist, v. 4, Nos. 3 and 4, 1905. 

Skeletal Remains. 15 

summer the soil sometimes hardens and cracks in the hot 
sunshine. In the fall the soil is again reduced to mud and 
the following winter, which is often severe, freezes the soil 
below the depth at which archeological materials are fre- 
quently found. Because of the great quantities of water in 
the soil and because of the frequent temperature changes, 
materials such as bones, pottery and plant fibers are often 
reduced to such a state that identification of them is no 
longer possible. 

It is possible that the comparative abundance of stone 
artifacts has led local archeologists to accumulate large and 
valuable collections of arrow-points, and to neglect almost 
entirely the rarer and less stable materials. Then too, small 
potsherds and broken skulls do not make as interesting 
exhibition pieces as do agate points or copper ear-spools. 

However, if we are to make any progress in the solution 
of our archeological problems we must collect and study the 
crude and homely specimens as well as the beautiful ones. 
It is practically impossible to determine the culture of a 
people from the arrow-points that are found upon their 
deserted campsites, but the neglected potsherds tell more 
definite stories. Mound excavations result in the accumu- 
lation of vast quantities of information regarding the cul- 
ture of these prehistoric people, but it is only through the 
actual examination of their skeletal remains that we can 
ever hope to know what they were like as human beings, 
and that information is just as important to anthropology 
as data for any of its other divisions. 

Climatic conditions, as has been stated before, are not 
conducive to the preservation of bone materials in this re- 
gion and consequently it is seldom possible to obtain skele- 
tons or parts of skeletons in perfect condition. Very fre- 
quently skeletons are found crushed by the pressure of the 
soil above them, and it is a common occurrence in excavat- 
ing a burial to find only portions of a few bones remaining, 
the rest having entirely disintegrated. In view of these 
facts one may consider himself fortunate if he finds a skele- 
ton in good condition, and he may also consider it a good 
find if any of the bones can be preserved for future exami- 
nation. A skeleton in good condition is valuable to the phys- 
ical anthropologist, but much information can be obtained 


from a broken specimen. In the past, in fact, valuable dis- 
coveries have resulted from the study of only fragments of 
bone, and it is advisable for all who uncover skeletal mate- 
rial to "save the pieces". 

From the measurement of skeletal remains it is possible 
to compute with a fair degree of accuracy the size of indi- 
viduals in life, and if the number of skeletons measured is 
great enough, one may be reasonably certain that if a par- 
ticular size predominates, it is a physical characteristic of 
the group under consideration. If the vast majority of in- 
dividuals examined exhibit long, narrow heads, that too 
may be a physical peculiarity of that group and it may prove 
very valuable in determining the peculiar physical traits of 
a cultural group. There are a great- number of measure- 
ments to be taken which may be valuable in future work. 
Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, the eminent physical anthropologist, says, 
"There are none except natural limits to the number or 
variety of measurements that can be legitimately practiced 
on the human body or its remains." The measurements 
taken may not be used by the present generation of scien- 
tists nor the succeeding one, but who can positively say 
that these measurements will never be used ? 

Despite the fact that measurements are essential in an- 
thropological work, the physical anthropologist does not de- 
vote all of his attention to them, for he is also interested in 
knowing what kind of lives this or that people lived, and 
whether or not they were effected by the diseases which 
effect modern people. Who knows whether or not the men 
were more susceptible to the diseases of those prehistoric 
days than were the women, or whether spinal arthritis was 
a common affliction of the times? No one know r s at the 
present time because no one has tried to find it out, but 
after making a thorough study of the skeletal remains it 
will be possible to answer many of these questions. 

Up to the present time little work regarding the pathol- 
ogy of prehistoric people has been carried on in this coun- 
try, and the first work to be undertaken, to my knowledge, 
in investigating the pathology of the archaic folks of this 
state is being conducted under the auspices of the Milwau- 
kee Public Museum at the present time by Dr. Herbert 
Kuhm, Dr. George Adami and myself. The present invest!- 

Skeletal Remains. 17 

gations are restricted to the jaws and teeth of available 
specimens, and those specimens vary from complete skulls 
with mandibles or lower jaw bones, to only small portions 
of mandible and such small portions are just as important 
as a complete skull. From the evidence obtained from only 
one half of the lower jaw bone it is possible to determine 
with a fair degree of accuracy the sex of the individual, 
some of the pathological conditions which developed in the 
jaws or teeth during his life, and his approximate age at 
the time of his death. The teeth serve also as indicators, 
to a certain extent, of the nature of the foods used by these 

Although our investigations of the diseases of the jaws 
and teeth of prehistoric Wisconsin Indians have only begun 
we have already found evidences of many abscesses in the 
bone, some resulting from infections in the teeth due orig- 
inally to large cavities. Evidences have been found also of 
pyorrhea and of other infections of the gums, of malocclu- 
sions and malformations of the teeth and of unerupted 
third molars or wisdom teeth, all of these facts being con- 
trary to the popular opinion that the Indians and their an- 
cestors were the possessors of only perfect teeth. As we 
continue our investigations we may encounter new and in- 
teresting conditions, and in recording our discoveries we 
help to make more complete the slowly forming story of 
those folks of long ago. 

The Milwaukee Public Museum and the State Historical 
Museum both have growing collections of osteological speci- 
mens, and it is these specimens that are being examined as 
the beginning of our study. However, these two collections 
are unable to furnish sufficient material for the completion 
of this research project. From them we can gain much in- 
formation, but if our conception of this deceased people is 
to be a true one, and if the conclusions drawn from this in- 
vestigation are to be in any way positive, we must study a 
much larger series of specimens that will include bone ma- 
terials from all over the state of Wisconsin. In order to dc 
this we must enlist the aid of those who are interested ir. 
seeing Wisconsin's archeological riddles solved. It is pos< 
sible that collections of bones may exist in various localities 
but due to an apparent lack of interest or an unconscious- 


ness of the importance of the subject little or nothing has 
been said concerning them. We desire to borrow for study 
purposes for only a short time all of the skulls or parts of 
skulls available. We also desire detailed information to 
accompany any specimens loaned to us regarding the exact 
location where the burial was uncovered, and also the na- 
ture or method of burial. 

These bones should be packed in a substantial box and 
addressed to the Department of Anthropology, Milwaukee 
Public Museum. We will be very grateful to the reader for 
any cooperation on this matter. After the examinations 
have been completed the specimens will be sent back to the 
owners in the same condition in which they were received. 
If the reader can inform me of the whereabouts of any such 
specimens his efforts will be greatly appreciated. 


In May, 1927, Wm. Schuette, while digging a fence-post 
hole, unearthed a collection of chipped flint blanks seven- 
teen in number as shown in the accompanying photo- 
graph. They were located together and at a depth of about 
two feet below the present surface of the ground. 

This cache was found near what is probably the site of 
an ancient Indian village, near the north shore of the Bara- 
boo River, in what is now a part of South Park Addition 
to the city of Reedsburg, Wisconsin. 

At this point, a few rods from the present river bank, 
there is a tableland which is elevated about fifteen feet 
above the water. From the surface, over a tract of an acre 
or two of this tableland, a large number of flint implements 
have been found from time to time since the land was first 
cleared and cultivated by the whites. Hundreds of flint 
knives, arrow and spear points some perfect, finished 
specimens and some broken or unfinished together with 
flint chisels and drills and a great number of flint chips and 
fragments have been gathered from the locality. A few 
grooved stone axes, celts and grinding stones have also been 

Plate 1. 

The Reedsburg 1 Cache 19 

The cache of chipped flints was located at the southern 
edge of the area which has been so prolific in surface flints 
of various kinds and of unknown antiquity. 

The writer, on learning of the discovery of the cache, ob- 
tained the specimens from Mr. Schuette, and now has them 
in his collection. 

The combined weight of the seventeen pieces is six 
pounds ; the smallest one weighing 2 ounces, and the largest 
specimen 2 pounds. 

All of the specimens are of chert or hornstone of a dull 
color, a variety of stone said to be plentiful in the adjoin- 
ing county of Richland. At the spot where this cache was 
found the land is quite level and probably has not been sub- 
jected to rapid erosion, at least during recent geological 

From the variety and great number of flint implements 
and chips that have been found in this particular locality, 
it is highly probable that it was, at some remote time, a 
village site of Indians yet in the "Stone Age" whose only 
vestiges in this instance are the flint implements that they 
fashioned and used. 

About eight rods to the southwest of these grounds, but 
lying in the lowlands bordering the river, is an effigy 
mound, 113 ft. in length, known as the "Mink Mound." Its 
average width is about eight feet and the height is about 
three feet. Its direction is nearly due north and south. 

Whether this mound was constructed by the same primi- 
tive inhabitants that formerly occupied the prehistoric vil- 
lage site is, of course, speculative and uncertain. The 
mound has never been excavated. Its contents are there- 
fore unknown. When the mound was built, and by whom 
constructed, are as profound mysteries as is the data rela- 
tive to the chipped flints and the natives who, for a consid- 
erable time, lived in their rude abodes on the adjacent up- 

Another item of some interest in connection with this 
mound and the evidences of the ancient native camping 
grounds herein outlined, is the following: 

In 1925, while excavating a cellar about twenty rods 
north of the "Mink Mound", and in direct line with its gen- 
eral axis, the workmen came upon a well defined circular 


area of black dirt which was sharply outlined against the 
surrounding earth, of a very different color and composi- 
tion. It was evident that at some remote time in the dim 
and misty past, a circular hole about four feet in diameter 
and four or five feet deep had been dug into the ground and 
that the excavation has subsequently become filled by in- 
wash of the black surface soil. It is thought that it may 
have been an ancient water hole or well in which water 
accumulated by lateral seepage. This, however, is only a 
conjecture. Maybe some of your readers may be able to 
suggest a more plausible explanation. 

The contrast was so well marked in color and character 
of the dirt, and the outlines were so well defined, that it 
plainly indicated the former work of human hands. 

That the excavation was an ancient one was shown by 
the marginal stellate coloration effected in the lapse of time 
by chemical changes wrought by the organic matter of the 
black fill with the mineral contents of the surrounding clay. 






The Committee on State Archaeological Surveys, of the 
Division of Anthropology and Psychology of the National 
Research Council, at a meeting held in Chicago, recom- 
mended and authorized the formation in the Museum of 
Anthropology at the University of Michigan of a repository 
for pottery fragments obtained in North America. This 
has been approved by the Division and the Council. 

The reason for the setting up of such a repository is 
found in the ultimate purpose of archaeology, an historical 
science which seeks to interpret extinct civilizations, and 
thereby to arrive at conclusions regarding the forces which 
mould the development of man and his cultures. The 
archaeology of eastern North America is complex. In cer- 
tain areas some of the archaeological remains are definitely 
related to historic cultures which have since disappeared, 

The Ceramic Repository. 21 

while the remainder are associated with cultures which 
clearly antedate the coming of the European. The problem 
is further complicated in that each of these great classes of 
remains may consist not of a single culture, but of a group 
of cultures, whose relationships both in time and in space 
are not understood, because of our present incomplete 
knowledge of them. In several states, enthusiastic investi- 
gators have been making rapid progress in ascertaining the 
content of the cultures found within their respective com- 
monwealths, and in isolating the problems which this mate- 
rial presents. Yet, due to the restrictions caused by the 
geographical limits within which in large degree they must 
confine their efforts, many of these problems have not been 

A reconstruction of the culture history of this region 
rests upon the solution of comparative problems. This, in 
turn, depends upon an adequate appreciation of the hori- 
zontal and vertical distribution of the cultural material. 
By discovering and plotting the localities in which a given 
class of material occurs, a concrete knowledge is obtained 
regarding its relative abundance, the extent of its distribu- 
tion, and the geographical location of the culture to which 
it belongs. By the laws of diffusion it is also possible to 
gain information with regard to its relative antiquity in 
comparison with associated cultures. Similarly, in those 
localities in which stratification of deposits occurs, definite 
data on the relative antiquity of successive cultures which 
occupied the same site may be secured. By combining the 
results obtained from these two forms of evidence, it should 
be possible to reconstruct in outline the prehistory of east- 
ern North America. 

However, such conclusions are not reached in a short 
time, but only after long and painstaking research work. 
In order that this work may be valid, the data upon which 
it depends must be as complete and accurate as possible. In 
final analysis the whole superstructure of comparative re- 
search in archaeology rests upon the data derived from ade- 
quate and detailed field work and excavation. Specimens 
are intrinsically of little value to the scientist. It is essen- 
tial that they be accompanied by adequate information, giv- 
ing the geographical locality and the associations in which 


they were found. Therefore, the first and most important 
step in the formation of the repository for pottery frag- 
ments, and for that matter, in the solution of the general 
archaeological problems of this area, is an insistence upon 
proper field technique of 'observation and of excavation, and 
a strong discouragement of the efforts of individuals inade- 
quately equipped to pursue such investigations. 

Satisfactory results of comparative research work depend 
upon a minutely detailed knowledge of the material studied. 
In this way alone is it possible to discover the minor varia- 
tions of the material, and to evaluate their significance. A 
knowledge of the more obvious variations may be obtained 
from publications, but in the end the investigator will be 
required actually to handle and study as many specimens as 
possible. As knowledge of the material increases, certain 
characteristics at first overlooked or ignored may be found 
to be important. It is therefore essential that material once 
handled may again be easily available as specialized knowl- 
edge multiplies the technical aspects of the work. All forms 
of archaeological evidence are susceptible to this kind of 
treatment. The major antiquities, such as mounds, earth- 
works, village sites, and workshops, will yield important in- 
formation if studied in this manner. The many classes of 
minor antiquities, of stone, shell, wood, and pottery, as well 
as evidences of former customs, such as burial rites, all lend 
themselves equally well to such comparative research work. 

There are several reasons for inaugurating this compara- 
tive research with a study of pottery. It is the most inde- 
structible product of human culture, in that a specimen may 
be shattered, yet the fragments, no matter how small, still 
retain definite characteristics by which they may be classi- 
fied. Again, pottery is capable of great variation ; in mate- 
rial, in surface finish, in decorative technique and design, 
and in form. With an adequate appreciation of the factors 
involved, definite conclusions may be drawn from a study 
of such variations. A third attribute of pottery is its uni- 
versal distribution and its abundance, which causes it to 
become the common denominator of the various cultures to 
be studied. It is assumed, therefore, that by a special study 
of pottery at least the major outlines of the prehistory of 
eastern North America may be secured, a step which will 

The Ceramic Repository. 23 

facilitate the proper coordination of other archaeological 
material in the general reconstruction of these extinct civ- 
ilizations, which is of course, the ultimate aim of archae- 

The function of the pottery repository is fourfold. Its 
greatest value lies in the accumulation of a library of 
shards which will serve as a permanent record, not only for 
the present, but also for the future, when improved meth- 
ods and new problems may require a restudy of the mate- 
rial of which the library is composed. The concentration in 
one laboratory of shards from widely distributed sites will, 
of course, greatly facilitate the investigation of compara- 
tive problems. Again, the repository will be a clearing 
house, through correspondence and publication, for infor- 
mation upon the material and problems involved/ By means 
of the notes, photographs, and bibliography, which are an 
essential part of the repository, it will be possible to aid the 
research of students of related fields and subjects. Finally, 
the formation of this library of shards will permit the in 
auguration of loan collections, which may be sent to archae- 
ologists working on detailed problems in their special areas, 
for the solution of which it is necessary actually to handle 
pottery from other localities. 

The methods and facilities which will be used depend 
somewhat upon the problems which must be solved; prob- 
lems which may not become fully apparent until after the 
repository is physically in existence. The material as it ar- 
rives will be catalogued in the accession file and the serial 
museum catalog, with a note that it is part of the National 
Research Council repository. It will then be placed in trays 
in the filing cabinets of the museum laboratories. These 
trays are arranged in such a manner that immediate access 
is possible. Accessory files, covering various subjects such 
as geographical distribution, technical variations, field 
notes accompanying collections, photographs, related col- 
lections in other museums, and a bibliography, will be de- 
veloped. It is planned to make the repository as accessible 
as possible, and of real value to archaeologists everywhere 
in the area. The arrangements in the museum building will 
permit laboratory work in the rooms in which the filing 
cases of specimens are situated. Facilities for undisturbed 


prolonged research exist for those students of pottery who 
care to work in the museum itself. 

The Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michi- 
gan was chosen as the custodian of this repository for three 
reasons. Situated in the Great Lakes district within rela- 
tively easy access of the entire Mississippi basin, it forms 
a logical geographical center for the accumulation of such 
a collection. A new museum building is now under con- 
struction at the University, in which are incorporated the 
most advanced ideas regarding research facilities. It is 
planned to occupy the building in the spring of 1928. 
Finally, the staff of the museum contains a specialist on pot- 
tery, who, through field work in various regions, is equipped 
to assume responsibility for the care and study of the mate- 
rial which the repository will contain. 

The formation of this library of pottery fragments by the 
Committee on State Archaeological Surveys does not imply 
any interference with the collection of specimens by any 
other organization. The library will be composed primarily 
of shards which would under other circumstances be dis- 
carded. While the receipt of unbroken pottery objects will, 
of course, be welcome, it should clearly be understood that 
the primary purpose of the repository is the formation of a 
study series, in contrast to an exhibition collection. 

In selecting the material to be sent to the repository, no 
attempt should be made to sort out the most interesting or 
important fragments. In the course of excavation or col- 
lection from the surface, a large quantity of shards will be 
obtained, good, bad and indifferent. It is urgently re- 
quested that all the material be forwarded without sorting, 
in order that a definite conception may be obtained of the 
relative abundance of the different kinds of wares in the 
locality from which the material was obtained. Detailed 
study will undoubtedly bring into prominence numerous 
variations in the pottery which are not now appreciated. 
Obviously, if the shards are sorted too carefully at the pres- 
ent time, the material retained might prove inadequate for 
later investigation. Therefore, while rim-shards and shards 
bearing designs are most needed, any other fragments asso- 
ciated with them will be equally welcome. 

Another important consideration is the information 

The Ceramic Repository. 25 

which should accompany the collections sent in. It is im- 
perative that there be given an accurate geographic location 
of the site from which the material was obtained. This in- 
cludes not only the local name of the site, but also the name 
of the owner of the land, the township and range, the 
county, and state, in which the site occurs. Any references 
to nearby land marks such as rivers or mountains should 
also be included. 

Mention should also be made of whether the material is 
a result of excavation or of surface collection. If it is from 
an excavation in which stratification occurs, care should be 
used to keep the shards from each stratum separate, in or- 
der that proper chronological weight may be given. In the 
case of surface collections, a record should be made of the 
amount of surface covered, the kind of surface, i. e., 
ploughed or pasture, and whether the collection consists of 
all fragments seen. The record accompanying the material 
should state the kind of remains from which the material 
was obtained, i. e., a mound, an earthwork, a village site, a 
grave, etc. Any notes regarding other minor antiquities 
found in association with the pottery will aid in the study 
of the shards sent. 

The collections which are to be sent to the repository 
should be packed in small boxes or cartons, in layers sepa- 
rated by layers of excelsior or similar material. While it is 
advisable to wrap each shard or group of shards in news- 
papers, this is not absolutely essential. The primary re- 
quirement is that the material should be packed in such a 
manner that it will not rattle within the container nor in 
any other way cause the various fragments to come into 
contact and thereby have their edges spoiled. It is sug- 
gested that the containers be of a size to permit sending 
them by parcel post. Within the container should be placed 
a record giving all necessary information for the proper 
identification of the contents when the box is opened. At 
the time of sending, a letter of transmittal should be mailed 
to the same address. 




In so far as we have any records, all the Indians of pre- 
historic Wisconsin were pottery makers. Earthen vessels 
were employed as cooking pots, water carriers and contain- 
ers, storage receptacles, and were probably made to serve 
in other capacities less easily ascertained. The introduc- 
tion of copper, brass and iron vessels with the establish- 
ment of trade contacts with the invading Europeans marked 
the end of pottery development. Soon the native manufac- 
ture of earthenware became a lost art, and to a large ex- 
tent, the very memory of pottery vanished. 

The historical knowledge which we possess regarding the 
pottery of local tribes is of the briefest, amounting to little 
more than the mere fact that pottery was made and used. 
Ethnological research has resulted in the addition of but a 
few facts to the meager stock of information available. The 
result is that, for example, we can not say with any degree 
of certainty what kind of pottery was made by the Menom- 
ini, or what the difference between Menomini and Winne- 
bago pottery might have been. To the archaeologist has 
been left the problem of classifying, if possible, primitive 
Wisconsin pottery. 

In order to attack this problem at all, study specimens 
are necessary. Occasional whole, or nearly whole pots have 
been found from time to time at ancient campsites or in 
mounds. These comprise our best materials for study, but 
are so rare in occurrence that the student is hopelessly lim- 
ited in his research. Not a few specimens from a few scat- 
tered sites are required, but thousands of specimens from 
every section of the state. 

Specimens which are often neglected by the collector are 
the ordinary potsherds. These occur in quantity at nearly 
every primitive campsite, and yet it is difficult to find a good 
representative lot of potsherds in any small, local collection, 
or even in large collections outside the walls of museums. 
This is not due to the fact that pottery is relatively unim- 
portant to the student of archaeology. Earthenware is pli- 

Wisconsin Earthenware. 27 

able in the hands of the maker and, therefore, reflects the 
maker's concepts of utility and art to a greater extent than 
any other imperishable material available to primitive man. 
Thus we find arrowpoints in Wisconsin much like those of 
New York or Arizona, aside from materials and the pro- 
portionate use of any one shape. In pottery, however, there 
are radical differences between the types respectively found 
in Wisconsin, among the Iroquois of New York and among 
the Hopi of Arizona. One can pick up a potsherd and say 
that it belongs to a certain archaic or historic culture area 
with a comfortable degree of certainty. To what extent 
can that be done with the chipped stone artifacts to be en- 
countered in this district? 

It is, therefore, unfortunately true that the specimens of 
most importance in the solving of our local archaeological 
problems, the artifacts that have the most understandable 
story to tell, are being left rejected in the field, while the 
relatively unimportant arrowpoint is seized upon with avid- 
ity. By this I in no way infer that the arrowpoint has no 
importance to the archaeologist, but rather that the pots- 
herd is a much more apparent and reliable culture marker, 
and that in a province such as Wisconsin, where we have as 
yet neither defined and limited our archaic cultures nor defi- 
nitely ascertained connections between these and historic 
cultures, a study of pottery promises maximum results. 

In attacking the problem of archaic definition, pottery 
has already played a most important part, in Wisconsin as 
well as in other fields. In New York, pottery alone often 
identifies a site as of Iroquois or Algonkin occupation. The 
determining of seven successive cultures in the Southwest 
was primarily dependent upon a study of pottery. In Wis- 
consin we have distinguished at least four mound-building 
cultures, largely through pottery evidence: (1) the Effigy 
Mound culture was basicly northwestern Woodland in type, 
with pottery suggesting Algonkin affinities; (2) the Grand 
River culture was basicly northwestern Woodland in type, 
with pottery suggesting Siouan affinities; (3) the Aztalan 
culture was basicly similar to that of the Cahokia district 
centering in southwestern Illinois, as evidenced primarily 
by the pottery; (4) the Hope well culture, first discovered 
in Wisconsin by Cyrus Thomas in about 1890, rediscovered 


and first identified as of Hopewell type this year in Trem- 
pealeau County, was definitely marked by a Hopewell type' 
of pottery. In every instance pottery has proved the most 
important culture marker. 

The problem of authorship of the effigy mounds, if it is 
ever solved, will probably come to its solution through a 
study of effigy mound pottery. Radin seems largely re- 
sponsible for the general acceptance of the theory that the 
Winnebago built the effigy mounds. His conclusions were 
based solely upon a very limited quantity of ethnological 
data. Radin also gives for the Winnebago one of the best 
descriptions of primitive pottery ever recorded for a specific 
Wisconsin tribe. Of it he says: "These vessels, most of 
which were very large, with round bottoms, always hung 
over the fire. The material used in their manufacture was 
blue clay . . . mixed with shell shards, glue from the 
sturgeon vertebrae, and the gelatinous substance in the 
horns of deer." 1 

The pottery which Radin describes for the Winnebago is 
Siouan in type, as might be expected, and corresponds very 
closely to that found in mounds and campsites of the Grand 
River culture. But when we come to examine the pottery 
of the effigy mounds, we find something quite different. 
These vessels, when of large size, are equipped with pointed 
bottoms. The material used seems most generally to have 
been yellow clay, and was invariably tempered not with 
shell shards and glue, but with grit. How then does it hap- 
pen that Winnebago pottery is not found in mounds said to 
have been built by the Winnebago Indians? Either Radin 
is mistaken about the authorship of the mounds, or he was 
misinformed regarding the nature of Winnebago pottery. 

From the above specific examples of discoveries and logi- 
cal conclusions based upon knowledge of pottery, the impor- 
tance of the Wisconsin potsherd is clearly apparent. It is, 
therefore, to be hoped that the many collectors of archaeo- 
logical materials in Wisconsin, who are rendering great 
service to archaeologists, now and in future, by building 
such collections, will be brought to see the importance of 
the neglected potsherd and to materially enhance the value 

1 Radin, Paul, The Winnebago Tribe, 37th Ann. Kept., B. A. E., 
p. 119, Washington, 1923. 

The Dickson Mound Builders Tomb. 29 

of such a collection through the including therein of repre- 
sentative specimens of the pottery to be found in the dis- 
trict which the collection illustrates. That potsherds are 
less or more attractive than other materials is a matter of 
opinion. That potsherds are of relatively high importance 
in the solving of our archaeological problems is, far from 
being a matter of opinion, a fact beyond all dispute. 


A museum which is probably different from any other 
museum in the United States is the so-called Dickson Mound 
Builders' Tomb located at a distance of five miles southeast 
of Lewistown, on a high bluff overlooking the picturesque 
Illinois and Spoon river valleys, in west central Illinois. 
A description of this very interesting mound and the story 
of its exploration is given in an interesting illustrated pam- 
phlet printed by Dr. Don F. Dickson, one of the owners, for 
distribution to friends and visitors. From it this brief 
description of the mound and its contents is largely drawn.* 

The form of this great aboriginal earthwork was that of 
a crescent, the points of which were on its eastern side. 
The circumference of the mound (measured from one point 
around the mound to the other point) was about 550 feet. 
The maximum depth of this huge heap of earth was from 
thirty to thirty-five feet. In its center, between the arms 
of the crescent, was a deep basin. This contained a pool of 
water throughout the year. 

Twenty-seven years ago, Thomas C. Dickson, the father 
of Dr. Don C. Dickson, selected this mound as the site for 
his home. This he decided to erect in the basin or depres- 
sion in its center. In order to fill it to a height suitable for 
the foundation of the building he removed earth from the 
surrounding mound. This entire surface had been used as 
a burial place. In grading the crest he disinterred "hun- 
dreds of skeletons." 

The bones were heaped together and later hauled away 
by wagon loads and reburied. 

* The Dickson Mound Builders' Tomb. 


During this grading between eight and ten thousand ab- 
original artefacts were secured, among which were numer- 
ous specimens of earthenware vessels, stone pipes, dis- 
coidals, plummets, some polished stone celts, bone, flint arid 
shell implements, and hundreds of strings of beads made 
of shell. The number of earthenware vessels obtained is 
reported to have been nearly one thousand, some of these 
being very interestingly ornamented or colored. Many of 
these specimens became the property of private collectors 
and of state and national museums. A collection of several 
thousand of the finest specimens became the property of the 
well-known collector, Mr. Edward W. Payne of Springfield, 

Long before Mr. Dickson began the erection of his home 
other persons had at different times dug in this mound and 
secured interesting specimens. Thus during the past fifty 
years it has yielded a great harvest of aboriginal imple- 
ments. Dr. Dickson has himself carried on explorations in 
it at different times during the past twelve or fifteen years. 
In February 1927 he began the excavating which led to the 
founding of his present "museum". At this time he un- 
covered three adult skeletons which he left in place in order 
that others might view them and afterwards erected a shel- 
ter over them to protect them from the rains. He then be- 
gan work in a new location on the western slope of the cres- 
cent and at this time has the large number of 188 skeletons 
and all of the earthenware vessels, pipes, implements and 
ornaments accompanying these burials completely exposed 
to view. None of the burials have been moved, all are in 
place just as they were found. 

The work of exposing these burials has been most care- 
fully done. 'The bones were very easily broken, due to 
their age and to the absorption of moisture from the soil. 
Great care was necessary to preserve them, and also the 
implements, especially many implements made of thin pot- 
tery, shell and bone. At first we used small knives, table 
spoons, and small paint brushes, to remove the clay from 
between the ribs and in other difficult places. After a few 
months' work using these tools, we 'advanced' to the point 
of using pointers' trowels, air bellows, brushes, small 

The Dickson Mound Builders Tomb. 81 

knives, and often testing the soil around the burials with 
orange sticks." 

The skeletons uncovered at the present time are for the 
most part full length interments. Several are family burials 
of a father, mother and child. There are other burials of 
children. There are several "bundle" burials. Most of the 
burials are accompanied by pottery vessels and with spoons 
cut from clam shells. Some of the shells are plain uncut 
unio valves. Some of the vessels are of bowl shapes with 
or without handles, some are ladle-shaped, some are in effigy 
forms, some are colored red or brown. There is one very 
unusual double vessel. Small vessels accompany some of 
the child burials. 

Among the numerous interesting objects accompanying 
these burials there may be mentioned strings of disk and 
cylindrical shell beads, sea shells, perforated clam shells, a 
clam shell receptacle containing bone awls and a sandstone 
grinding stone, a string of pearl beads and baroques, a bone 
fishhook, bone awls, a bone dagger, sheets of mica, platform 
pipes, an effigy pipe with a representation of a human face, 
a perforated stone discoidal, a large white flint knife, flint 
triangular arrow-points, small obsidian points, a broken 
rock crystal point, a large polished stone celt, a stone spade, 
trophy jaws colored with hematite, a pottery trowel with 
disk, a hematite plummet and a bell-shaped copper axe. Of 
special interest are a limestone platform pipe in the stem 
hole of which a piece of the point of a flint drill has been 
broken off, a cut bear's tooth so cut as to sheathe a small 
knife, and a large well-chipped red flint implement probably 
used as a "smoother." This heavy specimen is about ten 
inches long, five inches wide and four inches high. 

The Dixon burials have been covered with a substantial 
vitrolite block building. This is 76 feet long and 46 feet 
wide. They are in a large pit protected by a wooden rail- 
ing and surrounded by a walk. They may thus be viewed 
from every side of the enclosure. Fastened to the walls of 
the museum building are glass cases containing many hun- 
dreds of other interesting and beautiful aboriginal artefacts 
obtained from other mounds, graves and village sites about 
Lewistown. Exposed to view in these cases are a hundred 
or more pottery vessels of various shapes, large circular 


sheets of mica, six pearl necklaces, a cache of blue horn- 
stone turkey-tail points, a cache of fourteen barbed flint 
spearpoints, large sea shells, animal jaw ornaments, four- 
teen large bone daggers, perforated bears' teeth, sheet cop- 
per imitation bears' teeth ornaments, copper beads, copper 
axes, stone pipes, discoidals, plummets, earspools, beads and 
gorgets, bone awls and flakers, and many other rare and 
unusual specimens. In the vicinity of Lewistown at least 
three aboriginal cultures are represented by mounds and 
sites the Cahokia-Lewistown, the Hopewell, and a hill-top 
"hunter" culture, probably Algonkian. 

The Dickson Mound Builders' Tomb is one of the historic 
monuments of Illinois. It has already become a place of 
pilgrimage for those interested in the State's archaeological 
history. On the Sunday afternoon when the writer and Mr. 
Charles E. Brown were present over one thousand visitors, 
who came by automobile from many Illinois cities and vil- 
lages, visited the Tomb and listened to the explanatory talks 
given by Dr. Dickson and his assistant lecturers. The larg- 
est number of visitors as yet entertained here on a single 
day was eighteen hundred. Wisconsin archaeologists 
should not fail to visit Lewistown. 


The great variety of beautiful freshwater shells abound- 
ing in the lakes and streams of Wisconsin served a useful 
purpose in the daily life of the aborigine. They served as 
food ; they gave binding strength to his vessels of clay ; the 
innate beauty of their iridescent pearly interiors could not 
be reproduced in stone, thus it would be strange indeed if 
the natives did not utilize them for ornamentation when at 
the same time they could be easily shaped and used as 

Bearing in mind, then, its usefulness, there is small cause 
for wonder that the archeologist oftimes finds village sites, 
particularly among sedentary peoples, that are strewn with 
broken mussels and occasional artifacts made from them, 

Wisconsin Shell Beads. 33 

remains that have escaped the ravages of time and the de- 
stroying plowshare. 

The shell bead is one of the most commonly found relics 
of shell. It matters not whether they be of past or pre- 
Columbian origin, information concerning shell beads of 
both periods is quite unavailable. 

Our present small knowledge concerning the origin and 
method of manufacture of these beads finds its basis in 
documentary evidence and in scholarly investigations of 
Indian folklore. 

In the 14th Annual Report of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology (Part 2) Hoffman sums up what is known con- 
cerning the source and mode of manufacture of these arti- 
facts when he writes : 

"These beads were evidently made from the thick por- 
tions, or perhaps joints, of fresh-water mussels; they are 
of the size of buckshot, with a perforation drilled from each 
side toward the middle. The perforations being somewhat 
of funnel shape, and showing marked striae, would indicate 
that the drilling had been made with other than a metal in- 
strument. On subsequent investigation respecting the man- 
ufacture of articles requiring perforation, I was informed 
that the Menomini used sharp-pointed pieces of quartz and 
jasper, rotating these rude drills with the hands and fingers. 
As regards the use of the bow-drill, either for making fire 
or for drilling stone and shells, no definite information 
could be ascertained as none of the more intelligent or aged 
natives remembered having seen them in use." 

Whether in post-Columbian times the white traders in- 
troduced shell beads of European manufacture is not 
known. Dr. Walter Hough, Head Curator of Anthropology 
at the National Museum, states that he does not know the 
sources of any European importations of shell beads, if 
any. He is of the opinion that the Indians formerly made 
their own beads for ornamentation and continued to do so 
long after the advent of the white man in areas remote from 
trading posts. This explanation perhaps accounts for the 
presence of ancient shell beads on village sites where the 
European colored glass bead is much in evidence. 

With reference to the later trade in shell beads or wam- 
pum after the advent of the whites on the eastern coast 


Mr. Herbert W. Krieger, Curator of Ethnology at the 
Smithsonian Institution, furnishes the following memo- 
randum : 

"The only place that comes to mind as a source of coun- 
terfeit wampum in the United States is the little town of 
Pascack, New Jersey. A white family continued to operate 
a factory for more than 150 years to supply counterfeit 
wampum for the Indian trade. There is in the National 
Museum a quantity of stock material, of unfinished beads, 
tubes, and ornamental objects in various states of comple- 
tion obtained from the old site of this factory. From this 
material it is apparent that conch shells from the Gulf 
Coast were substituted for the more rare clam shells Venus 
mercenaria from the Atlantic Coast. The more abundant 
supply of conchs combined with the improved mechanical 
devices at the disposal of the Pascack manufacturers en- 
abled the white trader to flood the market, some of the 
objects of this nature even reaching the Pacific Coast. 

There are possibly other towns that added to the supply 
of artificial or, rather, counterfeit wampum, but I cannot 
name them." 

The above known facts concerning the manufacture and 
origin of shell beads in Wisconsin finds its basis largely in 
the observations of Hoffman who spent some time in study- 
ing the practices of the Menomini. It is perhaps safe to be- 
lieve that the other Wisconsin tribes followed like, if not 
the same, methods. The evidence, as Dr. Hough points out 
seems to indicate that even after the introduction of Euro- 
pean glass beads the Indian continued, though in lesser de- 
gree, to manufacture these artifacts even as his people be- 
fore him had done. It is due to this continued production 
in post-Columbian times that we can account for the pres- 
ence of primitive shell beads on village sites founded long 
after intercourse with the whites had been established. 

It is no exaggeration to say that from our present small 
knowledge concerning the origin and manufacture of these 
early artifacts little can be known in a definite and precise 
way ; it is with generalities that we deal. 

The Rockford Mound Group. 35 


Members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society who 
visit or pass through the City of Rockford in Illinois should 
not fail to see the fine Indian mounds preserved in Beattie 
Park, also known more commonly as Waterworks park. 
These mounds are near the bank of the historic Rock river, 
in the very heart of the city. 

One of the four fine prehistoric mounds located in this 
small, but very attractive, city park is a turtle effigy of the 
type distributed through the Rock River region from Rock- 
ford northward to beyond Lake Koshkonong in Wisconsin. 
This effigy mound is nearly 6 feet high at its head. Its body 
has a length of about 63 feet and its long tapering tail is 
about 103 feet long. Near this mound is a tapering linear 
mound, probably also an animal effigy, which is about 150 
feet in length and about 3% feet high at its head. Beyond 
the tip of the tail of the big turtle effigy is a conical mound 
about 36 feet in diameter and 4 feet high at its middle, and 
not far away another conical earthwork which is about 18 
feet in diameter and about one foot high. These are paced 
dimensions and of course not very accurate. The two effigy 
mounds are very imposing monuments and stretch a con- 
siderable way across the breadth of this small park. On 
the north side of the Mound Avenue boundary of the park 
another conical mound of this group is preserved on the 
lawn of a residence property, and on the east side of Indian 
Terrace, on the opposite side of the street, a remnant of a 
linear ( ?) mound extends beneath the front of another resi- 

Prof. T. H. Lewis mentions the former presence of a 
mutilated bird effigy in this group (Wis. Archeo., 17, 1, p. 

This fine group of Indian earthworks, so fortunately here 
preserved to the public, should be marked with a descrip- 
tive metal tablet in order that Rockford citizens and other 
visitors to the park may understand and appreciate its 
authorship and significance. 

In Illinois very few of the mound groups or mounds 


which are at present preserved in state or municipal parks 
are marked with tablets. This should be done. The un- 
informed visitors to these places see them and walk over 
and around them without knowing what the nature of these 
ancient monuments really is. In a park at Quincy a stair- 
way leads to the top of a great mound located on the top of 
a high Mississippi River bluff, and well-worn paths lead to 
the top of several other as sightly monuments. Visitors 
think these to be observatories erected for the purpose of 
viewing the beautiful river valley and give no thought to 
the fact that these heaps of earth from the top of which 
they are viewing the landscape are ancient mortuary monu- 
ments of the American Indian. Markers are sadly needed 
also in Cahokia Mounds State Park. 

As we have been pointing out for the past twenty years 
or more that in our sister state of Illinois there is the great- 
est need of the organization of a state archeological society 
to actively interest itself in the preservation of the state's 
priceless Indian memorials. With hundreds of archeologi- 
cal investigators and prominent collectors distributed 
throughout its length and breadth the perfecting of such a 
state organization is now possible. Iowa, Indiana and Min- 
nesota archeology are in the same state. Ohio, New York, 
Michigan and Wisconsin all have state archeological 


During the past few years considerable interest has been 
shown in Indian place names. In several instances Indian 
names which had been discarded or forgotten have been re- 
vived and are again used to designate the same localities as 
formerly. In some cases where the exact Indian name is 
unknown or too cumbersome a substitute or derivative is 

It has always seemed to^me rather unfortunate that the 
early settlers so often gave the nanre of their former home 
to the one they were founding. TVis predilection on the 
part of the colonists was carried so far that today there is 


Rockford, Illinois. 

Plate 3. 

Family Names of Civilized Indians. 37 

scarcely a town in Great Britain that has not a namesake in 
the United States, either with or without the prefix New, 
and often duplicated many times. The cities of France and 
Holland are nearly as well represented and also to a great 
extent those of Ireland and Germany. These names of 
course meant something to the settlers but to their descend- 
ents they mean absolutely nothing. If each city and town 
in this country had a name not duplicated by that of any 
other city or town, it would be much better in a number of 

During the same period that the various localities of the 
country have gradually acquired permanent names, the In- 
dians and their mixed-blood descendants have also assumed 
or been given names which have gradually become family 

These names may be divided into three classes viz : . 

1. European names or names of European origin. 

2. Indian names or names of Indian origin. 

3. Names consisting of Indian ideas expressed in the 
English language. 

The first class of names, those of the European origin, 
have been acquired by their bearers legitimately by inher- 
itance or adoption and are eminently proper. Some ex- 
amples may be given, as Spoon Decorah (De Kaury), Saba- 
tis Perrote (Pierrot), Arthur S. Parker. 

The second class, those of Indian origin are still better. 
Examples are Paul Shabbema, Joe Wisconsin, Ben Ahque- 
wee. If the future descendants of these people are as proud 
of their Indian blood as are the present day descendants of 
Pocahontas, they will surely be as proud of such names as 
other people are of their treasured heirlooms. 

. It is to the names of the third class to which I wish to call 
your attention. Such names as Hollow Horn Bear, Amos 
One-road, Joe Two-sticks, Jim Horse-go-long-way are ab- 
surd and ridiculous. 

The origin of such names is of course easily explained. 
The early settler held the Indian either in contempt or fear 
and seldom learned his language and usually called his In- 
dian acquaintance by a nickname coined by himself or some 
kind of translation of his Indian name. While the French 
fraternized with the Indians more than the English and 


Dutch, their treatment of Indian names was very similar. 
Of course to the Indian of that day, it mattered nothing 
what the white man called him. If it had, there was plenty 
of other business between him and the white man to fully 
occupy his attention. 

The condition of affairs with the Indian of to-day is radi- 
cally different. His status is changing more rapidly than 
it ever has in the past and more rapidly than it ever will 
again except during the next few years. Now if we look 
ahead as far in time as we must look back to the first colo- 
nists, we shall see the descendants of the Indians as average 
citizens, many of them of nearly pure white blood whose 
only connection with the Indians perhaps is a family tradi- 
tion or an Indian name. Can you imagine Dr. J. Mont- 
gomery Hair-sticks-four-ways, or Robert F. Two-horse-one- 
cow as an attorney at law? Such names as George White- 
fish or John Bear are not so bad, but even they fall in the 
same class. 

It seems to me that we should be doing a favor to numer- 
ous citizens of future generations if we were to be instru- 
mental in having some of these compound English-Indian 
names eliminated. Of course we could not accomplish much 
directly because we do not come in contact with the people 
who bear the names. If, however, we could arouse the in- 
terest of those who do come in contact with them, such as 
Indian agents and especially teachers in the Indian schools, 
much might be accomplished. 

The young Indians who attend the government schools 
are highly intelligent, and once their attention were called 
to the matter, should be able at once to see the incongruity 
of such names and it would be a simple matter to have them 
changed before they become permanently fixed. 

I think most of them have an Indian name by which they 
were known among the Indians. Each should assume his 
Indian name as a family name. If it is compounded of 
many words as many Indian names are, several words or 
syllables could be dropped and still the name would be of 
Indian origin. 

A "LostArt" That Was Never Lost. 39 

Literary Digest, November 5, 1927 

The hardening of copper, as practised by the ancients, 
often spoken of as a "lost art," and so treated by Wendell 
Philips in his celebrated lecture, was never so in reality, 
declares William G. Schneider, a New York mining engi- 
neer, in a research report to the Engineering Foundation. 
Says Mr. Schneider, as quoted in a press bulletin issued by 
the Foundation : 

"Many persons spend a lifetime trying to rediscover an 
art that never was lost. The tragedy occurs when they have 
evolved a hard copper. They next endeavor to find some 
use for it and then learn that, unless it has some special 
properties, no market exists. 

"Copper wire, hard drawn, has a tensile strength of about 
65,000 pounds per square inch and an elongation in ten 
inches of about 1 per cent, with a conductivity of about 97 
per cent. This affords some basis on which to work when 
endeavoring to develop the hardening of copper. 

"If, for example, it were possible to harden copper so that 
the tensile strength were materially increased above that 
just stated, without reducing the conductivity, a worth- 
while discovery would have been made. 

"The fact is that our present-day metallurgists not only 
understand how the ancients hardened their copper and 
bronze, but also know how to produce copper and bronze 
products that are even harder than those left to us, and 
which represent the evidence of the so-called lost art of 
hardening copper. 

"Cutting edges developed on swords, daggers, knives and 
other implements by the ancients were obtained by hammer- 
ing the metal, or, in other words, cold-working. Those old 
metal-workers not only hand-hammered their copper imple- 
ments but also used the same means to harden their bronze 

"The heating of many of these products in open fires re- 
sulted in the formation of considerable copper oxid, which 
alloyed with the copper and hardened it. One of the most 
common mistakes of persons claiming to have rediscovered 


'the lost art of hardening copper' is to heat it in a forge, 
and in this way saturate it with copper oxid, which com- 
bines with the copper to form a much harder and much 
more brittle product. 

"There are really two methods of hardening copper that 
are regularly practised nowadays, just as centuries ago. 
One consists in alloying the copper with some other metal 
or several other metals such as zinc, tin, nickel, cadmium, 
chromium, cobalt, silicon, aluminum, iron, beryllium, and 

"The second method consists in cold-working the metal 
or copper alloy. In fact, it is possible to work the metal to 
such a stage of hardness that a slight amount of additional 
work will cause it to break. The explanation of all copper 
hardening may be attributed to one of these methods or a 
combination of them. 

"Microphotographs.of an ancient copper spearhead indi- 
cate that it was extremely hard, and that apparently this 
hardness had been obtained by cold-working. 

"Copper scissors, knives, and other cutting tools may be 
obtained. Unless, however, a special reason exists for their 
use, they offer no advantages over tools made from steel. 
Occasionally, however, it becomes necessary to use copper 
or bronze tools, such as knives. Around a powder plant, 
for instance, where all sparks must be avoided, bronze 
knives are almost essential. 

"Some recent methods of hardening copper by alloying 
have, to a certain extent, come about as near to actually 
'tempering' copper" as would seem possible. In these meth- 
ods the metal, silicon, plays a most important part because 
it forms silicides with other metals which in turn form 
eutectics with the copper. 

"The deoxidizing effect that silicon by itself exerts plays 
no unimportant part in finally allowing the metal to be 
worked and by heat treatment to develop a high strength, 
with a relatively high conductivity. This latter, however, 
is considerably below that of pure copper and second only, 
speaking of alloys from the standpoint of both strength and 
conductivity, to those of copper and cadmium. 

"Alloys of copper with cadmium give, for a stated con- 
ductivity, higher strengths than those with silicon." 

Archeologlcal Notes. 41 



Vice President Charles G. Schoewe presided at the meeting of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society .held on the evening of November 21, 
1927, in the trustee hall of the Milwaukee Public Museum. There 
were seventy members and guests in attendance at this first autumn 
meeting. The program consisted cf a lecture by Dr. Herbert W. 
Kuhm on the subject of "Wisconsin Indian Fishing Primitive and 
Modern". This was a fine presentation of a very interesting subject. 
It was discussed by the Messrs. Louis Pierron, C. G. Schoewe, C. E. 
Brown, and the Messrs. John Bear and Ulysses White, two Winne- 
bago members of the Society who were present. Mr. John Bear gave 
a very interesting account in Winnebago of the organization and cus- 
toms of the Winnebago bear and wolf clans, Mr. White interpreting 
his talk. 

Secretary Brown announced the election to membership in the Soci- 
ety by the Executive Board of the Messrs. Herbert W. Cornell and 
Gustav Marx, Milwaukee; H. K. Thurston, Madison, and Mary Dunn, 
Lena, Illinois. The Angie Williams Cox Library, Pardeeville, was 
made an institutional member. Henry Damereau, Fairwater, was 
elected a life member. Governor Fred R. Zimmerman, Dr. Paul B. 
Jenkins, Williams Bay; Sheldon Bradt, New London; John Bear, 
Mauston; and Dr. W. B. Hinsdale, Ann Arbor, Michigan, were elected 
honorary members. 

The deaths were announced of Messrs. Jacob Van Orden, Baraboo, 
Charles F. Poster and Anthony Ballant, Milwaukee, members of the 
Society, the Secretary giving a brief account of the life of each. 

It was reported that a descriptive bronze tablet had been provided 
for the marking of the Indian earthworks in Aztalan Mound Park. 
This Mr.. Robert P. Ferry, chairman of the park committee, would 
cause to be mounted on a suitable boulder. A brief report on the 
archeological field work conducted during the summer was presented. 

At the close of the meeting exhibits of interesting archeological and 
ethnological materials were made by the Messrs. Kermit Freckman, 
Edward F. Richter, C. G. Schoewe and the Milwaukee Public Museum. 

President George A. West conducted the meeting of the Society 
held at Milwaukee on Monday evening, December 19, 1927. One hun- 
dred and fifty members and guests were present at this meeting, 
every seat in the trustee hall being taken. The speaker was President 
West, his subject being "The Antiquities of Egypt." In his lecture 
he presented ar account of a visit made to this country by himself 
and Mrs. West during the spring months of the year and during which 
its major monuments and ancient sites were studied and photo- 
graphed. His lecture was illustrated with an especially fine collec- 
tion of lantern slides. It was greatly appreciated by the large audi- 
ence of members and guests. President West has been for many years 
very active in both the labors of the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
and the Milwaukee Public Museum. For years he has given an annual 
illustrated lecture to the members and friends of the Society. 

The January 16, 1928 meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Soci- 
ety was directed by President West. Seventy members and visitors 
were present. Mr. Huron H. Smith, ethiio-botanist and a vice presi- 
dent of the Society, favored the members with a very interesting illus- 
trated lecture on "Forest Conservation in Wisconsin". His colored 
lantern slides were especially fine. The speaker gave a large amount 


of valuable information on the uses formerly and still made of the 
forest products by Wisconsin Indians in wigwam construction, canoe 
manufacture, maple sugar making, vessel and utensil making, etc. 
His lecture was discussed by President West and other members. 

Secretary Brown announced the recent deaths of Mrs. Sherburn S. 
Merrill of ^Milwaukee, a life member of the Society, and of the Rev. 
Stanley E. Lathrop, Madison, for many years one of its active mem- 
bers, and of Mr. N. L. Kaudy, of South Dakota, a former annual 

The election of Dr. Bruce T. Best, Arlington Heights, Illinois, as 
an annual member was reported. A letter received from Governor 
Fred R. Zimmerman acknowledging his recent election as an honorary 
member of the state society was read. 

Exhibits of archeological specimens were made by T. M. N. Lewis, 
C. G. Schoewe, T. T. Brown and T. L. Miller. 

President West conducted the meeting held on February 20th. Mr. 
Ira Edwards, geologist of the Milwaukee Museum, gave an illus- 
trated lecture on "The Wreck of Mt. Mazama". In connection with 
this lecture the Museum made an exhibit of Indian implements made 
of volcanic tufa, basalt, obsidian and other volcanic rocks. There 
were fifty members and guests present. At the meeting of the Execu- 
tive Board Mr. John Blackhawk was elected an honorary, and Mr. 
William M. Foster of Milwaukee an annual member. 

A report was made by Dr. Barrett, chairman of the special commit- 
tee appointed to consider the conferring of the Lapham Medal on 
several members at the annual meeting. Mr. Smith, chairman of the 
special committee on biographies of members, also offered a report. 

The Annual Meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society was 
held at the Milwaukee Public Museum on Monday evening, March 19, 
1928. President George A. West presided. There were eighty mem- 
bers and visitors present. 

On the motion of Mr. W. W. Gilman the President appointed as a 
nominating committee to select officers for the ensuing year the 
Messrs. W. C. McKern, W. H. Vogel and R. S. Van Handel. This 
committee presented its report which was accepted by the Society. 

The following officers were unanimously elected: Mr. Huron H. 
Smith, president; the Messrs. W. H. Vogel, C. G. Schoewe, Dr. H. L. 
Tilsner, Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, W. W. Gilman, A. T. Newman and 
Dr. H. L. Kastner, vice-presidents, and Dr. S. A. Barrett, Dr. F. C. 
Rogers, A. P. Kannenberg, E. F. Richter, Mrs. A. E. Koerner, Vetal 
Winn, L. R. Whitney, G. A. West and W. C. McKern, directors. Mr. 
C. E. Brown was elected secretary and Mr. G. M. Thorne, treasurer. 

Secretary Brown and Treasurer Thorne presented annual reports. 
President-elect Smith was honored for his ethno-botanical researches 
and publications by having the Lapham Medal conferred upon him, 
the presentation address being made by Vice President Winfield W. 
Gilman. President Smith then assumed the chair and presided over 
the remainder of the meeting. 

The program of the meeting consisted of an illustrated address by 
Dr. Barrett on "Hawaii, The Paradise of The Pacific", which he de- 
livered in his usual interesting way and delighted the members and 
visitors present. 

The election to annual membership of Mr. Robert Harper of Reeds- 
burg was announced Exhibits of specimens were made by the 
Museum, and Mr. R. Van Handel. 

President Huron H. Smith conducted the meeting of the Society 
held at the Milwaukee Public Museum on April 16, 1928. In the ab- 
sence of Secretary Brown in attendance with other officers and mem- 

Archeological Notes. 43 

bers at the funeral of Mr. Harry E. Cole, president of the Wisconsin 
Historical Society, at Baraboo, Mr. W. C. McKern was appointed to 
act as secretary. 

Mr. George A. West delivered an illustrated lecture on "From Hol- 
land to the Holy Land", in which he gave a further description of the 
many interesting places visited by himself during his recent journey 
to the Old World. This was greatly appreciated by the audience of 
over one hundred members and visitors which filled the lecture hall. 

President Smith appointed the Messrs. Oilman, Schoewe and Mc- 
Kern an auditing committee to audit the Treasurer's books and report 
at the May meeting. 

The election to membership as an annual member of Mr. John P. 
Bennett, Milwaukee, was announced. The Executive Board at its 
meeting adopted a resolution requesting the Secretary to convey to 
Mrs. H. E. Cole the condolences of the Society on the death of Mr. 
Harry E. Cole, one of its charter members and for many years one 
of its very active officers and workers. 

The meeting of the Society, held at Milwaukee on Monday evening, 
May 21, 1928, was conducted by President Huron H. Smith. There 
were thirty-two members and ten visitors present. 

Mr. S. J. Carter, city reference librarian, gave a talk on "Scientific 
Browsing", this being a discussion of the anthropological books and 
periodicals available to students in the Milwaukee Public Library. 
This talk he illustrated with an exhibit cf some of the books and other 
literature. Many of the members present afterward asked questions 
to which the speaker replied. 

Talks on "Fraudulent Indian Artifacts" were given by the Messrs. 
C. E. Brown and Geo. A. West. Other members participated in the 
discussion which followed. President Smith announced that he had 
appointed a special committee of members, with Mr. Jos. Ringeisen 
as its chairman, and to which questionable Indian implements might 
be submitted. Mr. W. W. Gilman, chairman of the auditing commit- 
tee, made a report in which he stated that his committee had exam- 
ined and found the Treasurer's accounts to be substantially correct. 
This report was adopted. 

It was announced that Dr. S. A. Barrett would shortly leave for 
East Africa with an expedition of the Milwaukee Museum. Dr. Bar- 
rett briefly outlined the objects of the exploration party. William 
Rath, president of the "Indian Re-search Club'', a ycung man's organ- 
ization of Milwaukee, presented an account of its activities. Mr. Mc- 
Kern reported on current anthropological literature. 

The election by the Executive Board of Mrs. Anna French Johnson, 
Prairie du Sac, Rev. O. M. Ziegler, St. Francis, and C. V. Hall, Mil- 
waukee, as annual members, and of Albert B. Reagan, Quest, Oregon, 
as an honorary member was announced. President Smith had ap- 
pointed the Messrs. Miller, McKern, Brown, Ferry and Ringeisen a 
committee to arrange for a dedication program at Aztalan Mound 
Park during the month of October. The special committee appointed 
to prepare biographies of members had submitted a sample biography. 

Exhibits of fraudulent stone and metal implements were made by 
the Messrs. McKern and E. F. Richter. 

The seventh annual meeting cf the Central Section, American 
Anthropological Association was held in the Logan Museum of 
Archeology at Beloit College, on Friday and Saturday, March 2 and 
3, 1928. 

Members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society offered eight of 
the twenty-four papers in the program, those participating being 
W. C. McKern, C. R. Keyes, Huron H. Smith, H. W. Kuhm, C. E. 


Brown, W. K. Moorehead, Alonzo Pond and Dr. S. A. Barrett. A 
special exhibition of Aurignacian implements was made for the occa- 
sion by the Logan Museum. The prog-ram was exceptionally inter- 
esting, many of the papers being illustrated. The meetings were 
largely attended. On Friday evening the members and visitors were 
tendered a dinner at the Faculty Club by the Museum. On Sunday 
a pilgrimage to visit Mr. H. L. Skavlem, veteran archeologist, at his 
Janesville home was made. 

The new officers elected at this meeting were: Dr. Carl E. Guthe, 
president, Dr. Ralph Linton and Dr. J. E. Pearce, vice-presidents, 
and George R. Fox, secretary-treasurer. 

The annual Joint Meeting of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts and Letters, the Wisconsin Archeological Society and the Mid- 
west Museums Conference was held at I awrence College, Appleton, 
on April 6 and 7, 1928. Members of the Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety who offered papers were: Huron H. Smith, A. M. Fuller, J. B. 
McHarg. R. N. Buckstaff, S. A. Barrett, Louise P. Kellogg, G. A. 
West, Vetal Winn, C. E. Brown, Geo. Overton, M. K. Hulbert, T. T. 
Brown, G. R. Fox, C. W. Beemer, F. S. Dayton, A. O. Barton and 
Ira Edwards. The annual dinner was held on Friday evening at 
Brokaw Hall. President Wriston of Lawrence College gave an ad- 
dress at the dinner. 


The Logan Museum of Beloit College has published Dr. George L. 
Collie's very interesting monograph on "The Aurignacians and Their 
Culture". "This bulletin has been prepared to aid the students of the 
college to a better understanding of the Aurignacian people and their 
culture and thus to stimulate appreciation of the large and repre- 
sentative collection" of artifacts of the Aurignacian age now on ex- 
hibition at the Logan Museum. The latter were assembled during the 
museum expeditions to France and Algeria through the generous 
financial and other support of Dr. and Mrs. Frank G. Logan. Copies 
of the bulletin, which is fully illustrated, can be purchased of the 
Museum. We trust that every Wisconsin archeologist will want one. 
The explorations undertaken by Dr. Collie and Dr. Logan in the caves 
and sites of Europe and Africa have made it possible for Wisconsin 
students of archeology to study in the Logan Museum one of the 
finest collections of Palaeolithic and Neolithic material to be found in 
any museum in the United States. 

The 1927 Yearbook of the Milwaukee Public Museum contains an 
illustrated report by W. C. McKern on "Archeological Field Work in 
Sheboygan and Dodge Counties". Dr. Barrett contributes several in- 
teresting papers en the Hawaiian Islands in this same bulletin. 

In the Museum bulletin entitled "Ethnobotany of the Meskwaki In- 
dians", Huron H. Smith has made a fine contribution to our knowledge 
of the plant lore of the Fox Indians located at Tama, Iowa. 

The Wisconsin Historical Society has printed in its 1927 Proceed- 
ings a paper on "Wisconsin Historical Landmarks", by Dr. Louise P. 
Kellogg. In this very useful paper the Indian, pioneer and other 
landmarks of the state are grouped by regions. "It is largely de- 
signed to call attention to the historical sites in Wisconsin cities and 
along its roads". An "Index to Landmarks" adds greatly to its use- 

The April-June 1928 issue of the American Anthropologist con- 
tains among others a paper on "Cremation and Preservation of the 

Archeological Notes. 45 

Dead in North America", by Edwin O. James; "The Lead Glaze Deco- 
rated Pottery of the Pueblo Region", by Walter Hough; "A Prehis- 
toric Village Site in Greenup County, Kentucky", by W. S. Webb, and 
"A Peculiar Type of Stone Implement", by Julian H. Seward. Ed- 
ward Conzemius contributes a paper on "Ethnographical Notes on the 
Black Carib". In the July-September number Ralph Linton describes 
the "Culture Areas in Madagascar". E. B, Delabarre has published 
an article on "A Prehistoric Skeleton from Grassy Island" and George 
Brinton Phillips one on "The Earliest Ornamental Metal Work". This 
issue also contains a report on "Archeological Field Work in North 
America During 1927". This report is made by Carl E. Guthe, chair- 
man of the Committee on State Archeological Surveys of the Division 
of Anthropology and Psychology of the National Research Council. 
Secretary Geo. R. Fox has published the report on the meeting of the 
Central Section, American Anthropological Association which was 
held at Chicago on March 25, 1927. 

In the July 1928 issue of Indian Notes of the Museum of the Amer- 
ican Indian, Marshall H. Saville has written an interesting paper on 
"Ceremonial Axes from Western Mexico". Some of these are of hu- 
man and animal forms. M. R. Harrington writes of "A New Archeo- 
logical Field in Texas", Melvin R. Gilmore describes "The Cattail 
Game of Arikara Children", and Chas. O. Turbyfill an owl-shaped 
steatite pipe from the old Cherokee Country in North Carolina. 

The Museum has also published a valuable monograph on "The 
Indians of Tierra del Fuego" by Dr. Samuel K. Lothrop, being the 
result of a three months visit to the island during the summer of 

The Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 35, consists of "Con- 
tributions to Fox Ethnology", by Truman Michelson. Under this title 
several interesting papers on the Fox Indians are introduced. 

The American Association of Museums has printed a pamphlet re- 
port on "Contributions of Museums to Outdoor Recreation", by Laur- 
ence V. Coleman, its director. 

The Wisconsin Chapter of the Friends of Our Native Landscape 
has issued the April-July, 1928 number of "Our Native Landscape". 
Franz A. Aust is the managing editor of this bulletin. 

Several very interesting issues of "Arizona Old and New", the 
Arizona Museum Journal, have recently appeared. This is issued by 
the Arizona Museum, Phoenix, Arizona. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society has just published a Table of 
Contents of Volumes 1-20, and Volumes 1-7, New Series of The Wis- 
consin Archeologist, 1901-1928. This will enable members of the 
Society and others to order such issues as they may require to com- 
plete their files, or for other purposes. Copies of the Table may be 
secured from the Secretary. 

Research and Other Work 

During the summer Messrs. George A. West and George R. Fox, 
members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, accompanied as 
archeologists the McDonald-Massee expedition to the Isle Royale pre- 
historic Indian copper mines. Among other valuable results of the 
investigations of this expedition were the location of some thousands 
of additional copper mining pits. W. C. McKern and a field party of 


the Milwaukee Museum conducted explorations of Indian mounds at 
Trempealeau, with good results. C. E. and T. T. Brown were en- 
gaged in field work along the Rock river and in other parts of south- 
ern Wisconsin. Dr. George L. Collie has returned to Beloit from the 
scene of the Logan Museum investigations in north Africa. Alonzo 
Pond has returned to his home at Janesville from Mongolia, Asia. He 
has brought with him a collection of about 12,000 ancient stone and 
other implements obtained in the interior of that continent as a mem- 
ber of the Roy Chapman Andrews Expedition. Dr. Ralph Linton 
formerly of the Field Museum of Natural History has joined the 
faculty of the University of Wisconsin and will conduct a course in 
anthropology. News has reached us of the death of Alvin H. Dewey, 
archeologist and patron of archaeological research, of Rochester, New 
York. The death is also reported of Wilkin C. Beemer of Kenosha, 
one of the very active younger members of the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society. Beemer was conducting a survey of his home county 
for the Society. He was the young investigator who obtained the 
airplane photograph of the large water spirit effigy mound near Bur- 
lington, Wisconsin. 

Among other visitors at the State Historical Museum, at Madison, 
during the summer were Dr. Carl E. Guthe, Dr. Melvin R. Gilmore, 
Alonzo Pond, and Dr. Bruce T. Best and Enos Kiethly, Illinois arche- 

Robert P. Ferry, chairman of Aztalan Mound Park, has erected a 
boulder marker and made other welcome improvements at the state 
archaeological park during the year. Members of the Society and 
other friends who desire to contribute to the preservation of the great 
mound group located at Frost's Woods Wild Life Sanctuary at Madi- 
son may send their contributions to Mr. Albert O. Barton, secretary, 
at Madison. Every dollar given will help save to save to posterity 
one of the most interesting groups of prehistoric earthworks about 
the Madison lakes, 

At the close of the 1928 season all members of the Wisconsin Arche- 
ological Society are requested to file with the Secretary reports of any 
field work engaged in, or archeological discoveries, by themselves. 
This in order also that a complete report may be made to the Execu- 
tive Board at the beginning of the year 1929. 

Vol. 8 

January, 1929 


. 2 







Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 
1103, Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

3rcf)eologtcal S>oetetj> f 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



H. H. Smith 


W. H. Vogel C. G. Schoewe 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. W. Oilman 

A. T. Newman Dr. A. L. Kastner 


Dr. S. A. Barrett Dr. F. C. Rogers Dr. E. J. W. Notz 

A. P. Kannenberg E. F. Richter Mrs. H. E. Koerner 

Vetal Winn L. R. Whitney Geo. A. West 

W. C. McKern 


G. M. Thorne 

National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. S. A. Barrett, J. P. Schumacher, W. G. Mc- 
Lachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, C. E. Brown, W. C. McKern, T. L. 
Miller, A. W. Pond, and Frank Thomlinson. 

MOUND PRESERVATION W. W. Oilman, Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. 
A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Louise 
P. Kellogg- Mrs. H. A. Main, R. A. Maas, J. W. Norris, Mrg.i 
F. R. Melcher, Dr. A. Gerend, and G. L. Pasco. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Dr. G. L. Collie, A. C. 
Neville, A. P. Kannenberg, E. P. Hamilton, William Horlick, 
Mrs. H. A. Olson, Mrs. H. E. Koerner, R. S. Van Handel, and 
T. M. N. Lewis. 

MEMBERSHIP C. G. Schoewe, A. P. Cloos, Dr. W. H. Brown, A. R. 
Rogers, A. Sohrweide, Jr., Vetal Winn, C. G. Weyl, Mrs. Theo. 
Koerner, W. P. Morgan, A. E. Koerner, Louis Pierron, C. Baer- 
wald, D. S. Rowland, and Geo. Overton. 

MAN MOUND PARK E. A. Gilmaii, Miss Emma Richmond and 
M. F. Hulburt. 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, M. G. Troxell, and W. W. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Mrs. W. F. Bauchle, M. C. Richter, E. R. 
Mclntyre and R. K. Coe. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Mil- 


Vol. 8, No. 2, New Series 


The Story of Aztalan, George A. West 51 

Aztalan Literature _ 61 

The Stockaded Village, Louise P. Kellogg 61 

The Use of Earthenware Vessels by the old North-west Indians, 

Charles E. Brown 69 


Tablet at Aztalan Mound Park Frontispiece 

Plate Facing Page 

1. Mound Burial at Aztalan _ 54 

2. Meeting at Aztalan Mound Park 62 

3. Pottery Fragments from Aztalan 70 


Cfje i^ificonstn 8rcf)eolog;tfit 

Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeolo^ical Soeiety 

Vol. 8 MADISON. WIS., JANUARY, 1929 No. 3 

New Series 


George A. West 

The "ancient city of Aztalan" located but 45 miles di- 
rectly west of Milwaukee has long been known and often 
referred to as one of the wonders of the western world. 
When discovered, it certainly was the most extensive work 
of antiquity within the state of Wisconsin. The good judg- 
ment of its founders is indicated by the beautiful location 
chosen, with its eastern exposure and gentle slope to the 
placid stream now known as the Crawfish River. The high- 
lands along its western border afforded an opportunity to 
these early Americans of seeing the sunrise in all its glory, 
they probably being worshipers of that orbit. 

These works were discovered by N. F. Hyer in October, 
1836 and a hasty survey made by him in January, 1837. 
He later published a brief description of the enclosure, illus- 
trated by a rude wood-cut, in the "Milwaukee Advertiser", 
one of Wisconsin's earliest newspapers. At this time there 
were no white settlements in the neighborhood. 

The name "Aztalan" was given to this place by Mr. Hyer 
because, according to Humboldt, the Axtecs of Mexico had 
a tradition that their ancestors came from a country to the 
North, called "Aztalan," which in Mexican means "near 
water". Hence the natural inference that the country about 
the Great Lakes was the ancient residence of the Aztec, 
which of course in the light of our present knowledge is 
not considered seriously. 

A paper by a Mr. Taylor,* who obtained the information 
from a friend who had made a visit to the works, accom- 
panied by Mr. Hyer, was published in "Sillman's American 
Journal", added but little to the knowledge of these ruins. 

Stephen Taylor. 


Messrs. Squier and Davis published a condensed report 
in the first volume of the "Smithsonian Contributions", 
with many suggestions which have proved to be merely 

In 1838, the famous Edward Everett, then governor of 
Connecticut, besought the President of the United States to 
withdraw Aztalan from sale as a piece of public land, but 
in vain; it was sold at $1,25 per acre and $22.00 added to 
the Treasury. Then the settlers started plowing and sowing 
turnips on the mounds. About this time, some trade orna- 
ments of silver were found, resulting in a mad rush of 
treasure hunters, who trenched the mounds and walls of 
the enclosure in dozens of places. 

In 1850 Dr. Increase A. Lapham, made a careful survey 
of Aztalan and of the earthworks in the vicinity, and in 
1855 there appeared a finely illustrated article on the en- 
closure in his "Antiquities of Wisconsin". 

This interesting enclosure, now almost obliterated by 
many years of cultivation, is in the shape of an irregular 
parallelogram, reported to contain 17% acres, surrounded 
on three sides by an artificial ridge. The length of the 
north wall Lapham gives as 631 feet, the west as 1419 and 
the south as 700. The Crawfish River forms the fourth 
side, on the east. Many exaggerated statements respecting 
the brick walls have been made, all of which have little 
foundation in truth. The wall was 22 feet wide, from one 
to five feet in height and enlarged on the outside at almost 
regular distances by mounds, often referred to as "but- 
tresses or bastions". These projections were from 61 to 
95 feet apart, about 40 feet in diameter and from two to 
five feet high. On the inner side of the wall opposite many 
of these mounds were found the remains of a sloping way 
by which the wall was ascended from within. Near the 
southwest angle of the great enclosure were two outworks 
constructed in the same manner. The corners of these 
walls are not rectangular and the embankment or ridge is 
not straight. The earth of which the ridge was made was 
doubtless scraped up from the surface of the adjoining 

The alleged "walls of brick" have given to Azatalan a 
great deal of undeserved notoriety. It is interesting to note 

Aztalan. 53 

the fondness with which many persons still cling to this 
absurd bit of fiction, long exploded. 

There is in fact little foundation for calling these "brick 
walls". Clay mixed with grass seems to have been placed 
on the surface of portions of these ridges and treated by 
fire, probably to protect them against erosion and to furnish 
a solid surface on which the natives might travel regardless 
of the weather. Fragments of these so-called briquets are 
still scattered about, in the vicinity of these ruins. With 
these briquets were found fragments of broken pottery, 
bits of charcoal and pieces of partly burned human bones, 
which led Dr. Lapham to suggest that possibly the clay 
mixed with straw was employed as a covering for sacrifices 
which were burned on top of the walls. Fowke asserts that 
they were simply the remains of the walls and roofs of 
mud-plastered huts which have been destroyed by fire. 
Similar remains of burned clay occur in the low flat mounds 
of Missouri, Arkansas and Mississippi. 

Within the wall, near the northwest corner, was a rect- 
angular pyramidal mound, its level top measuring 60 by 65 
i'eet. At its southeast corner was a sloping ascent. This 
mound occupied the summit of a ridge and rose but little, 
if any, above the top of the adjacent wall. It had been 
partly destroyed, as Lapham stated, by persons curious in 
antiquarian research, and by one who, it is said, had been 
supernaturally convinced that a large amount of money 
was deposited in it. 

At the southwest corner, also within the wall, was a 
square mound, the level area on its top being 53 feet wide 
on the west side. It probably was originally square. This 
was a terraced mound with two levels and a sloping way 
from its top toward the east and. was the highest earth- 
work within the wall, which it overlooked. The tops of 
these mounds possibly supported structures of perishable 

From the eastern side of the last mentioned mound, a 
ridge with a number of projections, similar to those of the 
wall of the enclosure, extended about two-thirds of the way 
to the river, where it angled in a northwesterly direction, 
being broken near its middle. Not far from and east of 


this embankment was a second parallel ridge with projec- 
tions distributed at various distances along its sides. 

A short distance west of the enclosure and extending 
along the front of the wall was a long mound of a famil- 
iar tapering effigy type, an irregular line of conical 
mounds, and a single linear mound. Several hundred feet 
northwest of the enclosure, on the higher ground, was a 
double line of seventy-four conical mounds of different 
sizes, of which but ten remain. 

Opposite, on the east bank of the river, is another, but 
much smaller enclosure and with it a considerable number 
of mounds, one of them a 600-foot panther type effigy. 
These ancient earthworks were doubtless allied to the large 
works on the west bank of the river. 


Dr. Lapham's report indicates that he did some exca- 
vating at Aztalan, that a shaft was sunk in the sixth 
mound from the northwest angle of the outer wall, and the 
only finds were a fragment of galena and another of iron 
ore, used as red paint. There was no burned clay on this 
mound, which was built of a yellowish sandy loam, taken 
from the sub-soil of adjacent grounds. Two smaller 
mounds in the interior were also opened by him without 
results of any interest. 

The mound or buttress at the northwest angle of the 
enclosure was excavated with interesting results. Frag- 
ments of pottery were encountered just below the sod; 
charcoal, half-burned human bones and numerous masses 
of burned clay were met with for the first twelve inches 
only ; at deeper levels fragments of clay, charcoal and fresh 
water shells, badly decayed, were observed. Still deeper 
a cavity was found, nearly filled with loose earth, in which 
were indications of bones, in a bad state of preservation, 
and charcoal. This was divided below into two other cy- 
lindrical cavities, filled with some loose materials. He 
believed that two bodies had undoubtedly been buried here 
in a sitting posture. 

Lapham examined several of the tumuli, exterior to the 
enclosure, but with no very important results. The third 
from the north end of the long row, as appears on his plat, 


Skeleton of a woman showing 1 belts of shell beads 
Plate 1 

Aztalan. 65 

four feet high and thirty feet in diameter, was penetrated 
to the bottom where a decayed post was encountered. 

While working at Aztalan, he was also informed that, 
"upon opening one of the larger mounds, some years ago, 
the remains of a skeleton were found, enclosed with a rude 
stone wall plastered with clay and covered with a -sort of 
inverted vase of the same materials". 

Mr. J. C. Brayton of Aztalan, in a letter to Dr. Lapham, 
said : "Several feet below the surface of the square mound, 
near the northwest corner of the enclosure, was found what 
appeared to be the remains of cloth, apparently enveloping 
a portion of a human skeleton. Its texture was open, like 
the coarsest linen fabric, but the threads were so entirely 
rotten as to make it quite uncertain as to what material 
they were made". Sillman's Journal reported the finding 
of a piece of cloth at Aztalan and which was sent by Dr. 
King to the National Institute of Washington, which is 
possibly the same specimen referred to by Mr. Brayton. 

As Dr. Lapham reported, many artifacts as well as* 
"numerous fragments of earthenware have been taken 
from the mounds at different times; portions of broken 
vessels, varying in size, (judging by the curve of the frag- 
ments), from a few inches to three feet across the rim". 
Mr. Brayton is authority for the statement that in one 
instance, two loads of broken pots, uncovered by the plow, 
were used for filling in mud-holes in the highway. 

In the study of the American Indians, ethnologists have 
found nothing more significant of aboriginal culture than 
the designs and patterns used in aboriginal pottery decora- 
tion. Unfortunately, Dr. Lapham failed to appreciate this 
as he furnished no descriptions of the potsherds he so 
plentifully discovered at Aztalan. 

The works here are often referred to in such fanciful 
terms as "sacred enclosure", "temple mounds", and "sacri- 
ficial mounds", all tending to establish a belief that their 
authors were not ordinary Indians, but religious fanatics 
who worshipped the sun and offered human beings in 
sacrifice to this luminary. In a concluding paragraph of his 
description of these works, Dr. Lapham said: 

"We may suppose it to have been a place of worship; the 
pyramidal mounds being the places of sacrifice like the 


teocalli of Mexico. From its isolated situation, there being 
no similar structure for a great distance in any direction, 
we may conjecture that this was a kind of Mecca, to which 
a periodical pilgrimage was prescribed by their religion. 
There may have been the annual feasts and sacrifices of a 
whole nation. Thousands of persons from remote locations 
may have engaged in mid-night ceremonies conducted by 
priests. The temple, lighted by fires kindled on the great 
pyramids and at every projection on the walls, on such 
occasions would have presented an imposing spectacle, well 
calculated to impress the minds of the people with awe and 

Peet said : "There came a sense of awe as we looked 
about. It was easy to imagine that the place was once 
given to religious assemblies, and that the platforms or 
pyramids were covered with temples and smoked with sac- 
rificial fires, and to realize that 'the place was very sacred 
to the people". 

The flat-topped mounds, located within the enclosure, 
and the finding by Lapham, while excavating, of ashes 
mingled with charcoal and occasional fragments of human 
bones probably caused more speculation as to the religious 
significance of these works than anything else. That canni- 
balism was not an uncommon practice among the early 
Wisconsin Indians is shown by the accounts of early writ- 
ers, and the finding of human bones showing the action of 
fire may well be considered as the remains of cannibal 

It has also been suggested that this enclosure might have 
been occupied by a colony of Mexicans, such colonies being 
sent out by those people at an early day. 

However, practically every theory advanced thus far as 
to the uses and authorship of these interesting remains was 
based almost wholly on surface indications. 


It was not until the spring of 1919 that the Milwaukee 
Public Museum, appreciating the educational value of mod- 
ern scientific research and the necessity of acting quickly 
lest the plow should forever obliterate all remaining evi- 
dences of the prehistoric life and culture of a people that 

Aztalan. , 57 

may, for hundreds of years, have occupied this site, sent its 
Director, Dr. S. A. Barrett, with a number of his assistants, 
to seek beneath the surface for information that might 
solve the problem that has ever since its discovery caused 
many wild theories to be advanced. It required two sum- 
mers' work by the expedition to thoroughly excavate these 
ancient works. 

Summarizing the results, which were most gratifying: 
Work was commenced on the west bank of the river. Dis- 
covery was made that a low embankment, several hundred 
feet in length and from four to ten feet in depth, along the 
river bank, extending back a considerable distance, was in 
reality a refuse heap, probably originally low ground, 
where was dumped kitchen refuse and other discards, 
from which were obtained many interesting objects. 
Among them were potsherds, stone implements and wooden 
posts, cut with primitive tools. 

The various walls, including the enclosure, were exca- 
vated, revealing post holes close together, indicating that 
the site was a stockaded fort. Within the enclosure was 
discovered a series of post holes, in which were undoubtedly 
set posts for defensive purposes. Other post holes were 
found that evidently had been used in the construction of 

On the northeast side was discovered an entrance way, 
leading through a very narrow alley, bordered on each side 
by post holes, with twists and turns, constituting a trap, 
making ingress for an enemy very difficult. This gateway 
was defended on each side by bastions, around the outer 
edge of which were palisades, as post holes indicated. In 
fact, each of the projections of the outer wall was doubtless 
used as an outlook and fortified by trunks of trees set into 
the ground. 

Not far from the entrance and toward the river, the 
foundations of a number of dwellings were discovered. The 
excavations produced many implements and ornaments in 
stone, bone and copper, deer antlers and thousands of pearl 
shells or mussels, they usually being perforated and prob- 
ably used as hoes. Human remains were also encountered 
as well as coarsely woven fabrics, but the most important 
discovery was the large number of potsherds, the quality 


and decoration being unique. Many of these were shell- 
tempered, equipped with angular shoulders and decorated 
below the rim by means of incised spirals, highly pol- 
ished, beautifully shaped, representing the finest pottery 
made by the ancient Wisconsin Indians, and probably to 
be classed with the best ware of any American Indians, 
north of Mexico. It is typical of 'the Aztalan site. Other 
sherds were decorated with incised scrolls and geometrical 
arrangements of incised lines. One fine specimen, a unique 
find in the Wisconsin area, is a pottery ladle of hard, shell- 
tempered, polished ware, shaped to represent a gourd. 

Excavations of Aztalan have resulted in the discovery of 
four distinct cultures, its earliest inhabitants having the 
most advanced. 

They were evidently a sedentary people, pottery makers 
and weavers, equal to any of the southeastern tribes in high 
artistic attainments and military tactics. 

Another very interesting find was a large number of 
beautiful arrow-heads, containing three square notches, the 
third being at the base. They are rarely found elsewhere 
in Wisconsin, never in Ohio and the northeastern part of 
the country, but are encountered in considerable numbers 
in the South and East. These and other finds are indica- 
tive of the southeast culture. 

In one of the large mounds on the ridge near the highway 
was discovered the remains of a post, which originally 
probably extended far above the mound and was used for 
ceremonial purposes. An adjoining mound contained noth- 
ing excepting a peculiarly shaped boulder, which probably 
had some religious significance. 

In another mound nearby was found a skeleton of a young 
woman, together with thousands of beads made from the 
pearl shells or mussels found in the rivers of southwestern 
Wisconsin. These beads seem to have been attached to 
belts of some material, one of which was wound several 
times around the neck, another around the body and a third 
around the ankles. 

While the Winnebago were the last to occupy this site, 
they disclaimed any knowledge of its origin, which could be 
expected from the fact that other cultures were discovered, 
by excavation, below their own. All evidence at hand leads 

Aztalan. 59 

to the conclusion that the founders of Aztalan came from 
the South or Southeast, and that for some unknown reason 
their advance into Wisconsin territory seems to have been 
extremely limited and their high state of culture not 
adopted by the wilder tribes of this district. Who they 
were is still an unsettled problem. 


For sixty years the plow has kept steadily burying deeper 
the secrets of this "City of Mystery". In 1905 the Land- 
marks Committee of Lake Mills, the State Federation of 
Women's Clubs and the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
made a determined effort to interest the public and our 
State legislature in the preservation of this site by securing 
it for state park purposes. Much publicity was given the 
matter, which was met with a deaf ear. 

Again in 1920, a concerted movement was carried on all 
over the state by archeological, historical, scientific and 
memorial societies, led by the Landmarks Committee of 
the State Historical Society and other organizations, under 
the slogan, '"Save Aztalan", to urge the acquisition of the 
property as a public park to be conducted by the Rural 
Planning Committee of Jefferson County. 

Dr. S. A. Barrett and the late P. V. Lawson gave illus- 
trated lectures throughout Jefferson County, in order to 
stimulate the project, resulting in the school children of 
that county contributing a substantial part of the purchase 
price of about three acres of the tract, containing a few of 
the outlying mounds in what is now Aztalan Mound Park. 
The County Board supplied the necessary balance of the 
funds and presented the site to the Wisconsin Archeological 

On October 20, 1928, a meeting of the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society and others fully interested in saving as 
much as possible of this, Wisconsin's most famous ruin, 
met at Aztalan for the unveiling "of a tablet in commemora- 
tion of its departed glory. The bronze plate, attached to a 
large granite' boulder, bears the following inscription: 



Site of the famous prehistoric Indian stockade-protected 
village known as Aztalan. First described by N. F. Hyer, 
in the Milwaukee Advertiser in January, 1837. Described 
by Dr. Increase A. Lapham in the "Antiquities of Wiscon- 
sin" in 1855. Explored by the Milwaukee Public Museum 
in 1919-21. Purchased by the citizens of Jefferson County 
in 1922, and presented to the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society. Marked by the Wisconsin Archeological Society 

In recognition of the devoted services of Mr. Robert P. 
Ferry, Chairman of the Park Committee, in improving and 
protecting this sacred spot, his daughter, Miss Elizabeth 
Ferry and her friend, Miss Elizabeth Tillotson, were ac- 
corded the honor of unveiling this marker. Appropriate 
addresses were made on this occasion by Miss Louise 
Phelps Kellogg of the Wisconsin State Historical Society, on 
"Indian stockade-protected villages" ; by Mr. John Jeske, 
of the Milwaukee Public Museum, describing the excava- 
tions by the Museum, and by Geo. A. West, of Milwaukee, 
who gave both a historical account of the site and the 
unveiling address. 

Sadly, with feelings difficult of utterance, our party 
wandered back and forth in the chilling wind, over the 
long neglected wreck of this once most remarkable and 
extensive ancient earthen structure of our state. Realizing 
its priceless value from an educational, historical, and 
scenic standpoint, we could not help but feel that the need- 
less destruction of so rare an example of prehistoric re- 
mains is a lasting disgrace to our state and a blot on the 
career of our statesmen of the past, who had the oppor- 
tunity to preserve it at a trifling cost and hand it down as 
an heirloom to coming generations of Wisconsin people, 
who will more appreciate it than we ourselves do. 

Pleased we should be that the policy of our state officers 
and law makers has changed. The securing of public parks 
in upper Wisconsin is highly commendable, but thus far the 
southern part of our state, in this respect, has not received 
due consideration. Some place for recreation within a short 
drive would accomodate the hundreds of thousands who 

The Stockaded Village. 61 

cannot afford or spare the time to go long distances for a 
day's outing. Such a park should be provided and the site 
of Ancient Aztalan is the most logical and desirable for 
this purpose and the additional land required should be 
purchased and the enclosure restored by the State of Wis- 
consin without unnecessary delay. 


In the course of years the Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety has published a number of papers and articles on the 
subject of the character and preservation of the Aztalan 
enclosure. The first of these appears as a chapter in a 
monograph, "The Indian Authorship of Wisconsin Antiqui- 
ties", published in 1907, its author being Mr. George A. 
West. Accompanying this is a reproduction of Dr. Lap- 
ham's map of Aztalan. Other papers published since that 
time are "The Pilgrimage to Aztalan," "The Ancient City 
of Aztalan", by Publius V. Lawson ; "A Visit to Aztalan in 
1838", by William T. Sterling; "Prehistoric Cannibalism in 
America", by A. N. Somers; and "Aztalan Conveyed to 
Wisconsin Archeological Park System". Dr. Barrett's re- 
port on the investigations conducted by the- Milwaukee 
Public museum has not yet appeared. 

Recent improvements made at Aztalan Mound Park by 
Chairman Robert P. Ferry consist of the enclosing of the 
park with a substantial fence, the planting of trees, the 
erection of roadside and other signs directing visitors to 
the site, the erection of the boulder marker, and the erection 
of a shelter with a permanent map and literature case. 

Louise Phelps Kellogg 

Nearly all the discoverers and first settlers of North 
America mention the palisaded village as a feature of 
Indian life. When Jacques Cartier in 1535 advanced up 
the St. Lawrence to the site of Montreal he found there the 
Huron village of Hochelaga, containing more than a thous- 
and people, which was surrounded by a wooden palisade 
in triple rows. This palisade was circular ; and on its inner 


side ran a gallery on which the defenders stood. A picture 
of this village appears in the collection of voyages by the 
Italian, Ramusio, with an especial diagram of the palisade. 
The three tiers of tree trunks met at the top in the form 
of a pyramid; it was firmly bound together and of a very 
strong construction. 1 

When th% French in the early years of the seventeenth 
century returned to settle the St. Lawrence Valley, the 
Hurons had removed to western Ontario, south of Georgian 
Bay. There they had six fortified villages, with wooden 
stakes in triple ranks interlaced, lined within with large 
pieces of bark. These stockades were from eight to fifteen 
or more feet high and reinforced underneath with great 

trees laid on short, strong forks of tree trunks. 2 Not- 
withstanding these strong fortifications, when in 1648-9 
the Iroquois raided the country of the Hurons they were 
able to capture these stockades. One had a palisade of pine 
trees fifteen to sixteen feet high with a deep ditch around 
it; the Iroquois fell upon it and undermined it with blows 
of their hatchets ; thus they made several breaches through 
which they rushed and set on fire the cabins of their 
victims. 8 

The Iroquois also had stockaded villages; one of their 
earliest Dutch visitors writes : "This [Onondaga] castle is 
surrounded by three rows of palisades, six or seven feet 
high so thick it is a wonder they could do it."- 4 They ran a 
trench several feet deep around five or six acres of land, 
threw up the ground upon the inside, then set a continuous 
row of stakes or palisades in this bank of earth, fixing them 
at such an angle that they inclined over the trench. Some- 
times a village was surrounded by a double, triple, or even 
quadruple row of palisades. Within were the cabins and 
without the cultivated fields. 5 

1 Jacques Garner's Voyages, (Biggar ed. Ottawa, 1924), 144-148, 

'Samuel de Champlain, Oeuyres (Quebec, 1870) iv, 73; Sabriel 
Sagard: Theodate Le Grande Voyage du Pays des Huron (Paris, 

3 Jesuit Relations & Allied Documents (Thwaites ed. Cleveland, 
1896-1901), xxxiv, 14, 123, 125. 

4 Arent Van Curlaer's journal in American Historical Association 
Report, 1905, 90. 

'Lewis Morgan, League of the Iroquois, (N. Y. 1901) I, 305-306. 



Plate 2 

The Stockaded Village. 63 

Champlain gives us two illustrations of the stockaded 
villages of the Iroquois: in his exploration of 1609 at the 
severe encounter he had with the Mohawk not far from 
Lake Champlain, the village shown in his picture was sur- 
rounded by a stockade hexagonal in shape strongly inter- 
woven with binding withes. 6 Again in 1615 when the 
explorer accompanied a party of Hurons, which attacked 
an Oneida village, Champlain thus describes the enemies' 
stronghold: "The village was enclosed by four good pali- 
sades, which were made of great pieces of wood inter- 
laced with each other with an opening of not more than 
one-half a foot between two; it was thirty feet high with 
galleries around the inside; there was a pond near and 
gutters ran between each pair of palisades." Champlain's 
party was not able to storm this strong fort even with the 
aid of firearms and a moveable tower, which the besiegers 
tried to push up to the walls. The picture Champlain gave 
shows that this formidable palisade was six-sided. 7 A still 
older stockade was reported among the Seneca, which was 
rectangular in shape and the outline of which could be 
traced as late as the nineteenth century. 8 Galinee in 1669 
describes a Seneca village "with palisades thirteen feet 
high, fastened together at the top and planted in the 
ground, with great piles of wood the height of a man behind 
these palisades, the curtains being not otherwise flanked 
merely a simple enclosure, perfectly square." As a rule 
only the older Iroquois villages were fortified. As the 
confederacy spread its conquests in every direction and 
consolidated its power, it no longer took the trouble to 
stockade its villages. 9 

The Algonquian Indians of the Atlantic seaboard, who 
were early met by European discoverers and explorers, had 
the custom of planting stakes around their villages. In 
Virginia we have these stockades pictured in the drawings 

'Champlain's Voyages (Biggar ed., Toronto, 1922), ii, 134. 

'Champlain's Voyages (Grant ed., N. Y. 1907), 291-295. 

8 David I. Bushnell. "Native Villages and Villages Sites east of the 
Mississippi;" Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 69. The writ- 
er acknowledges her debt to this treatise, although her investigations 
were conducted independently. 

,- B Louise P. Kellogg, Early Narratives of the Northwest, (N. Y. 
1917), 180. Morgan, op. cit. I, 306. 


of John White, first English artist of America. 10 "Their 
Fortifications," writes one of the earliest historians of the 
colony, "consist only of a palisado, of about ten to twelve 
feet high, and when they would make themselves very safe 
they treble the pale. They often encompass their whole 
town ; but for the most part only their king's houses and as 
many dwellings as they judge sufficient to harbor all their 
people when an enemy comes against them." 

Hariot, who accompanied Sir Walter's colony to Virginia 
in 1585 wrote : "If they [the villages] be walled it is only 
done with barks of trees made fast to stakes or else with 
poles only fixed upright and close to one another." 

Coming farther north we find that the Algonquian In- 
dian village on Manhattan Island was "a castle or palisaded 
village." Most of these Algonquian stockades were circular ; 
but we have one picture of a rectangular stockade built by 
the Mohican Indians, which was somewhere within the 
limits of New Netherland. This was so regular in form that 
it may have been rectified by the artist; it is, however, 
interesting as an example of this shape on the eastern 
borders of North America. 

It is well known that the Pilgrims and Puritans of New 
England encountered few Indians because of a recent pes- 
tilence; some of the earlier visitors to this coast inform us 
of stockaded towns. Champlain found one on Saco River, 
which was a permanent village surrounded by palisades 
formed of rather large trees placed one against another and 
into this they retire when their enemies come to make war 
against them." 11 

A Jesuit missionary to the Abnaki wrote that "their 
cabins were ranged almost like houses in cities, an enclosure 
of high and closely set stakes formed a sort of a wall which 
protected them from the incursions of their enemies." 12 

Turning now to the Northwest, the region with which 
we are most familiar, we find numerous references to 

10 White was a member of Raleigh's colony on Roanoke Island ; 
his drawings were engraved and published by the German collector 
of voyages, Theodor de Bry. See reproduction of a circular village 
palisade in Con way W. Sams, Conquest of Virginia: Forest Primeval 
(N. Y. 1916), 128, 134. 

11 Champlain' s Voyages (Biggar, ed.), i, 329. 

12 Jesuit Relations (Thwaites ed), Ixvii, 135. 

The Stockaded Village. ^ 65 

formidable palisades around the settled villages. The 
Hurons who fled from the raids of the Iroquois made their 
way in considerable numbers into Wisconsin, accompanied 
by the Ottawa from the eastern shore o Georgian Bay 
and from Manitolin Island. At first both groups of 
refugees lived upon the islands of Green Bay, but hear- 
ing rumors of the approach of an Iroquois band, the 
fugitives retired to the mainland and spent two years 
erecting a fortification, which proved impregnable. The 
Iroquois finally in 1653 arrived before it, but spent with 
their journey they made no attempt to attack, and started 
negotiaions for a peace. The envoys were drawn over 
the palisade with ropes, and after some negotiations asked 
for food. This the besieged party poisoned and threw 
over the ramparts. The enemy retreated, vanquished by 
the wiles of the defenders and their heavy palisade. 13 

The Hurons and Ottawa, none the less, were panic 
stricken and continued their flight into the thickest of the 
forests of northern Wisconsin. The Ottawa finally built 
a village on Lac Court Oreilles, which Radisson notes was 
without palisades; 14 evidently these fugitives thought the 
distance and the depth of the forest would protect them, 
without the heavy labor of erecting a stockade. A half- 
century later, however, when dwelling on the straits of 
Mackinac they protected their permanent villages with 
stockades which Lahontan describes and pictures. 15 The 
commandant of 1694-97, Sieur de Cadillac, thus describes 
Mackinac: "These forts [of the Indians] are made of 
stakes. Those of the outer row are as thick as one's thigh, 
and about 'thirty feet high; the second row inside fs a 
full foot from the first, and leans over at the top to sup- 
port and prop it; the third row is four feet from the 
second one, and consists of stakes 3% feet in diameter 
standing 15 or 16 feet out of the ground. Now in this 
row no space is left between the stakes; on the contrary 

13 Wis. Hist. Colls, xvi, 7-13; Louise P. Kellogg, French Regime 
in Wisconsin and the Northwest (Madison, 1925), 96-98. 

14 Wis. Hist. Colls., xi, 94. 

15 Lahontan' 's Voyages to North America (Thwaites ed. Chicago, 
1905), 417. Lahontan is in this passage speaking in general, but 
he' was familiar with the Mackinac villages and portrays them as 
palisaded on his map. Wis. Hist. Colls, xvi, 136. 


they are driven as closely tog-ether as possible, and loop 
holes are cut at intervals. In the first two rows there is 
a space of about 6 pounces [inches] between the stakes, 
and by this means the first and second rows do not pre- 
vent the enemy from being discovered; but there are 
neither curtains nor bastions, and, properly speaking, it 
is a mere fence." 16 Yet one must conclude it was a fence 
or fortification of great . strength, and must have im- 
pressed all the tribesmen of the western country. 

Whether these stockaded villages of the Hurons and 
Ottawa at Mackinac were copied by the Algonquians of 
Wisconsin is not certain ; yet there are evidences that 
Wisconsin villages had some sort of protective stockades. 
The Jesuits speak of "forts" both among the Outagamie 
on Wolf River and for the Miami-Mascouten on the upper 
Fox; a Seminary missionary of 1698 mentions the village 
on Milwaukee River as "the fort of Milouakik." 17 On 
the other hand neither Marquette, La Salle, nor Tonty 
mention any palisaded villages in the Mississippi Valley, 
and it seems quite evident that the Illinois had no stock- 
ades in the seventeenth century, when attacked by the 
Iroquois. By the middle of the eighteenth century, how- 
ever, they had learned to fortify their villages against the 
attacks of the Foxes. 18 

At the time of the Fox Wars in the first decades of the 
eighteenth century, we have many evidences of stockaded 
forts and villages. Mackinac was abandoned by the 
Hurons and Ottawa in 1700 and their forts were rebuilt 
at Detroit and quickly surrounded by a double row of 
palisades with good gates. 19 Then when the Foxes at the 
invitation of the French commandant removed to the 
neighborhood of Detroit they also built fortifications, 
within which in 1712 the first siege of the Fox Wars oc- 
curred. 20 

The few Foxes who were left after this disastrous 
event fled back to Wisconsin, and there with their com- 

18 Wis. Hist. Colls., xvi, 352-353. 
"Kellogg, Early Narratives, 153, 155, 345. 
15 Bushnell, Villages and Village Sites, 40. 

19 Wis. Hist. Cotts., xvi, 368, 369. 
"Ibid., 274, 278, 284, 293. 

The Stockaded Village. 67 

rades built on the banks of Lake Butte des Morts a for- 
midable fort composed of triple oak stakes with curtains 
at each corner.- 1 There in 17161 they were besieged by a 
French army, which advanced against this fort in regular 
European style, planning mines and other ways of reduc- 
ing it. A truce, however, was made before the fort sur- 
rendered and the Foxes were left to occupy their stock- 
ade for a time in peace. 

( Lulled to security by French .promises the Foxes by 
1727 had a village on Fox River without a palisade, and 
when the next year the second French expedition mounted 
that stream their enemies fled without standing siege. 22 
Taught their lesson by this surprise in 1730 they had two 
strong forts and the Winnebago had one on an island not 
far from Appleton. 23 Then in the autumn of that year, 
attempting to take refuge among the Iroquois, the Foxes 
turned at bay and built in Illinois, fifty miles or more 
south of Lake Michigan, a stockade in which they stood 
siege for twenty-three days, and left its protection only 
when hunger forced a sortie. 24 

At a later date in this same struggle the Foxes built 
near the shore of Lake Pistakee, on Fox River of Illinois, 
"a stockade fort with an earthern rampart inside the 
height of a man, with a water-tower or block house above 
it." And in 1734 they were fortified on the banks of the 
Wapsipinicon River in Iowa. 25 

The Sauk Indians also had in 1732 a palisaded village 
on the site of modern Green Bay, opposite the French post 
on the west side of the stream; at the gate of this village 
the French commandant was slain. This site of this Sauk 
stockade is now marked with a tablet placed in 1918 on 
the corner of the Beaumont hotel. 26 

After the close of the Fox Wars about 1738 we hear no 
more of stockades around the villages of Wisconsin In- 
dians. For that reason it seems to have been forgotten 
that whenever serious danger threatened, the villagers 

21 Wis. Hist. Colls., v, 79, 82. 

22 Wis. Hist. Colls., xvii, 23, 100, 109, 129. 

23 Ibid, 88-99. 
"Ibid, 111, 115. 

28 Ibid, 178, 208, 216, 218. 

26 Wis. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, 1927, 74. 


had to resort to palisades. Yet no fact seems better es- 
tablished by a survey of early literature. 

There is one description by a writer of 1674 of a forti- 
fied village in east Tennessee, probably of Cherokee origin, 
that commands attention because of its evident similarity 
to the remains at Aztalan. "This towne is seated on ye 
river side, having ye clefts of ye river on ye one side 
being very high for its defense, the other three sides trees 
of two foot over, [in diameter] pitched on end, twelve 
foot high, and on ye tops scafolds placed with parrapits 
to defend the walls and offend theire enemies which men 
stand on to fight . . . this forte is four square; 300 
paces over and ye houses set in streets."- 7 Some such 
village must have existed at the site of Aztalan in pre- 
historic times, whether marking the last stand of a more 
civilized people who had made their way hither from the 
south along the Mississippi and Rock rivers, 28 or whether 
the remains of a village built by the ancestors of our well- 
known Wisconsin Indians at some time of stress and dan- 
ger. Here was gathered a considerable population, with- 
out the walls were the watch towers and tribal emblems. 
Within the stockade a busy scene was enacted, food was 
gathered and prepared for scores of people, refuse heaps 
piled up, in all probability the usual incidents of savage 
life continued, courtship, marriage, birth, death, cere- 
monial observances, feasts, dances, and orgies. Yet all 
the time the watchers on the walls were vigilant, along 
the parapets they paced, with keen eyes they watched the 
distance, their cries of alarm or their assurances of safety 
aroused or lulled the villagers. Within the stockaded 
village was a reasoned safety and here a tribal group 
abode in peace. 

7 C. W. Alvprd and L. Bidgood, First Explorations of the Trans- 
Allegheny Region (Cleveland, 1912) 213. 

28 Paul Radin, The Story of the American Indian. (New York, 
1927), 198. 

The Use of Earthenware Vessels. 69 


Charles E. Brown 

All of the dozen or more Indian tribes whom the French 
encountered in Wisconsin and adjoining states were 
makers and users of earthenware vessels. Some, if not 
all, also employed in their domestic activities vessels made 
of bark, wood and shell. Frequent mention is made in 
the historical records of that period of the use of earthen- 
ware by the different tribes. Unfortunately these refer- 
ences to the ceramic art of the natives are all too brief. 
Of the source of the clay or the exact manner of manu- 
facuring the clay pots very little is said. The testimony 
of the early village sites is that pottery making must 
have been going on in nearly all of them. 

Pierre Esprit, sieur d'Radisson, mentions that the 
Hurons and Ottawa journeyed to Lake Winnebago to ob- 
tain from the Indians located there "light earthern pots, 
girdles made of goat's hair and small sea shells."* Of 
the Beef Sioux he says: "Their drums v/eare earthern 
potts full of watter, covered with staggs-skin. The 
sticks like hammers for ye purpose." *Father Marquette 
mentions of the Illinois that they "cook in great earthern 
jars which are very well made. They also have plates of 
baked earth which they use in various ways." *Father 
Allouez, however, mentions of the Outagami (Fox), 
Miami and Mascouten gathered at Green Bay that they 
were "unusually barbarous, and do not make even a bark 
dish or a laddie; they commonly use sea shells." This 
statement is difficult to understand since all of these 
tribes were potters in their home regions.* 

Nicolas Perrot says 6f the Winnebago: "In former 
times, the Puans were the masters of this bay (Green 
Bay) and of a great extent of adjoining country. This 
nation was a very populous one, very redoubtable, and 
spared no one. If any stranger came among them he was 
cooked in their kettles." He accuses them of having slain 

*Wis. Hist. Colls., X-296; XI-92. 
* Jesuit Relations, 59-157; 68-125. 


and eaten a delegation of Illinois who visited them on a 
humanitarian mission.* All of these Northwestern tribes 
were cannibalistic on occasion and there are frequent ref- 
erences in the French records of their cooking the flesh of 
their enemies in their earthern kettles. When Perrot vis- 
ited a Mascouten-Miami village thirty miles south of 
Green Bay his party were received by "a venerable old 
man" and "a woman carrying a clay pot filled with corn- 
meal porridge.* He presented to the old men of the vrt- 
lage his metal kettle, with the words: "I carry it every- 
where without fear of breaking it" thus referring to the 
destructable nature of their own earthenware kettles.* 

Ke wa kons, a Chippewa chief, informed Henry R. 
Schoolcraft in 1827 that at the time when the whites made 
their appearance among his tribe they laid aside their 
akeeks or clay cooking vessels and adopted the light brass 
trade kettles.* He mentions that the Assiniboin, parties 
of whom appear to have occasionally visited Minnesota 
and Wisconsin in the French period, obtain their name 
from their early custom of cooking by placing heated 
stones in their vessels. He illustrates the Chippewa man- 
ner of suspending an earthern pot from a tripod. Thomas 
L. McKenny, 1827, gives the Chippewa name for their own 
earthern vessels as wau' begun onaug' unun.* 

Rev. Peter Jones says of the Chippewa, among whom 
he early served as a missionary: "Their pipes are made of 
soft stone, cut and carved in all sorts of shapes and fig- 
ures. Some were made from baked clay or granite. 
Their pots were made of the same materials and baked 
thoroughly so hard as to stand the action of fire. The 
Indians were well pleased to discard these for English pots 
and kettles, which they find much more convenient." He 
figures several potsherds, which are ornamented with 
grooved and indented patterns rather than with cord- 
impressions. The vessel which he figures has a rounded 
base and incised (?) rim decoration.* 

L. H. Bunnell states that: "Clay-colored pottery water 

* Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi and Great Lakes, 295, 
323, 331. 

* Tour to the Lakes. 

* Winona and its Environs, 84. 

Plate 3 

The Use of Earthenware Vessels. 71 

jars, drums and other vessels were made by the Sioux of 
the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers."* 

Dr. W. J. Hoffman who engaged in a study of the Wis- 
consin Menomini for the Bureau of American Ethnology 
lid: "Earthernware is no longer made by the Menomini, 
though some of the oldest women remember when pottery 
making was engaged in/'* 

Alanson Skinner, whose researches among these same 
Indians extended over a period of eleven years, records the 
following information: "Although pottery vessels have 
not been made or used by the Menomini for over a hun- 
dred years, the memory of the process, as described to 
them by their parents, still lingers among some of the 
older people. In 1911 the late Philip Naku'ti, then eighty- 
four years of age, told the writer that the vessels were 
made of selected clay, which was pounded and mixed with 
pulverized shells of the freshwater clam (Unio sp.,) for 
tempering. When the clay had been properly prepared, 
more water was added, and it was kneaded into a stiff 
paste. This was plastered by hand over a large ball of 
basswood-bark twine, an opening being left out of which 
protruded an end of the string. The clay was then 
smoothed off with a stick, and the incipient vessel was set 
in the sun to dry. In fact, sunshine was considered such 
a necessary factor in the drying process that no one ever 
attempted to make pottery on a dull day. 

"When the coating was dry, the potter took hold of the 
ball of twine, which had been left protruding from the 
opening made for the purpose, and, pulling it, unwound 
the ball within, leaving an earthern shell. Fresh clay 
was daubed over the rough inside, and the outside was 
again scraped smooth with a stick. The vessel was then 
sized with a coating or wash of finer clay, and orna- 
mented with designs marked with a sharpened stick. 
Such was Naku'tis information, but archeological evidence 
is to the effect that figures impressed by means of sticks 
wrapped with cord predominate over incised designs. 
After decorating the receptacles, holes were bored in the 

* History of the Ojibway Indians, 74. 

* 14 Bu. Am. Ethno, 257. 


sides near the rim, for the purpose of affixing a bail of bass- 

"The vessel was then dried again, arid is said to have 
been ready for use. Naku'ti supposed it not to have been 
fired but to have become hardened by the heat while in 
use, but apparently memory or his information must be 
at. fault in this particular, for not only does it seem im- 
probable that an unfired vessel could have been made to 
retain liquid without dissolving or coming apart, but all 
the potsherds and vessels seen or collected by. the writer 
from old Menomini sites show distinct evidence of firing. 
Indeed they could not otherwise have withstood the ele- 
ments for so many years. Possibly the theory that ves- 
sels were used without this essential step is a "folk ex- 
planation" of a now forgotten art. Archeological inves- 
tigations show that the jars of the ancient Menomini are 
of the old "pan-Algonkian" type with a pointed base (fig. 

Of the decorative art of the Menomini. he says: "In em- 
broidery, carving, and later in applique, however, floral 
designs predominate over all others, whereas in pottery, 
basketry, and in woven bags and mats, geometric figures 
were preferred or dictated by custom, or, in some in- 
stances more easily made."* 

He gives the Menomini names for earthenware ves- 
sels: ma'nona a'ka, pottery (red clay) kettle; ota- 
kakun, pottery kettle (lit. 'his kettle').* Skinner found 
that some of the potsherds obtained by him from former 
Menomini village sites on the west shore of Green Bay 
were in all respects similar to the pottery obtained by him 
from mounds on the Menomini Reservation. Skinner also 
gives the following information concerning the manufac- 
ture of pottery vessels by the Mascoutin or Prairie Pota- 

"Clay was selected, kneaded, and mixed with an equal 
proportion of burnt and pulverized stone as tempering. 
Sometimes pulverized soap stone was used instead of burnt 
crushed stone. A hole was next dug in the ground and the 
clay put in it and trodden with the feet. A wooden model 

* Material Culture of the Menomini, 282-284; 279, 309. 

* Bull., Milw. Pub. Mus., 6-2, 294. 

The Use of Earthenware Vessels. ' 73 

of a vessel is alleged to have been carved and rubbed very 
smooth. The wet clay of the consistency of dough was 
then smeared over the form and polished with a slick 
stone. It was also worked thin with a stick. The edge 
around the rim was turned up and back with the fingers, 
and the vessel together with the form was placed in the 
fire in a pit dug for the purpose. It is said that the clay 
gradually dried and heated until red hot, when the fire was 
allowed to die out. The freshly baked pottery was kept 
indoors to prevent drafts from cracking the vessel. 

"In firing, the form was burned out. When cool, the 
vessel was scraped with a stone on the inside. It was 
then firm and hard and ready for use. It could not be 
cracked by the action of cold water poured in it while 
hot, it is asserted. Some of the jars were durable enough 
to pack on horses. 

"The writer doubts the practicability of burning a clay 
vessel over a wooden form as described, and believes that 
in part at least, this account is a "folk-reconstruction." 

"Pottery pipes are said to have been made up to very 
recent years in time of emergency. Common clay was 
mixed with tallow, all being well kneaded together, to 
keep the clay from cracking when fired. The grease was 
sweated out by placing the pipe bowl near the fire. The 
vessel was then put in the hot ashes, and another fire built 
over it, which was kept up for a time and then allowed to 
die out. The clay turned red and was harc(. [Sam] Bosley 
himself once made a pipe of this nature which was shaped 
like a Siouan pipe, but was heavier." 

From Simon Kahquados Dr. Alphonse Gerend secured 
the following brief statement of the method formerly 
practiced by the Wisconsin Potawatomi in the manufac- 
ture of clay vessels : "For pottery making, pure clay was 
selected and worked over and mixed a long time. One 
month well mixed. It was mixed in a hollowed log. For 
the form a bowl was burned into a log and the clay pressed 
about the sides. Half of the ware vessel was removed, 
then the other half and the two joined. Pot sometimes 
formed on [the] outside of mold."* 

Wis. Archeologist, 19-2, 70. 


Vol. 8, No. 2 

Dr. Paul Radin has published an account of the manner 
in which pottery vessels were made by the Winnebago: 

"For cooking, clay pots were used. These vessels, most 
of which were very large, with round bottoms, always 
hung over the fire. The material used in their manufac- 
ture was blue clay found at Green Bay, on or near the site 
of St. Paul, Minn., mixed with shell shards, glue from 
sturgeon vertebrae, and the gelatinous substance in the 
horns of the deer. The addition of these ingredients 
greatly increased the cohesiveness of the clay. The ma- 
terial was either molded with the hands or in holes of the 
desired shape dug in the ground and lined with leaves. 
Finally the vessels were dried over a slow fire in small 
kilns constructed for the purpose. None of the clay ves- 
sels were provided with handles. Some were ornamented 
with geometric patterns. The irregular incised designs 
on some Winnebago vessels are the impressions of grass 
blades with which the mold was lined."* 

It is more than likely that when a careful study of the 
potsherds from known Winnebago village sites in Wis- 
consin is made that it will be found that this tribe em- 
ployed both crushed shell and crushed rock (possibly also 
sand and other ingredients) in the tempering of the clay 
in pottery manufacture. J. V. Brower has shown such 
to be the case with some of the pottery made by their 
relatives the Sioux (Dakota) of Minnesota. In discuss- 
ing a collection of Siouan potsherds from village sites in 
the Itasca lake region he says: "Of these about two-thirds 
of the rest are made of crushed shells, sand and clay, the 
remainder being mostly of clay and sand with impressions 
of grass, in one instance the charred fibre of the grass 
still preserved. We find both here and at Mille Lacs in- 
contestible instances of these two ingredients crushed stone 
and shell in the same sherds. This, however, is not com- 
mon, the most common ingredients being crushed granite 
with clay and sand. It is observable here, as in other 
places that the strongest sherds are composed of crushed 
shells and sand, although at the same time thinner than 
those that contain crushed rock; but the latter are often 
more elaborately ornamented about the rim."* 

* 37 Bu. AM. Ethno., 119. 

The Use of Earthenware Vessels. 75. 

"There is no evidence to show that (in Minnesota) the 
Ojibwa, or any other aboriginal people than the Dakota, 
made such articles. Since the Ojibwa entered the state 
they have been continually in contact with European 
traders, and they obtained by trade such earthen articles 
as they needed for domestic use. There is no known in- 
stance of the making of pottery within the state by the 

"At each permanent village site there must have been 
more or less of the practice of this art. So far as we 
know, all the Dakota tribes (including therein the Omaha, 
the Winnebago and the Iowa) usually cooked their food 
with water made hot by placing hot stones in earthen pots 
containing the food and the necessary amount of water."* 

One of the interesting problems for students of Wis- 
consin Indian ceramics to undertake to solve will be that 
of ascertaining, if possible, to what extent the Siouan Win- 
nebago, Dakota and Iowa of Wisconsin adopted in their 
pottery manufacture the decorative patterns of the intrud- 
ing Algonkian tribes. Also whether the presence of some 
Iroquois sherds in Wisconsin is due to actual early resi- 
dence of people of this stock west of Lake Michigan or 
whether it was brought here or made here by some of 
these former New York Algonkians. 

The late Alanson Skinner once pointed out to the writer 
that among the potsherds collected from the site of the 
Aztalan enclosure the characteristic Siouan, Algonkian, 
Iroquoian, Middle Mississippi Valley, and Gulf States 
earthenware were all represented. 

* The Aborigines of Minnesota, 437-444. 

W. 8 iaprtl, 1929 J2o. 3 








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ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thome, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Mil- 


Vol. 8, No. 3, New Series 


Checklist of Wisconsin Indian Implements, Charles E. Brown 81 

An Ancient Village Site in Winnebago County, George Overton__ 94 

Prehistoric Torquoise Mines 100 

An Abraham Lincoln Indian Medal, Theodore T. Brown 103 

The Winnebago Indians and the Mounds, John Blackhawk 106 

Prairie Smoke 107 

Archeological Notes 110 

Abraham Lincoln Indian Medal Frontispiece 



Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeologrical Society 

Vol. 8 MADISON, WIS., APRIL, 1920 No. 3 

New Series 


Charles E. Brown 

No attempt has heretofore been made to provide students 
and investigators of Wisconsin archeological history with a 
checklist or catalogue of the clay, stone, bone, shell, metal and 
other implements, utensils and ornaments of the prehistoric 
and early historic Indian inhabitants of the state. The pre- 
liminary checklist now offered is based on the records of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society, and on the contents of the 
public museums and private collections of the state. 

In the back issues of The Wisconsin Archeologist there 
have appeared fifty illustrated articles and monographs on 
the various classes of stone, metal and other implements and 
ornaments of Wisconsin. Their authors are Geo. A. West, 
C. E. Brown, P. V. Lawson, Dr. A. Gerend, H. P. Hamilton, 
W. A. Titus, V. Winn, A. H. Sanford, H. A. Crosby, I. M. 
Buell, G. E. Laidlaw and other present and former members 
of the state society. Descriptions and classifications of Wis- 
consin implements are also published in "The Stone Age in 
North America", in "Stone Ornaments of the American In- 
dian", and in "Prehistoric Implements", three books pub- 
lished by Prof. Warren K. Moorehead. 

The Committee on State Archaeological Surveys, National 
Research Council, has in view the preparation of a catalogue 
of the Indian implements of the Middle West states. 


Arrow and Spearpoints 

1. Leaf -shape. 

2. Triangular (some with base notched). 

3. Lozenge-shape. 

4. Stemmed. 

5. Notched (some with several pairs of notches). 

6. Barbed (some with barbs truncated). 

7. Beveled. 

8. Serrated. 


Harpoon Points 

1. Asymetric (points so classed may have been employed as harpoon 


2. Unilaterally barbed. 

3. Bilaterally barbed. 


1. Flake. 

2. Leaf-shape. 

Pointed at one end, base rounded. 
Pointed at one end, base straight. 
Pointed at one end, base indented. 
Pointed at both ends. 

3. Oval. 

Both ends rounded, edges curved or straight. 

Both ends square (straight), edges curved or straight. 

4. Semi-lunar. 

One edge curved, one straight. 

One edge broadly curved, one straight or slightly curved (wo- 
man's knife). 

5. Curved. 

Base notched, curved blade. 

6. Lozenge-shape. 

Some with diagonally-opposite edges beveled. 

7. Dagger-shape. 

Leaf -shape blade provided with short handle. 


See dagger-shape knives. 

Ceremonial Knives 

Large, broad leaf-shape blades narrowing toward a straight or 
slightly rounded base, (jgee 13-4 Wis. Archeologist, 176-181) 


1. Flake (some with one or several notches on edges). 

2. Oval, circular, crescent, square or rectangular. 

3. Spoon-shape, scraping edge at broad extremity. 

4. Oval or circular blade with stem. . 

5. Re-chipped broken arrow and spearpoints (bunts). 

Perforators or Drills 

1. Flake, one extremity pointed, or flake with small projecting point. 

2. Straight bar, one or both ends pointed. 

3. Stemmed, blade with straight or curved edges, expanding base. 

4. Notched stem (base) . 


Some drills were very probably employed as reamers. 


Flakes with one serrated edge. 

Checklist of Wisconsin Indian Implements. 83 


Not common in Wisconsin. Some polished or partly polished. 


Notched, double-bitted. Not common in Wisconsin. 


Single specimen known, similar in form to those listed under pecked 
and ground stone implements. 


1. Unnotched oval or square blades. 

2. Notched, with rounded blade. 

3. Notched base, with pointed blade. 


1. Oval. 

2. Elliptical, both ends rounded. 

3. Elliptical, both ends pointed. 

4. Leaf -shape, base rounded, blade pointed. 

5. Bell-shape blade. 


Indian origin of most or all is doubtful. 


Made of native flint. 


Small flint objects probably intended to represent birds and animals. 




Oval, or leaf -shape form. Frequently found in caches or hoards of 
a few or many. 


Pieces of flint from which numbers of flakes have been removed, 
often of conical form. 

These chipped implements are fashioned from flint 
(chert), hornstone, chalcedony, agate, jasper, rhyolite, 
quartz, quartzite, sandstone, silicified wood, limestone, 
obsidian and other materials. 




1. Triangular. 

2. Wedge-shape. 

3. Rectangular. 

4. Chisel-shape. 

5. Bell-shape. 

6. Adze-celts. 

7. Fluted or ornamented. 


1. Ordinary forms. 

2. Handled (blade with handle). 


1. Triangular. 

2. Adze-celts. 


1. Base partly or wholly excavated. 

2. With shallow groove crossing over the back. 

3. Knobbed back. 

4. Knobbed head, shallow groove. 


1. Rude, unnotched, with cutting edge. 

2. Notched. 

3. Grooved, completely encircled by groove. 

4. Grooved, groove encircles three sides. 

5. Centrally grooved, one end with cutting edge. 

6. Double-bitted. 

7. Oval. 

8. Long-bladed (adze-axes). 

9. Fluted or ornamented. 

10: Double grooved (two grooves). 
11. Curious forms. 


Pointed at one or both ends. 


1. Broad blade, short handle. 

2. Broad blade, long handle. 


1. Natural spherical or oval stones. 

2. Shaped by pecking and grinding. 

Hammer Stones 

1. Pebble, battered by use. 

2 Shape altered by pecking and grinding. 

3 With finger-holds. 

Checklist of Wisconsin Indian Implements. 86 

Pecking Hammers 

Flint nodules employed in dressing surfaces of stone implements. 


1. Axe-shape, with encircling groove, blunt cutting edge. 

2. Ornamented with fluting. 

Club Heads 

Spherical or oval stones encircled by a groove. 


1. Heavy stones, battered in use. 

2. Heavy stones, grooved for attachment to a handle. 

Heavy stones used as anvils. 


Small pieces of sandstone or gritty stone with grooves, for sharpen- 
ing bone awls and other implements. Sometimes cut in square and 
rectangular forms for convenience in holding. 

Grinding Stones 

Pieces of sandstone used in the grinding of the surfaces of axes, 
celts and other stone implements. 

Arrowshaft Grinders 

Sandstone implements with a single longitudinal groove. 


Elliptical implements, circular in section, pointed at both extremi- 
ties. Unknown use. 

Pottery Slicks 

ited at both er 
used in smoothing the surfaces of clay vessels. 

Flattish implements, pointed at both ends. Thought to have been 


Stones, sometimes conical or hemispherical in form, used in grind- 
ing shell, clay, stone and other substances. 


1. Conical. 

2. Bell-shaped. 

3. Roller, tapering toward both ends, circular in section. 

4. Rectangular, with rounded ends, square in section. 

5. Tapering. 




Boulders or rocks with shallow cavities. 

1. Boulder, with cavity. 

2. Bowl-shaped. 

3. Flat stone. 

Nut Stones 

Sandstone or other stone with one or a number of small circular 

Paint Stones 

Pitted stones supposed to have been used for grinding paint. 

Dishes or Cups 

Record of a single specimen. 

Drill Weights 

Stones supposed to have been used as weights for fire-drills. 

Net Weights 

1. Pebble, flat, two opposite edges notched. 

2. Ditto, shallow groove connecting the notches. 
! 3. Ditto, notched on four edges. 

4. Oval pebble, grooved. 

5. Cylindrical, notched on two opposite edges. 

Large stones of irregular form with an encircling groove. 

Among the rocks employed by the Indians in the manu- 
facture of these classes of the heavier stone implements 
were diorite, greenstone, granite, syenite, porphyry, horn- 
blende, basalt, rhyolite, quartz, quartzite, sandstone, mica 
schist, calcite and limestone. For the manufacture of orna- 
ments, pipes and ceremonials banded slate, catlinite (pipe- 
stone), steatite, chlorite and calcite were favorite materials. 
Some of the foregoing rocks were also employed for this 




1. Spherical. 2. Tubular. 3. Disk 


1. Circular and oval. 4. Effigy. 

2. Square and rectangular. 5. Other forms. 

3. Triangular. 

Checklist of Wisconsin Indian Implements. 87 


1. Circular. 6. Wedge-shape. 

2. Oval. 7. Reel-shape. 

3. Square. 8. Spud-shape. 

4. Rectangular. 9. Peculiar forms. 

5. Triangular. 

Some with two or more perforations. 


1. Bar or saddle-shape. 4. Bird-form, with eye disks. 

2. Bird-form, without eyes. 5. Other forms. 

3. Bird-form, with eyes. 


1. Curved top, flat base. Some with transverse central groove on top. 

2. Curved, flat or ridged top, concave base. 


1. Square. 7. Double-bitted axe. 

2. Rectangular. 8. Crescent. 

3. Oval. 9. Double-crescent. 

4. Pick-shape. 10. Knobbed crescent. 

5. Reel-shape. 11. Bayonet-shape. 

6. Butterfly. 


1. Without groove. 

2. With groove at one end. Some with incised ornamentation. 

3. With groove at both ends. 


1. Circular, with flat sides. 

2. Circular, with convex sides. 

3. Circular, with concave sides. 

4. Circular, flat sides with small central depression. 

5. Circular, concave sides with central circular ring. 

6. Circular, concave sides with central perforation. 

7. Barrel-shape. 


1. Conical. 

2. Conical, top flattened. 


Hemispherical stones. 

* Problematical Forms. 



1. Pebble. 10. Micmac. 

2. Ovoid. 11. Disk 

3. Square. 12. Monitor, straight base. 

4. Lens-shape. 13. Monitor, curved base. 

5. Conoidal. 14. Handled. 

6. Vase-shape. 15. Effigy. 

7. Keel-shape. 16. Portrait. 

8. Right-angled (elbow). 17. Other forms. 

9. Siouan. 


1. Tubular (cylindrical). 3. Conoidal. 

2. Oval. 4. Hourglass. 


Stone carvings of men and animals. 

Inscribed Stones 

Stones bearing pictographs. 


Arrow and Spearpoints 

1. Leaf-shape. 

2. Stemmed. 

3. Stemmed, bevelled blade. 

4. Stemmed, ridged blade. 

5. Stemmed, with eye (rivet hole ?) in end of tang. 

6. Stem expanded at base with one or two projections. 

7. Stem notched. 

8. Stem serrated (toothed). 

9. Spatula-shape ("rat-tail"). 

10. Triangular blade long, short pointed tang. 

11. Same, with barbs. 

12. Socketted, back of blade ridged. 

13. Socketted, back of blade flat, rivet hole in socket. 

14. Socketted, blade ornamented with punch marks. 

15. Conical. 

Harpoon Points 

Unilaterally Barbed. 

1. Short, flat, with single barb. 

2. Long, tapering, pointed rod, with single barb. 

3. Thick, triangular in section, with a number of barbs. 
Toggle Form. 

1. Conical, hollow or with socket. Some with perforation for the 

attachment of a line. 

2. Similar but with a barb near the point. 

1. Resembling a socketted copper spearpoint but with a barb. 

Checklist of Wisconsin Indian Implements. 


1. Straight blade, pointed tang. 

2. Curved blade. 

3. Straight blade, with handle (dagger-shape). 

4. Straight blade, with socket tang. 

5. Blade ornamented with punch marks. 


Broad blade, pointed tang. 

Awls or Perforators 

1. Straight, one end pointed. 

2. Straight, both ends pointed. 

3. Middle expanded, one or both ends pointed. 
Some awls are square, some circular in section. 

Pikes and Punches 

1. Straight, one or both ends pointed. 

2. Tapering form, both ends pointed. 

3. Tapering, one end blunt, the other pointed. 

4. Tapering, one end pointed, one hooked. 


1. Without eye. 

2. With eye. 

Axes (Celts) 

1. Triangular. 

2. Wedge-shape. 

3. Rectangular. 

4. Bell-shape. 

5. Wedge-shape, blade surfaces depressed. 

6. Grooved axes. 


1. Elongated triangular. 

2. Rectangular. 


Under surface partly or wholly excavated, 


Curved implements excavated for their entire length. 


1. Square or rectangular. 

2. Socket constricted. 

3. Back ornamented with punch marks. 

Sword or Sickle 

Long knife with curved blade, and handle. 



1. Ordinary form. 

2. With notch at end of shank. 

3. Large, stout hooks (gaff-hooks?). 


Made of sheet copper. 


Copper socket or handle for an implement, hollow. 

1. Tubular. 

2. Rolled (spherical). 

3. Perforated. 


Bangles, Pendants, and Gorgets 

Circular, oval, triangular and other forms, generally perforated for 
suspension. One in bird effigy form. 


1. Canoe-shape. 

2. Canoe-shape, upper edge straight. 

3. Canoe-shape, lower edge with crescent indentation. 

4. Canoe-shape, two prongs projecting from near center of upper 


5. Same as foregoing, prongs joined at top by a bar. 

6. Canoe-shape, a pointed prong projecting upward from ends. 

7. Canoe-shape, prongs at ends turning inward and meeting to form 

a point. 

8. Crescent-shape, several types. 


Ornaments made to represent bird claws, one end bent to form an 
eye to permit stringing with copper beads in a necklace. 

Finger Rings and Earrings 

Copper wire coiled once or several times. 

Bracelets, Armlets and Anklets 

Bent copper rod or flat strip of copper. 


Spool-shaped ear ornaments of copper, or of stone sheathed or 
partly sheathed with sheet copper. 


Small conical fringe ornaments. 


Strips of sheet copper with perforations at the ends. 


Specimens found in Crawford county mound group. 

Checklist of Wisconsin Indian Implements. 91 


Butterfly form, rare. 
Double crescent, very rare. 

Cones and Plummets 

Similar in form to those made of stone. Of very rare occurrence. 

Arrowpoint and Knife 

Similar in form to copper artifacts. Made of Lake Superior silver. 


Wooden ear ornaments sheathed with silver foil. 


Beads (perforated disks). 

Bangles or pendants (circular). 

Turtle Effigies. Rude representations of turtles. 

Pipes, probably recent. 

Pipes made of stone, lead inlaid ornamentation. Recent. 

Galena crystals or pieces, on many sites and in mounds. 


Celts. Hemispheres. 

Axes, grooved. Balls. 

Pendants. Paint stones. 

Gorgets. Tubes. 

Plummets. Pipes. 


Ball or hand-hammer. 


Pieces, from fire-making sets? 


Sheet ornament, Lake Koshkonong mound. 


Awls. Flakers. 

Needles. Pins. 

Weaving-needles. Hoes. 

Arrowpoints. Celts. 

Spearpoints. Tool handles. 

* Harpoon points. Fishhooks. 

Knives. Paint bones (for applying paint) . 



Beads. Combs. 

Pendants. Roach-spreaders. 

Cranial disks. Ring ( ? ) 

Other Bone Artefacts 

Dice. Tubes. 

Whistles. Medicine tubes. 

Rattles (notched rib bones) . Engraved bones. 


Arrowpoints, conical form. Counters. 

Harpoon points. Pendant. 

Awls. Pipes. 

Celts. Carved antler. 

Picks. Flakers. 
Punch, flint flaking. 


Pipe (buffalo horn). Medicine container. 


Bear-tooth ornaments. Eagle-claw ornaments. 

Elk and buffalo tooth ornaments. Bear-claw ornaments. 

Alligator-tooth pendant. Beaver-tooth cutting implements. 
Other animal tooth ornaments. 


Fresh Water Mussel Shells. 
Beads, disk. 

Pendants, fish-shaped and other. 
Beads, pearl. 
Spoons, Unio valve. 
Hoes, perforated Unio valve. 
Unio valves, cut. 

Sea Shells 

Beads, perforated small shells. 

Beads, spherical, cut from columella of large shells 

Pendants, cut from columella of large shells. 

Pins, ditto. 

Gorgets, circular, engraved or unornamented. 

Vessels, large sea shells cut or unaltered. 

Ladles, parts of large shells. 

Large shell implement, cut columella, pointed. 

Checklist of Wisconsin Indian Implements. 93 


Beads. Jars. 

Earspools. Kettles. 

Disks, circular sherds, perfo- Ladles. 

rated. Canteen. (?) 

Tubes. Toy vessels. 

Pipes. Effigy. 

Stamps. Balls. 

Trowels ("Anvils"). Briquets (Aztalan votive offer- 
Cups, ings?). 
Bowls. Lumps. 


The early Wisconsin Indians also made numerous imple- 
ments, weapons and utensils of wood and bark. Because of 
the very perishable character of these materials very few 
of them have been recovered from old village sites or in 
mounds or graves. Some continue to be made and used by 
the descendants of these natives. 

Bowls. Clubs. 

Ladles. Whips. 

Spoons. Pipes and pipestems. 

Stirring paddles. Traps. 

Pot-hooks. Snares. 

Mortars and pestles. Deer calls. 

Bark kettles. Seine floats. 

Trays. Feather cases. 

Bark mococks. Bark and log canoes. 

Sap troughs. Canoe paddles. 

Sap buckets. Canoe forks. 

Sap spiles. Snowshoes. 

Scoops. Children's bark sleds. 

Digging sticks. Sleds. 

Shovels. Earspools (prehistoric). 

Rakes. Drums. 

Bow-drills. Rattles. 

Fire-making sets. Flutes. 

Bark torches. Whistles. 

Bark and splint baskets. Hoops. 

Winnowing trays. Snow snake. 

Beating sticks. Ice arrow. 

Tobacco driers. Lacrosse sticks. 

Bark bags. Lacrosse balls. 

Beacjtwork looms. Shinny sticks. 

Netting needles. Tops. 

Cradles. Game counters. 

Bows. Calendar sticks. 

Arrows. Images. 

Spears. Dolls. 

Fish-pinning spears. Bark song records. 




The checklist of Wisconsin Indian implements here pre- 
sented lists 21 classes and 41 types of chipped stone imple- 
ments, 28 classes and 50 types of pecked and ground stone 
implements, 10 classes and 39 types of stone ornaments and 
ceremonials, 4 classes and 21 types of pipes, tubes and other 
stone artifacts not elsewhere included. Total, 63 classes. 

Of native copper implements, ornaments and ceremonials 
there are listed 36 classes with 61 recognized types. Of 
native silver, lead, hematite, bone, antler, horn, shell and 
clay and other implements and ornaments 100 classes are 

A list of 62 wooden implements is given. This is doubt- 
less very incomplete. 


George Overtoil 

This old village site was located on that part of the 
of Section 34, Winneconne Township (T. 19 R. 15 E.) that 
lies east of the Fox river. This land was taken up by Rob- 
ert Grignon, nephew of old Augustine Grignon, in about 
1835 and occupied by him as a trading-post and residence 
during the remainder of his life. This was the Lieut. Rob- 
ert Grignon who, while convalescing at Ft. Winnebago from 
wounds received in the Black Hawk War, negotiated the 
surrender of the fugitive Black Hawk. Credit for this cap- 
ture has since been claimed by others. His old farm is still 
known as the Robert Grignon place. He is buried on the old 

The village was about two miles by river above the junc- 
tion of the Fox with the Wolf. A tapering sandy point juts 
north from the mainland into the Big Butte des Morts 
marsh and ends in a beautiful ridge on the east bank of the 
Fox river. This point for a quarter of a mile along the 
river and a bayou has an abruptly rounding bank ranging 
from six to fifteen feet above the water. Between this es- 
carpment and the river is a gently sloping shelf from two to 

An Ancient Village Site in Winnebago County. 95 

six rods wide, making an ideal landing place. Back of the 
bank the point is level or slightly sloping toward the east. 
It is from a few rods wide at the apex on the river to about 
half a mile wide near the mainland, and is about three quar- 
ters of a mile long. A low hay ridge extends from its east- 
ern side across the marsh to Lake Butte des Morts a mile 
and a quarter to the east. A much used trail, later used for 
a time as a U. S. Mail route, led down the river bank and 
along hay ridges in the big marsh to The Grand Butte, two 
miles to the northeast. 

The hard ledge of rock at the outlet of Lake Winnebago 
caused the Fox river to reach bed level. The spring fresh- 
ets and silt from the upper river made this a shifting 
stream. Many different channels were formed in the 
twenty-five miles above Lake Winnebago, as are in evidence 
by numerous bayous. One such old bayou extends, crescent- 
shaped, along the escarpment on which this old village was 
located. When this old bayou was the main river a perfect 
location for a water faring people was formed. In more 
recent times the bayou was, and still is, navigable for a 
quarter of a mile, even in low water, along the village site. 
This was a village of comfort and plenty as is shown by the 
quantity, variety and elegance of recovered artifacts and 
utensils. The marsh and river supplied an abundance of 
easily procurable waterfowl, muskrats and fish. Wild rice 
grew near on thousands 'of acres. The soil near the village 
was easily tilled and to this day produces excellent crops 
which mature early. 

Hundreds of pieces of copper have been picked up on such 
parts of the site as are now in farm land. Most of the 
larger pieces have been disposed of by their finders or car- 
ried away by searching relic hunters. Of these we have 
only the hearsay evidence of the people living near. Luckily 
these collectors were content only with the better pieces, 
leaving the crude and partly fashioned pieces together with 
the workshop debris, for us who followed. We combed the 
fields on hands and knees, up one corn row and down the 
other until cramps and blisters compelled a stop. No piece 
that showed a speck of green was too small to be picked up. 
The smallest was one-fourth inch long by one-sixteenth of 
an inch wide. 


, . 

Here was found a distinct departure from the commonly 
accepted notion of the form in which crude copper was 
transported from the mines. Generally crude or "float" cop- 
per is in chunks practically pure, flat with rounded edges, 
weighing from a few pounds to as large as a man could lift. 
One piece in the Sawyer Museum weighs more than ninety 
pounds. We found many pieces just as it was pounded out 
of the rocks. Very many were small and irregularly shaped. 
Nearly all showed some attempt at fabrication. Some were 
merely slightly flattened. Others clearly indicated they 
were scraps broken off in hammering larger pieces, and 
others were rejects which at the time did not work out to 
suit the artizan for the purpose he had in mind. 

In making an awl or any other slender piece these old 
artizans followed the same steps in their process that a good 
blacksmith would follow in forging a similar piece. They 
beat the piece to a square cross section and then drew it out 
to the desired length and diameter. They then pounded 
down the corners and rolled it round. Many of the com- 
pleted pieces still show the marks of having been finished 
with an abrading stone and are needlelike in sharpness. 

I firmly believe they understood annealing by heating and 
plunging in water. Continued pounding in the drawing out 
process would crystalize the metal. No sign of this appears 
in the finished pieces, yet a partly finished piece was very 

A very common type of copper implement found here, of 
which I have seen fifteen and heard of dozens of others, is a 
so-called fish hook. Some are exactly similar to a straight- 
shanked barbless hook, others are more crude but might 
serve the purpose very well. Except one which is square in 
cross section, all are round, sharply pointed at the hook end 
and more crudely pointed at the other, and range, measured 
around the bend, from one and three-quarters to three 
inches long, and generally average one-eighth of an inch in 
diameter. One gaff hook found here was six inches long and 
one-quarter inch in diameter. 

We have a dozen specimens of a double-pointed awl, or 
perhaps a fish hook in the making. Some are fine examples 
of the aboriginal coppersmith's art. They range from two 
inches long and one-sixteenth inch in diameter to four and 

An Ancient Village Site in Winnebago County. 97 

one-half inches long and three thirty-seconds of an inch in 
diameter. These awls have a very uniform cross section, 
are slightly tapered, and near the ends are brought gradu- 
ally to a very fine point at one end and the other more 
crudely to a point, as though the maker selected the 'best end 
and ground it to a point, and merely sharpened the other 

A smaller type of this artifact is made in the same way, 
rolled round with one end sharpened and the other blunt or 
unfinished. These are from three-fourths of an inch to two 
inches long and average one-eighth of an inch in diameter. 
Others of this same size are sharpened at both ends. These 
might have been gorge hooks, but lack any notch or groove 
in the middle for fastening the line. 

A small awl or punch similar to the one just described, 
but having a square cross section most of its length, with 
the point ground round and sharp, is quite common among 
the finds on this site. 

Arrow heads seen and identified from descriptions were 
of both the flat tang and the socket type. 

Large pieces spears, knives, celts and hatchets, have 
been found in some abundance. My lowest estimate is at 
least twenty. From my talks with nearby residents my con- 
clusion is that they were similar to the common run of such 

The Indian artizan was very careful of his precious metal. 
He fabricated the smaller pieces into trinkets and orna- 
ments. A small piece was pounded thin and narrow and 
then bent around till it formed a bead. A triangular piece 
of thin metal was bent into a hollow cone with an opening 
at the small end, evidently for a pendant. One example of a 
long bead was made of a thin strip seven-sixteenths of an 
inch wide which was twisted around like a coil spring to 
make a bead or pendant, one and three-eighths of an inch 
long and three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter. A few 
massive beads, one-half inch in diameter and one-half an 
inch long, were perforated in some manner as no sign of 
joining is visible. 

Gorgets, breastplates and earbobs were mentioned as 
found here, but we could not locate any for verification and 



My original purpose was to write of this interesting spot 
as a copper workshop site. On looking over the material 
available and interviewing people who have occupied this 
iand, I feel that mention ought to be made of the wealth of 
flint and stone that was left or lost here by the aboriginal 

Mr. Mike Place, whose father cleared part of the site, said 
when he as a boy was sent out to work on the land, he would 
come home at noon and night with pockets bulging full of 
only perfect pieces. He at one time had a cheese-box full of 
flints ranging from tiny arrow points and delicate drills to 
spears from six to eight inches long. These were dissipated" 
piecemeal and later he found practically as many more. He 
reported one tomahawk pipe and several pipes and frag- 
ments of others, made of catlinite, steatite and white lime. 
Several stone axes and as many more celts, together with 
numerous mealing stones and bushels of hammer stones 
were also found. 

Delbert Martin, who was raised on the Grignon homesite, 
reports having at one time a bushel and a half of specimens, 
largely flints, with half a dozen axes and as many celts. At 
one time he had two mortars, one fourteen inches and the 
other twelve inches in diameter. They were pecked into 
shape and the top and rim ground smooth. The polished de- 
pressions were about one and a half inches deep. Four flint 
spears were from five to six inches long. A beautifully 
formed copper knife with a flat 'tang extending about one- 
third its length, was seven inches long. Probably a hundred 
pieces of copper of various kinds; fish-hooks, awls, arrow 
points, beads, pendants and partly worked pieces were 
found. A gaff hook (noted before) was six inches long. 

A Siouan calumet of grey stone, an ovoid pipe of white 
lime and several others, in a damaged or fragmentary con- 
dition, were recovered. 

Mr. Martin also reports that the Edick family made ex- 
tensive finds, among them several fine copper implements 
and numbers of choice flints. 

An Ancient Village Site in Winnebago County. 


The Arthur P. Kannenberg collection contains many 
specimens from this site. Many were obtained from Mr. 
Place and Delbert Martin, others from Mr. Kunda and Chas. 
Koennemann, who have a farm south of the site. The re- 
mainder are personal finds. 

9 Copper fish hooks, perfect or very good. 

1 Fish spear. 6%" by iV. Square, tapered and pointed. 

6 Rolled awls. 3" to 4 1 /" long, pointed at both ends. 

20 Rolled awls. %" to 2" long. Some pointed at both ends, others 

blunt at one end, pointed at the other. 

11 Square awls. 1" to 3" long, pointed at one end, blunt at the other. 
100 Pieces partly finished, rejects, scraps and pieces of copper ore. 
3 Arrow head, flat tang, 2" long by about 1" broad. 
1 Arrow head, socket tang, and 3 arrow head blanks. 

I have about sixty pieces of all kinds, about half of which 
are finished, the result of two days search. 

The Kannenberg collection contains the following flint 
artefacts : 

Flint plummet. Flat, 2&" by 1%". 

1 slender arrow point. .2%" by %", notched^ with serrated edges. 
50 Good arrow points. All kinds and shapes including a point made 

of Flint Ridge flint. 

2 Winged hand-drills. 3" long, wing 2^" long at one side. 
1 Perfect hand drill. 3%" long by l 1 ^" wide at the base. 

34 Other drills. About 50% of these are broken. 

Clam-shell gorget. Broken at one end. It had two perforations. 
1 Siouan bone bead. 2%" by &". 
Many pieces of wampum. 

The following Trade materials : 

1 Tine of a sturgeon spear. 13" long and Vz" diam., 2 bilateral 

barbs, base bent for insertion in side of shaft. 
1 Medallion ring. 

7 Band rings of silver and brass. 
1 Ring, green stones in bezil. 

1 Brass signet ring. On a finger bone. 

1 U. S. Army coat button. Flying eagle above the U. S., wreath 

1 U. S. Army coat button. Eagle with shield on breast, branch and 

arrows in claws. 

2 U. S. Army vest or sleeve buttons. Same design as above. 
2 Gents' silver coat buttons, plain. 

1 Liberty head medallion in jet. 

1 Set of steelyards. 

Part of a balance scale, Flint-lock from old Northwest gun, parts 
of forged traps, many glass beads, many Venetian beads. A 
dancing bell, blade of a fencing foil, a heart-shaped piece of 
conch shell, with hieroglyphics inscribed on the smooth side, 
and many other specimens. 



Who the ancient inhabitants of this site were can only be 
a matter of conjecture. No mounds have been found within 
miles of this site. The early Winnebago occupied all of 
Winnebago County. It was unoccupied at the time of the 
visits of Nicolet and Allouez to the village of the Mascoutin, 
twelve miles further up the river. 

The Outagamies must have lived here at times, for this 
was their rallying point after the burning of their village at 
Petite Butte des Morts by Morand and his Menomini allies. 
Here was fought the second battle of Butte des Morts, which 
decisive defeat drove them out of the country. The terri- 
tory of the Menomini, who received the land of the Outa- 
gami, was not supposed to extend beyond the Fox river, but 
as they used the river for travel they probably camped on 
this spot. After the treaty of 1833 the Menomini regularly 
camped there. When the road, now Federal Highway 110, 
was relocated to coincide with the plat of the Village of 
Butte des Morts, Thos. Petford, then a small boy, stated that 
"the road passed thru the Indian burying ground. The 
Indians hurriedly came and dug up all the bones they could 
find and left them piled up alongside the road in heaps and 
boxes for a few days. Early one morning they gathered 
them all up and took them up the river in canoes." They 
were reinterred at Grignon's farm. 

All these later people had contact with the whites and had 
trade goods. 

All kinds of stone implements of every type common to 
Wisconsin has been found on this site. The patina on many 
of the pieces is very thick, indicating great antiquity. Not 
one, but many peoples must have made this their home 
mingling the relics of their culture with that of those gone 


In an archaeological bulletin recently issued by The San 
Diego Museum* Malcolm J. Rogers presents a very inter- 
esting account of the results of an examination made by 

* Report of An Archaeological Reconnaissance in the Mohave Sink 

Prehistoric Torquoise Mines. 101 

himself and a party of assistants of the prehistoric tor- 
quoise mines of San Bernardino County, California. We 
take the liberty of quoting a few extracts from his report : 

"The mineral torquoise, which was so highly prized and 
indefatigably sought for by the sedentary peoples of the 
Southwest, occurs in San Bernardino County, California, 
within a more or less definite zone extending from west to 
east through the north-central part. The most westerly oc- 
currence known to the author is at Granite Wells, twenty- 
two miles east of Johannesburg. Pursuing the strike of this 
lode to the east, the mineral is next encountered in abund- 
ance in the Torquoise Mountains, ten miles northeast of Sil- 
ver Lake. It is next found in quantity in the Crescent 
Mountains, Clark County, Nevada, and again, northeast of 
Searchlight. Across the Colorado River, ancient torquoise 
workings of the same nature are to be found in Mohave 
County, Arizona, east of Eldorado. The most easterly group 
of which I know is in the Cerbat Mountains, Arizona. 

"Throughout this extensive terrain of two hundred miles, 
the writer has seldom found an outcropping of torquoise 
without finding distinct evidence of the mineral having been 
mined by the aborigines, as evidenced by open cuts, pits, and 
stone hammers. In cases where he has failed to find such 
evidence he has usually been assured by modern miners that 
it did exist prior to its obliteration by modern mining. One 
can not become familiar with the magnitude of this work 
and the crude means employed without realizing that he is 
witnessing another monumental attestation of the diligence 
of early man in America." 

In the Torquoise Mountains, "there are three large 
groups of ancient mines. The west and east groups, which 
have been patented and worked by Americans, are known as 
the Toltec and Himalaya groups, respectively, and are situ- 
ated eight miles apart, with an unnamed intermediate group 
lying three miles east of the Toltec group/' 

A Mr. James Hyten, who "discovered these mines about 
thirty-eight years ago" "was later employed to clean out 
some of the ancient diggings of the Himalaya group." "It 
took him and four other miners several months to muck out 
the largest pit, which is now known as the Tiffany mine. 
He gives the dimensions of this aboriginal working as being 


thirty feet long, twelve feet wide and twelve feet deep. 
From this main pit, numerous short drifts or "gopher 
holes" extended, where the Indians had pursued promising 
veins. There is practically no soil on this site and the entire 
excavation was conducted in bedrock." 

Mr. Rogers examined an undisturbed prehistoric mine 
west of the Tiffany mine. In excavating these old diggings 
"numerous carapaces of the native tortoise were found. 
These were thought "to have been used by the Indians for 
scoops in carrying out the muck." The shoulder blade of a 
large animal was also found. "It had been ground in the 
form of a shovel." At the Himalaya group pits were sunk 
in the filled-in pits of the early native miners. 

"At all the torquoise sites visited, stone mauls, picks, and 
axes, were found in varying numbers." Puebloan type pots- 
herds were found "about the undisturbed mines at the Him- 
alaya group." "No Mohave sherds were found at any of the 
mines." Two spear points were found here also. 

"All of the few water-holes to be found in the Torquoise 
mountains, and many caves, were visited, with the expecta- 
tion of proving a permanent occupation of the region by the 
torquoise workers, but with scant success. Cave excavation 
produced a nonescript culture chiefly characterized by a 
paucity of artefacts. Flaked stone, an occasional broken 
metate, animal bones, and plain brown and grey sherds we 
could find, besides some interesting beds, composed of ar- 
rowweed, carriso, and galleta grass. Only the grass is now 
found in these mountains. No torquoise was found in any 
of the cave shelters." 

"Water is not attainable at any of the mines." The near- 
est water was about five miles away from the Himalaya 

"On all the open sites of the region, archaeological mate- 
rial is extremely scarce, making interpretation extremely 
difficult. Then too this is virgin ceramic area of which 
nothing is known." Of all the sherds found, only a very 
small percent could be identified. These were Puebloan, 
Mohave, and Archaic Lower Colorado types. 

In the summary of his report Mr. Rogers says : "Al- 
though the extensive torquoise mining industry is in itself 
confirmatory of a Puebloan people having either visited this 

An Abraham Lincoln Indian Medal. 103 

region intermittently over a long period, or having lived 
permanently in the region an equal length of time, it has not 
yielded, as yet, sufficient cultural material to properly place 
it in the scheme of Southwestern chronology." 

Several interesting plates and a map illustrate this re- 
port. At least one small piece of torquoise has been re- 
ported as found on a Wisconsin Indian site. 

Theodore T. Brown 

This medal was obtained by Rev. E. P. Wheeler during 
the summer of 1928 at Odanah, on the Bad River Indian 
Reservation, from John Cloud, Zah-buh-deece, a Chippewa 
Indian, whose grandfather had obtained it from President 
Abraham Lincoln. His grandfather, A-duh-wih-gee-zhig, 
was a chief of the La Pointe band of Chippewa. His name 
signifies "on both sides of the sky or day." His father was 
Mih-zieh, meaning a "fish without scales." The chieftain- 
ship of A-duh-wih-gee-zhig was certified to by the U. S. 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs on March 22, 1880. 

His father, Mih-zieh, was one of the three chiefs who led 
the original migration of the Chippewa to Chequamegon 
Bay, the others being Uh-jih-jahk, the Crane, and Gih-chih- 
way-shkeenh, or the "Big Plover." The latter was also 
sometimes known as Bih-zih-kih, or the "Buffalo." 

A-duh-wih-gee-zhig was a member of the delegation of 
Lake Superior Chippewa chiefs who went to Washington 
to see President Lincoln under the guidance of Benjamin G. 
Armstrong, during the winter of 1861. The account of their 
journey, as dictated by Armstrong, is published by Thomas 
P. Wentworth in his book "Early Life Among the Indians- 
Reminiscences from the Life of Benj. G. Armstrong", 
printed at Ashland, in 1892. 

"Agent Webb, myself and others had frequent talks over the general 
outlook for Indian troubles and it was finally decided to take a dele- 
gation on a trip through the states and to Washington, as such a trip 
would give the delegation a rare chance to see the white soldiers and 
to thus impress on their minds the futility of any further recourse to 
arms on their part. Agent Webb arranged the matter and it was di- 
rected to have me select the delegation. I selected a party of nine 


chiefs from the different reservations, made up as follows : Ahmoose 
[Ah-mose], or 'Little Bee', from Lac du Flambeau reservation; Kish- 
ke-taw-ug [Geesh-kih-tuh-wug], or 'Cut Ear', Bad River reservation; 
Ba-quas [Bay-goosh], or 'He Sews', Lac Court O Reilles reservation; 
Ah-do-ga-zik [ A-duh-wih-gee-zhig] , or 'Last Day', Bad River reserva- 
tion; O-be-quot, or 'Firm', Fond du Lac reservation; Shing-quak-onse, 
or 'Little Pine', and Ja-ge-gwa-yo or 'Cant Tell', La Pointe reserva- 
tion; Na-gon-ab [Na-ga-nub], or 'He Sits Ahead', Fond du Lac reser- 
vation, and O-mah-shin-a-way, or 'Messenger', Bad River reservation. 
[Little Pine, a mixed blood from Bayfield, was the interpreter.] 

"We set out about December 1st., 1861, going from Bayfield, Wis., 
to St. Paul, Minn., by trail, and from St. Paul to La Crosse, Wis., by 
stage, and by rail the balance of the way to Washington. Great 
crowds of soldiers were seen at all points east of La Crosse, besides 
train loads of them all along the route. Reaching Washington I 
showed them 30,000 to 40,000 soldiers in camp and they witnessed a 
number of drills and parades, which had a salutory effect upon their 
ideas of comparative strength with their white brothers. Being con- 
tinually with them I frequently heard remarks passing between them 
that showed their thoughts respecting the strength of the white race. 
'There is no end to them', said one. 'They are like the trees in the 
forest', said another. I was furnished with a pass to take them to the 
navy yard and to visit the barracks of the Army of the Potomac, at 
which place one of them remarked that the great father had more sol- 
diers in Washington alone than there were Indians in the northwest, 
including the Chippewas and Sioux, and that ammunition and provi- 
sions never gave out. 

"We remained in the city about forty days and had interviews with 
the Indian Commissioner and the President, and I was allowed the 
privilege of a partial examination into the records, showing the annui- 
ties due the Indians on annuity arrearages, but the excitement inci- 
dent to the war precluded any extended examination which would lead 
to a settlement of the arrearages at that time. The President made a 
short speech to the Indians at one of ,these interviews, at which he 

" 'My children, when you are ready, go home and tell your people 
what the great father said to you; tell them that as soon as the 
trouble with my white children is settled I will call you back and see 
that you are paid every dollar that is your due, provided I am here to 
attend to it, and in case I am not here to attend to it myself, I shall 
instruct my successor to fulfill the promises I make you here to-day.' 

"All of the chiefs of the delegation received silver medals bearing 
the portrait of President Lincoln. 

"After visiting all places of interest in Washington, and about a 
week after our last interview with the President, we set out on our 
home journey, going by way of New York City, where we stayed two 
or three days purchasing goods and presents for the chiefs to take 
home to their families and relatives, in all amounting to $1500, which 
had been placed in my hands by the government for that purpose. 

An Abraham Lincoln Indian Medal. 105 

This was in all probability the most pleasant stop of the trip. We 
stopped two days at Chicago on our return, from there going to La 
Crosse by rail, where we took boat for St. Paul. We were compelled 
to take trail from St. Paul and arrived in Bayfield about the middle 
of April, 1862." 

Benjamin G. Armstrong, a Southerner, came to Hudson, 
in St. Croix County in 1840 and later became a trader 
among the Chippewa Indians of the Lake Superior shore 
region. He married an Indian woman, a granddaughter of 
Chief Crane. He was the adopted son of Chief Buffalo, and 
was probably the best friend and counsellor that the Chip- 
pewa have ever had. The name given to him by his Indian 
friends was Zhah-bahsh-kung, or "the man who goes 
through." It implies persistency and thoroughness. He 
also conducted a similar Indian delegation to Washington in 
1852 to adjust Chippewa financial troubles with the Govern- 

This Abraham Lincoln medal is of solid silver and is 2 T % 
inches in diameter and slightly over one-eighth inch in 
thickness at the rim. The obverse bears a profile of Presi- 
dent Lincoln facing to the right. It bears the encircling 
legend "Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States" 
and the date 1862. The reverse face of the medal has in a 
central circle, li/2 inches in diameter, a figure of an Indian 
plowing, and in the background, children playing ball, a hill 
with a schoolhouse, and a church and other buildings be- 
yond. Between this inner circle and the rim of the medal, 
following the curve, there are (at the top) a figure of an 
Indian scalping another; and below, the head of an Indian 
woman weeping, and on one side (left) a quiver with ar- 
rows, on the other (right) a bow and calumet. Below the 
plowing figure there appears in minute letters the name of 
the designer of the medal, "J. Willson. DEL. & SC." 

In 1861 U. S. Indian Agents in the Northwest were in- 
structed to obtain from Indian chiefs all British medals and 
to present Abraham Lincoln medals to their possessors. 
The Lincoln medal was coined in both silver and bronze. 
The specimen described in this paper is the first Lincoln 
medal which was recovered from any Wisconsin Indian. It 
has been placed in the State Historical Museum at Madison. 


John Blackhawk 

The Winnebagoes, who lived in what is now Wisconsin 
long before the coming of the white man, built earthen 
mounds. These they constructed according to the animal 
symbols of their various clans or gens. For the Thunder or 
Bird clans the design was one of a bird, for the Water-spirit 
clan, an elongated animal. The Buffalo, Bear, Deer, Dog, 
Snake and various other clans had each their animal symbol. 
The War clan, or militaristic party of the tribe, had for 
their symbol a representation of the human form. 

My Grandfather once told of an occasion where he saw a 
bird mound being built in front of a chieftain's lodge. This, 
was perhaps, the last occasion of the use of this old tribal 
custom. He noted that it was placed to the east of the lodge 
or lodges. 

It was not, however, alone the custom to build mounds as 
clan symbols, the dreams or visions of the Indians were also 
thus commemorated. 

A noted chief, Ho-min-ka (translated, he who lies in a 
hill), leader of the Water-spirit clan, had a village at or 
near where the city of Madison now stands. He had a vision 
of an immense Buffalo which arose out of a lake in a mist. 
The blessing given to Ho-min-ka by the spirit Buffalo was 
such that his village enjoyed seven years of prosperity and 
there was no death among his people during that time. The 
tradition of this happening does 'not state that mound was 
built by this chief in memory of this event, but it is quite 
probable that this was done. 

The round mounds, which are numerous in Wisconsin, 
particularly along the banks of the Mississippi River and its 
tributaries, are said to be the remains of earth lodges. In 
a period when a long and relentless war was being waged it 
was unsafe to live in ordinary lodges and the Winnebagoes 
with their allied tribes constructed earth dwellings for the 
purpose of defense from surprise attacks. The dwelling 
was substantially framed within to hold enough earth to 

* Recent explorations have discovered Algonkian earthenware in 
effigy mounds. 

The Winnebago Indians and the Mounds. 107 

cover it in such thickness to withstand any attacks. In 
nearly all cases two and more families occupied one lodge, 
when more Indians lived together the lodge was built larger 
and much stronger. 

There is a tradition that a strange tribe lived in and 
among the cliffs, principally along the upper part of the 
Mississippi River. Their leaders were very wise and the 
warriors fierce and courageous. The nomadic tribes once 
decided to make war on these cliff-dwellers on account of 
their acts of treachery and all the tribes gathered for this 
purpose. As they were greatly outnumbered by their ene- 
mies the cliff-dwellers were annihilated after a series of 

Some of the younger members of our tribe (the Winne- 
bago) were of the belief that these people also built mounds 
and attributed the larger Indian earthworks like Aztalan, 
the Cahokia mounds, and others, to them. Tradition says 
that they were very intelligent and displayed a skill in 
earthwork construction unknown to their enemy tribes. 

However, the fact remains that the Winnebago built 
effigy mounds such as those that abound in what was for- 
merly Winnebago territory. Although a tribe of hunters 
and fishermen they were dependent upon agriculture for a 
considerable part of their food, and planting grounds were 
to be found at all of their permanent villages. 


The above is the title of a very interesting book of Plains 
Indian history, customs and folklore just published by the 
widely-known American ethnologist-botanist, Dr. Melvin R. 
.Gilmore (Pahok), until recently a member of the scientific 
staff of the Museum of the American Indian, New York. 

"The title of this book is suggested by one of the popular 
names of a flower which is the subject of one of the stories 
of this volume. This flower, the earliest to bloom in 
springtime over all the northern prairies, has a number of 
popular names which are 'pasque flower', 'gosling flower', 
and 'prairie smoke'. The latter name is suggested by the 
nebulous appearance presented by a patch of the bluish 


blossoms upon a prairie hillside in early spring, while all 
the other vegetation is still brown and dead. At such a 
time, with all the flowers trembling in the spring wind, 
they appear like a pulsing cloud of grayish-blue smoke 
hovering low over the ground." 

The information and stories contained in Dr. Gilmore's 
book were obtained by him during his investigations of the 
plant lore of the Dakota, Omaha, Arikara, Pawnee, Man- 
dan, Hidatsa and other Plains tribes. Its contents are ar- 
ranged under six sections bearing the titles, "Mother 
Earth", "Lodge and Tipi", "The Tribes of Men", "Four- 
footed Tribes", "Tribes of the Air", and "The Plant 
Tribes". Included in these sections are some forty tales 
and legends some of which are "The Water Spring of the 
Holy Man", "The Legend of Standing Rock", "The Holy 
Hill Pahok", "The Wonderful Basket", "Escape of a War 
Party", "An Omaha Ghost Story", "The Coyote's Box- 
elder Knife", "The Bean Mouse", "How the Meadow Lark 
Won the Race", "Gratitude of the Bean Mouse", "The Song 
of the Old Wolf", "The Song of the Wren", "The Lost Baby 
and the Upland Plover", "The Friendly Corn", "The For- 
gotten Ear of Corn", "The Prairie Rose", and "The Sun- 
flower". One of the stories describes a mysterious water 
monster which the Dakota people believed lived in the wa- 
ters of the Missouri River. It was a terrible animal and 
was but seldom seen by human beings. It was greatly 
dreaded by the Indians and misfortune befell those who 
saw it. In the springtime this monster moved up the river 
breaking up the ice as he moved against the current. This 
evidently refers to the same malevolent water spirit, 
horned panther or monstrous serpent which our Winne- 
bago, Menomini and other tribes speak of in their legends 
as having once inhabited many lakes and water courses in 

The author has added greatly to the interest and charm 
of the book by introducing at the beginning of its several 
sections articles giving information about Plains Indian 
environment, life and customs. Some of these treat of the 
Indians "Love of the Homeland", "A Boy's Education", 
the origin of "The Earth Lodge", the construction of "The 
Tipi", "Indian Personal Names", and "False Notions 


Prairie Smoke. 109 

About Indians". Especially instructive are several de- 
voted to a consideration of "Early Indian Agriculture", 
"Trading Between Tribes", "Indian Ideas of Property", 
and "Tribal Boundary Lines". 

"The Arikaras and Mandans on the upper Missouri were 
the great agricultural tribes of their region. Omaha 
legend credits the Arikaras with first having corn and with 
having distributed it to other tribes. The common picto- 
graph to represent the Arikaras among all the surround- 
ing tribes was a conventionalized ear of corn." The Ari- 
karas and their relatives, the Pawnees were "the pioneers 
in agriculture in all the Plains region," and "had been the 
teachers of the art and science of agriculture to all of the 
other tribes of that region which practiced it. They also 
taught them the Caddoan architecture, pottery, and other 
arts. The products of Caddoan agriculture were eagerly 
sought by the tribes dwelling on the high plains west of 
them, and in the Rocky Mountains beyond, in neither of 
which regions could agriculture be carried on." The west- 
ern Dakotas brought dried tipsin roots and dried wild 
fruits to trade to the Arikaras, the Cree and Chippewas 
dried moose meat, furs, skins and maple sugar, salt came 
from the distant country of the Otos and Kansas, the Chey- 
ennes brought plant and mineral products, Osage orange 
wood for bows came from Oklahoma and southwestern 
Arkansas, and dentalium shells from the Pacific coast. 

"The various tribes were free and independent self de- 
termining nations, each holding dominion over a definite 
area claimed as its own country and so recognized by 
neighboring tribes. And each such national territory was 
delimited by boundary lines, usually established by treaty- 
making conventions of the nations concerned, and marked 
usually by topographic features, such as streams, hills and 

Dr. Gilmore is well known in Wisconsin and many mem- 
bers and friends of the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
will wish to possess copies of his book. It is printed by the 
Columbia University Press, New York. The illustrations 
are by Louis Schellbach. 




A meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society was held at the 
Public Museum at Milwaukee on Monday evening, November 19, 
1928, President Huron H. Smith in the chair. Attendance about 
one hundred. 

Secretary Charles E. Brown offered a report on a field meeting of 
members and friends held at Aztalan Mound Park, on Saturday, Oc- 
tober 20, at which a tablet marker was unveiled. The dedication 
address was delivered by Mr. George A. West, the other speakers 
being Dr. Louise P. Kellogg and Mr. John A. Jeske. Mr. Robert P. 
Ferry, chairman of the Park Committee, directed the exercises. An 
opportunity was given to see the new park pavillion and other im- 
provements made under Mr. Ferry's direction. About 250 persons 
were present. Mr. Brown also announced the restoration and per- 
manent preservation of a fine group of effigy mounds and a linear 
mound located in Forest Hill cemetery at Madison. For these a 
tablet should be provided. He also urged the marking with a tablet 
of a single conical mound located on the State Fish Hatchery 
grounds near Madison. Steps had been taken to apprehend the pro- 
prietors of the fake Indian implement "factory" located at Cumber- 
land City, Kentucky. 

Mr. W. C. McKern made a report on the progress of archeological - 
investigation in other Middle West states. 

Mr. George A. West gave an illustrated lecture on "Aztalan, the 
Most Ancient City in Wisconsin". He strongly urged the appropria- 
tion by the State of the funds needed to purchase the remainder of 
the Aztalan site, and the restoration of the stockade wall and other 
earthworks in its vicinity. In the discussion which followed various 
members and guests took part. An exhibition of Aztalan material 
was made by the Museum. 

At the meeting of the Executive Board, which preceded the meet- 
ing, there were elected as annual members of the Society, Mr. E. A. 
Fuchsel, Neenah; Mr. Arthur J. Wyseman, Manitowoc; Mrs. H. E. 
Cole, Baraboo; Mr. Walter W. Maier, Milwaukee; Mr. Enos Kiethly, 
Dixon, Illinois, and Mr. Nain Grute, New York City. Prof. Julius 
E. Olson, Madison, was elected an honorary member of the Society. 
The recent deaths of Dr. H. L. Tilsner, a vice president of the 
Society, and of Mr. Alvin H. Dewey, Rochester, New York, for many 
years one of it's members, were announced. 

The December 17, 1928 meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety was held in the trustee room of the Milwaukee Public Museum. 
There were sixty-eight members and visitors present. President 
Smith directed the meeting. 

The gift to the State by Mrs. H. Terry Andrae of Milwaukee of a 
tract of land on the Lake Michigan shore, south of Sheboygan, was 
announced by Secretary Brown. This includes a part of the noted 
Black River Indian village sites long a favorite collecting ground of 
local archeologists. Mr. Walter J. Kohler of Kohler is the owner of 
the remainder of these dunelands, which he is also administering as 
a preserve. 

Mr. McKern presented resolutions on the death of Vice President 
Dr. H. L. Tilsner, which were adopted. 

Mr. McKern gave an illustrated lecture on "Mound Explorations 
at Trempealeau." Especially interesting among the results of these 
excavations was the discovery in one of the mounds of remains of a 

Archeological Notes. Ill 

character similar to those designated in Ohio as the Hopewell cul- 
ture. Other evidences of this mound culture had been found in pre- 
vious years in certain mound groups in Crawford County by Dr. 
Cyrus Thomas. 

Exhibits of specimens were made by Charles G. Schoewe, E. F. 
Richter and other members. 

At the meeting of the directors of the Society, Rev. 0. Warren 
Smith, Oconomowoc, was elected a life member. Col. Marshall Cou- 
sins, Eau Claire, and Mr. Charles E. Hard, Milwaukee, were ac- 
cepted as annual members. The recent death of Mr. William Haer- 
tel, a former member, was announced. A special committee on pro- 
gram projects consisting of the Messrs. McKern, West, Brown and 
Kuhm was appointed. Plans for the annual joint meeting of the 
Society and the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences were discussed by 
Secretary Brown. A special committee on biographies of members 
consisting of the Messrs. Notz, Schoewe and Smith was also ap- 
pointed. This committee to undertake the duty of collecting facts 
concerning the life history of the members of the Society. 

President Smith conducted the meeting of the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society held at Milwaukee on Monday evening, January 21, 
1929. Dr. E. J. W. Notz, chairman of the special committee on biog- 
raphies of members, announced that a questionaire had been mailed 
to all members. Mr. McKern, chairman of the program projects 
committee, reported that a meeting of the committee (Messrs. West, 
Brown, Smith and himself being present), had been held and a pro- 
gram for future meetings prepared. Secretary Brown announced 
the election by the Executive Board of Mr. A. E. Hollister, Tomah, 
as a life member of the Society. Mr. Gilbert Hacker, Sheboygan, 
and Mrs. Walter K. Richards, Milwaukee, were elected as annual 
members. Members were urged to send in the titles of papers to be 
read at the Joint Meeting to be held at Williams Bay on April 12 
and 13. He read a letter from an Indiana dealer in fraudulent In- 
dian relics, giving the prices at which such articles as pipes, dis- 
coidals and ceremonial forms could be purchased. 

Mr. Huron H. Smith gave an illustrated lecture on "Among the 
Winnebago," in which he presented an account of the home life and 
ceremonies of members of the Wisconsin members of that tribe. 

Mr. Charles G. Schoewe exhibited a fine series of wooden bowls, 
dishes, ladles and spoons collected from the Wisconsin Potawatomi 

Fifty-three members and visitors were present at this meeting. 

A meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society was held at the 
Milwaukee Museum on Monday evening, February 18, 1929. Presi- 
dent Smith occupied the chair. There were fifty-five members and 
visitors present. 

Mr. George A. West gave an illustrated lecture on "The Prehis- 
toric Indian Copper Miners of Isle Royale". He presented an inter- 
esting account of the last year's McDonald-Masse expedition to this 
Lake Superior island, which he and Mr. George R. Fox accompanied 
as archeologists, and which resulted in the discovery of a large num- 
ber of additional copper mining pits, of several village sites and 
burial places, and other features of interest. Mr. Vetal Winn made 
an exhibit of copper implements. 

Secretary Brown announced the deaths of two members of the 
Society, Mr. Caspar Whitney, of Irvington-on-Hudson, New York, 
and Mr. Oskar Korthals, Milwaukee, and spoke briefly of both men. 
At the meeting of the directors of the Society there had been elected 


as annual members, the Messrs. Dr. E. B. McDonald, Little Rock, 
Arkansas, Clarence Sorenson, New Lisbon, and S. J. Carter, C. C. 
"Johnson and H. A. Moussa, Milwaukee. The biographical committee 
reported that good progress was being made in its work. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society held its Annual Meeting in 
the trustee hall of the Public Museum at Milwaukee, on Monday 
evening, March 18, 1929, President Smith presiding. There were 
ninety members and visitors present. 

Secretary Brown announced the deaths of three members of the 
Society these being, Mr. William H. Vogel, a vice president at the 
time of his demise, Mr. George E. Copeland of Milwaukee, and Mr. 
Rudolph Kuehne of Sheboygan. All were old members of the organ- 
ization and their loss was greatly regretted. Dr. Ralph Linton, Mad- 
ison, and Mr. Alfred Korth, Fairwater, had been elected annual 
members by the Executive Board. Mr. Albert Thunder, Kilbourn, 
had been made an honorary member. The Messrs. Dr. Notz, Dr. 
Kastner and Mr. West had been appointed a committee to prepare 
resolutions on the death of Vice President Vogel. The annual report 
of the Secretary was read and adopted. 

A nominating committee to select officers for the ensuing year was 
appointed. This committee, consisting of the Messrs. Winfield W. 
Gilman, G. M. Thorne and W. C. McKern, retired to an adjoining room 
and on its return nominated the following offices : President Huron 
H. Smith; Vice Presidents Charles G. Schoewe, Mrs. E. H. Van Os- 
trand, Aden T. Newman, Winfield W. Gilman, Dr. Alfred L. Kastner, 
Mrs. Theodore Koerner, and Arthur P. Kannenberg; Directors Dr. 
S. A. Barrett, Milo C. Richter, Vetal Winn, Dr. F. C. Rogers, E. F. 
Richter, L. R. Whitney, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Geo. A. West, W. C. Mc- 
Kern and Mrs. A. E. Koerner; Secretary Charles E. Brown; Treas- 
urer G.M. Thorne. These officers were unanimously elected. 

Mr. John G. Gregory delivered a very interesting lecture on "Early 
Milwaukee", in which he described the visits to the site of the present 
city of the early French explorers and missionaries, the early Pota- 
watomi and Menomini Indian villages and early fur-trading posts. 

The Messrs. West, Gregory and Brown were appointed a special 
committee to report on the desirability of marking the sites of the 
early Indian villages of Milwaukee with appropriate tablets. 

The Annual Joint Meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, 
Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, and Midwest Muse- 
ums Conference was held at Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, on 
Friday and Saturday, April 12 and 13, 1929. Members of the Wis- 
consin Archeological Society who presented papers in the program 
were Dr. Paul B. Jenkins, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, George Overton, Dr. 
Albert B. Reagan, Geo. A. West, Geo. R. Fox, Chas. E. Brown, Dr. 
O. W. Smith, Alton K. Fisher and Dr. H. W. Kuhm, and Huron H. 
Smith. The annual dinner was held at the Rose Lane Resort on Fri- 
day evening. Members of the Society came to the meeting from Apple- 
ton, Ripon, Milwaukee, Elkhorn, Madison, Beloit, Janesville and other 
Wisconsin cities. 

A meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society was held at Mil- 
waukee on April 22, 1928. Called to order by President Smith. Sixty 
were in attendance. 

Secretary Brown made a report on the results of a meeting of the 
Executive Board. He described briefly the six early Milwaukee In- 
dian villages which it was desired to mark with tablets. A report of 
the Joint Meeting held at Williams Bay, on April 12 and 13, was pre- 

Archeological Notes. 113 

Mr. T. L. Miller read a paper describing the method in use by the 
Milwaukee Museum in making mound group surveys. This he illus- 
trated with several lantern slides. This was discussed at length by 
the Messrs. Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Milo C. Richter, Paul Joers, Geo. A. 
West, W. C. McKern, Dr. S. A. Barrett, C. E. Brown and others pres- 
ent. Other methods were shown to have been employed by Dr. Lap- 
ham, W. H. Canfield, L. L. Sweet, pioneer archeologists and practical 
surveyors, and others by Prof. Cyrus Thomas, Moses Strong, Jr., Prof. 
T. H. Lewis, Dr. S. D. Peet, Ira M. Buell, Dr. Louis Falge, G. R. Fox, 
G. A. West, W. A. Titus, Alonzo Pond, and others. Dr. A. B. Stout 
had employed a very simple method, which H. E. Cole, H. L. Skavlem 
and others had followed with good results. Sometimes the services of 
professional civil engineers had been employed. The Museum's method 
was thought by some to be too intricate for the use of some amateur 
contributing members. Printed report forms and cross-hatched paper 
for use in surveys were exhibited. Dr. Stout was the first to make use 
of the latter. It was shown that in the thirty years of its life the 
Society had endeavored to systematize more and more the character 
of all field work. During the State Survey of 1911-15 supplies of 
cross-section paper and other necessary supplies and full instructions 
for field work had been furnished by the Committee on Survey, Re- 
search and Record. Mr. Brown called attention to the fact that the 
Committee on State Archaeological Surveys of the National Research 
Council was proposing to soon print a short manuscript dealing with 
the essentials of archeological record. By this means it was desired 
to secure a certain degree of uniformity of work in all states. A large 
field manual of archeology would probably follow. 

Mr. Robert J. Kieckhefer exhibited a series of three films illustrat- 
ing the results of several long canoe journeys through the beautiful 
streams and lakes of northern Ontario, during which Indian sites, 
platform burials, pictographs and other aboriginal landmarks were 
encountered. The introductory descriptions of all of these interesting 
and beautiful films were given by Dr. E. J. W. Notz, his associate on 
these pilgrimages. 

Mr. C. G. Schoewe exhibited an interesting stone celt, Mr. E. F. 
Richter a small fluted stone hammer and Mr. Paul Joers an Indian 


Indian Notes, the quarterly publication of the Museum of the 
American Indian, April 1929, contains, among others, an interesting 
paper by Frank G. Speck, on "Boundaries and Hunting Groups of the 
River Desert Algonquin", of Quebec. 

A book, "History, Tradition and Adventure in the Chippewa Val- 
ley", by Wm. W. Bartlett, is printed by The Chippewa Printery, Chip- 
pewa Falls. It is a very interesting contribution to northern Wiscon- 
sin history. 

Charles C. Adams, director of the New York State Museum, Albany, 
is the author of a pamphlet, "The Importance of Preserving Wilder- 
ness Conditions." In this publication, John Muir, Wisconsin-bred, is 
lauded as "our first and greatest champion" of the nature sanctuary. 

Two recent issues of the North Dakota Historical Quarterly contain 
a very interesting paper by Louis A. Tohill on "Robert Dickson, Brit- 
ish Fur Trader on the Upper Mississippi." 

In a recent issue of the University of California Publications, E. W. 
Gifford contributes a very interesting paper on "Pottery-Making in 


the Southwest". Among a number of pottery trowels (which he desig- 
nates as "anvils"), are several specimens from Aztalan, Wisconsin. 

A Logan Museum bulletin (Vol. 1, No. 2), entitled "A Contribution 
to the Study of Prehistoric Man in Algeria, North Africa", is by 
Alonzo Pond, assistant curator of the Museum. Copies can be ob- 
tained through Dr. George L. Collie, Beloit. 

In the bulletin, Research Records of the Rochester Municipal Mu- 
seum, William A. Ritchie describes the results of the excavation of 
"An Algonkian Village Site Near Levanna, New York". It is illus- 
trated with ten plates and a map. 

A publication of which some of our friends may have failed to ob- 
tain a copy is Dr. W. B. Hinsdale's illustrated booklet on "The Indians 
of Washtenaw County, Michigan." 

Edith L. Watson contributes to the April-June issue of the Ameri- 
can Anthropologist a paper on "Caves of the Upper Gila River, New 
Mexico," and W. C. McKern an article on "A Hopewell Type of Cul- 
ture in Wisconsin". 

The January March issue of the American Journal of Archaeology 
contains, among other papers, one on "The Genesis of the Greek Black 
Glaze", by Charles F. Binns and A. D. Fraser, and one a "Preliminary 
Report on the Excavations at Olynthos", by David M. Robinson. 

Members can obtain from the U. S. Smithsonian Institution a sepa- 
rate of a paper, "The Interpretation of Aboriginal Mounds by Means 
of Creek Indian Customs", by John R. Swanton. 

An interesting catalogue of the Nature Guide School of the School 
of Education of Western Reserve University for the summer session 
of 1929 can be obtained by addressing 2060 Stearns Road, Cleveland, 

A booklet of "Paul Bunyan Tales", offered as a contribution to 
American folklore, by C. E. and T. T. Brown, can be obtained by ad- 
dressing 2011 Chadbourne Ave., Madison. Cost 30 cents. 


All members and friends of the Wisconsin Archeological Society are 
invited to assist in its field work during the season of 1929. It is de- 
sired that as many as possible will do so. Instruction and assistance 
will be given when desired. Reports and all other information should 
be filed with the Secretary. Descriptions of collections and specimens, 
and photographs and drawings of the same will be acceptable. 


W. 8 HFulp, 1929 J?o. 4 











Accepted for mailing- at special rate of postage provided for in Sec 
1103, Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

Wtecontftn Srcfjeologtcal 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing- the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



H. H. Smith 


C. G. Schoewe Mrs. Theo. Koerner 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. W. Oilman 

A. T. Newman Dr. A. L. Kastner 

A. P. Kannenberg 

Dr. S. A. Barrett 

M. C. Richter 
Vetal Winn 


Dr. F. C. Rogers 
E. P. Richter 
L. R. Whitney 
W. C. McKern 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz 

Mrs. A. E. Koerner 
Geo. A. West 


G. M. Thome 

National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. S. A. Barrett, J. P. Schumacher, W. G. Mc- 
Lachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, C. E. Brown, W. C. McKern, T. L. 
Miller, A. W. Pond, Geo. Overton, Frank Thomlinson, T. M. N. 
Lewis and M. F. Hulburt. 

MOUND PRESERVATION W. W. Gilman, Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. 
A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Louise 
P. Kellogg, Mrs. H. A. Main, R. A. Maas, J. W. Norris, Mrs. 
F. R. Melcher, Dr. A. Gerend, and G. L. Pasco. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Dr. G. L. Collie, A. C. 
Neville, A. P. Kannenberg, E. P. Hamilton, William Horlick, 
Mrs. H. A. Olson, Mrs. A. E. Koerner and R. S. Van Handel. 

MEMBERSHIP C. G. Schoewe, Dr. W. H. Brown, A. R. Rogers, A. 
Sohrweide, Jr., Vetal Winn, C. G. Weyl, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, W. 
P. Morgan, A. E. Koerner, Louis Pierron, C. Baerwald and D. S. 

MAN MOUND PARK M. F. Hulburt, E. A. Gilman and Miss Emma 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, M. G. Troxell, and W. W. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Mrs. W. F. Bauchle, M. C. Richter, E. R. 
Mclntyre and R. K. Coe. 

BIOGRAPHY Dr. E. J. W. Notz, C. G. Schoewe and H. H. Smith. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Mil- 


Vol. 8, No. 4, New Series 


Archaeology as a Human Interest, Clark Wissler 119 

Winnebago County Indian Earthenware, Arthur P. Kannenberg__ 124 

Cartographic Symbols for Archeological Survey Maps, Charles E. 

Brown 129 

American Indian Cross-bow, Paul B. Jenkins 132 

Some Methods and Results of the Iowa Archeological Survey, 

Charles R. Keyes 135 

Plants Used by the White Mountain Apache Indians of Arizona, 

Albert B. Reagan 143 

Archeological Notes _ 152 

Croatan Cherokee Cross-bow Frontispiece 

Facing Page 
Plate 1. Winnebago County Pottery Vessel, Oshkosh Public 

Museum . 126 

Croatan Cherokee Cross-bow. 

Wisconsin grcijeologtst 

Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeological Society 

Vol. 8 MADISO1V, WIS., JULY, 1929 No. 4 

New Series 


Clark Wissler, Ph.D. 

Curator-in-chief, Division of Anthropology, American Museum of 
Natural History, New York. 

The matter of state archeological surveys is presented 
here from the point of view of the layman rather than the 
specialist. The interest in mounds, stone implements, etc., 
is universal and spontaneous. Every man is interested in 
the past of his race. The farmer or the boy scout picking 
up an arrowhead is spontaneously carried back in imagina- 
tion to a life different from now; at this spot, he says, a 
man once hunted the deer, or perhaps launched an arrow 
at his enemy. In brief, the old, whether it be historic or 
prehistoric, makes a spontaneous appeal. So by the nature 
of the subject, state archaeology touches one of the basic in- 
terests in human life. Whenever, therefore, we take up a 
survey or any study of a state's archeology, we touch a uni- 
versal human interest. 


It is well to bear in mind that history and archaeology are 
inseparable in the public mind. The Indian was on the 
ground when the explorers came upon the scene. The pio- 
neers, traders, trappers, and settlers, dispossessed the In- 
dian, and in the clash that followed, local history was made. 
So the place where the Indians lived, the sites of first settle- 
ment, old trails, etc., are all objects of spontaneous interest. 
Mounds, stone implements, prehistoric graves, are all asso- 
ciated with the Indian, because his ancestors near and re- 
mote were responsible for them. There is no more inspiring 
and romantic period in our history than the settlement of the 
great valley of the Mississippi. It thrills everyone to think 


of the great forests and plains, the hidden dangers that 
lurked therein, and the fearless, heroic, forward movement 
of our forefathers into this region. There are to be placed 
at convenient points along the Old National Road, extend- 
ing from Cumberland, Maryland, to St. Louis, a series of 
statues commemorating the pioneer woman, my great- 
grand-mother and doubtless yours also. These statues are 
symbolic of the future regard for the outstanding events of 
the pioneer period and we shall be blamed if we neglect to 
make adequate record of these events before trace of them 
is lost. 

The Indian is a part of this pioneer picture; he is the 
human element in the background against which the achieve- 
ments of our great-grandparents are projected. Without 
them and without due regard to the life of their ancestors, 
the true life of the pioneer can never be shown. 



The historical and archeological background of a state is 
one of its great cultural and educational assets. It pos- 
sesses recreational possibilities also. The rapid advance in 
the mechanization of modern life has left men and especially 
women, with time on their hands. We have made wonder- 
ful provision for the education of our children, but when 
they leave school and settle down to the round of life, the 
doors of the school are closed to them. There may be a li- 
brary accessible, but no personal leadership. Women's 
clubs have in part solved the problem for the woman, but 
in recent years our educational leaders have come to recog- 
nize the need of something more for the adult, The prob- 
lem is to find his spontaneous interests and to draw them 
out. Everyone agrees that the best adult education is that 
which calls for the least teaching and the most learning on 
the part of the student that which leads him to follow a 
real interest. 


The conservation movement is another expression of this 
deep interest. What we hear now is, preserve these antiqui- 
ties, they are the culture heritage of the State. The mere 

Archaeology as a Human Interest 121 

fact that people rise in protest when antiquities are removed 
or destroyed is sufficient proof of the culture value of such 
things. Conservation is here, is taking care of itself, as 
evidenced in the rapidly increasing number of state parks 
in the Mississippi Valley. What is now needed, what the 
time is ripe for, is real leadership in interpreting the things 

The preceding speakers have stressed the need for tak- 
ing stock of your antiquities, to interpret them, to sketch 
the outline of the prehistory of this country. That must 
be done, even to conserve wisely the antiquities you have; 
but in the doing of it is the opportunity to give intellectual 
leadership to the spontaneous interest of your people, and 
especially to the amateur archaeologists and historians in 
every community. A survey must be a cooperative effort; 
to succeed such an effort must be led. 


Already several states in the Mississippi Valley have de- 
veloped systems of State Parks deserving of study. The 
incessant public demand for more state and national parks 
is registered in bills now pending in Congress and in the 
legislatures of many states. For one thing, a park is a 
place for recreation, but it is more. Our people demand 
that each park contain something inspiring and informing, 
as objects of natural and historical interest. As popula- 
tions increase and highways become better and better, more 
such parks will be established. The experience of Ohio 
shows that archaeological antiquities are eminently suitable 
materials for state parks. Further, the tendency is now to 
make our parks centers of inspirational and educational in- 
terest, to so staff them and equip them that they will be 
recreational in the highest sense. Again experience proves 
that the mass of the people are eager to see historical 
and archaeological evidences of past happenings. In the 
archaeological assets of the country are to be found rich 
materials for such a program. 


Lewis H. Morgan, one of America's great social students, 
was impressed by the fact that every people regarded some 


land as their own placed its possession above everything else. 
He went even farther, by pointing out that national feeling 
is chiefly the emotion that arises with the memory of events 
and objects in that homeland. We in this Mississippi Val- 
ley first of all feel that here is home, the base upon which 
all our activities rest. But we, as a people, have not been 
here long; we are still strangers in this land. To know a 
land well, we must know its past. We were transplanted 
here from Europe and still think of her history as our his- 
tory. Yet the land we took over had a long history of its 
own. People preceded us not unacquainted with great 
deeds. Just across the river from here [St. Louis] lies the 
great Cahokia. No child's play produced that. Go to Fort 
Ancient in Ohio and marvel at what you see. No mules, no 
steam shovels, aided in these works. Go to our museums 
and see the pottery and stone carvings of these Prehistoric 
folk ; there were artists in those days. To say that all this 
is the work of the Indian and his ancestors is commonplace ; 
but seldom do we consider in how far we are like the Indian 
in all that is truly American. In our pride of 100% Ameri- 
canism, we make large claims for originality and efficiency ; 
we have good ground for congratulating ourselves upon the 
past, but we may claim too much. If we ask what the In- 
dian contributed to our civilization and through us to the 
world, the first thought may be nothing but misery and 
trouble; the atrocities of border warfare come at once to 
mind. Yet if we take stock of the things distinctively Amer- 
ican, we are obliged to credit the Indian with a respectable 
number of them. For one thing, our language contains 
many concepts borrowed from the Indian, war path, war 
paint, scalping, peace pipe, burying the hatchet, scouting, 
etc. Of more material things ; moccasins, snowshoes, birch 
canoes, toboggans, lacrosse, totem, wigwam, tipi, and so on. 
The very art of woodcraft was learned from the Indian and 
followed by the pioneer; and is still the technique of scout 
and other outdoor organizations. In the matter of place 
and river names, Indian words are found on every hand, as 
Missouri, Mississippi, Ohio, Chicago, etc. Many more In- 
dian names lie behind such translations as Buck Creek, 
Moose Jaw, Devil's Lake, Pipestone, etc. Finally, note may 
be taken of the great economic gifts from Indian cultures. 

Archaeology as a Human Interest. 123 

Even the man who counts everything in dollars must bow 
to the Indian. It is not merely that we took the Indian's 
land ; we acquired tobacco, maize, potatoes, peanuts, toma- 
toes, and some forty additional food plants. The yearly 
value of these products produced in the United States alone, 
when stated in dollars, is incomprehensibly large. Even in 
terms of pounds and bushels the statistics are meaningless ; 

Maize _ __2,700,000,000 bu. 

Tobacco 1,200,000,000 Ibs. 

Potatoes 400,000,000 bu. 

Peanuts 860,000,000 Ibs. 

If all the maize raised in the United States alone were 
placed in bushel baskets and these set in a row, the row 
would be about 1,000,000 miles long, reaching about forty 
times around the earth. If the peanuts raised, in the United 
States were placed in pound paper bags and set in a row, 
the row would circle the earth twice. All this and more 
rests upon the gifts of the Indians to the white man. 

But you say we would have found these plants in the wild 
state and reduced them to cultivation? That is doubtful. 
Remember that the wild ancestors of several of these plants 
are still in doubt. They were developed by ages of patient 
study and cultivation ; whereas our pioneers had them tossed 
into their laps. Let us try to imagine what would be the 
nature of these United States today if Columbus had found 
an uninhabited land. No Indian with cigars would have 
greeted Columbus, Sir Walter Raleigh's servant would not 
have drenched his master with the swill pail, Queen Eliza- 
beth would not have experienced a kick from the first pipe- 
full. But you say, we would have discovered tobacco in 
time; maybe, but it took the Indians centuries to develop 
the art and the plant. Maize, the economic backbone of 
agriculture in the Mississippi Valley, would have remained 
undiscovered for a long time at least; think what a differ- 
ent country this would be, if corn were out of the picture. 
But we have not considered all that the Indian gave ; it was 
native Indian trade that enriched Europe and made the 
rapid development of our country possible. The Indian 
was a consumer of goods, eager to buy and to pay extrava- 
gently in furs and other products. In truth, it may be said 

r iscoNsiN ARCH: 

that the American Indian put the white man on the map. 
He certainly laid the foundation to the economic greatness 
of the United States. 

So we see ourselves the inheritors of the best that was in 
Indian culture ; we have incorporated this heritage into our 
own culture. The original cultures of the Indian were 
slowly worked out as an adjustment to climate, flora, fauna 
and the topography of America; an adjustment perfected 
by time. Our pioneer fathers needed but to learn what this 
culture had to offer and to choose according to their needs. 
All this you know already ; my reason for reviewing it, how- 
ever, is lest we forget that the very subject you are now dis- 
cussing deals with the existing records of that Indian cul- 
ture to which we owe so much. The American people have 
taken up the job of the Indian; to make this America an 
ever better place to live in. Though the Indian may have* 
been no more conscious of the fact than you are, he also was 
striving to make America a better place to live in. 

There seems then good reason why some serious atten- 
tion should be given to the facts of Indian culture, as part of 
the background to which we and those who come after us, 
must look for inspiration and wisdom. 

Finally, it all comes down to this. We all want to know 
how the Indian came here before us; what place he had on 
the family tree; we yearn for a glimpse of his history; we 
want to know more about the mounds and earthworks ; how 
the Indian discovered corn and learned to put four grains in 
a hill; and where he first discovered the joys of the pipe. 
These and many other things not only haunt us but they are 
parts of our ill-assimiliated heritage. A large part of the 
answer lies in the ground and it is the retrieving of this 
record that we advocate, that it may be an inspiration to 
succeeding generations. 

Arthur P. Kannenberg 

Winnebago County is located in what might be termed 
the heart of Wisconsin. It is bounded on the east by the 
beautiful shores of Lake Winnebago, on the west by Wau- 

Winnebago County Earthenware. 12."> 

shara and Green Lake Counties, on the south by Fond du 
Lac County and on the north by Outagamie and Waupaca 
Counties. It is a county with a number of inland lakes and 
rivers, chief among the rivers, are the Wolf and the Fox. 

At the coming of the white man to Wisconsin, Winnebago 
County was inhabited by various tribes of Indians, who 
made their homes on the shores of these waters. 

The Winnebago tribe, from whom this county derived its 
name, was by far the largest. Other tribes such as the 
Menomini, Sac and Fox, Potawatomi, and others are known 
to have lived within the boundaries of Winnebago County. 

Numerous Indian villages and camp sites are visible and 
open to investigators. 

Most common among the artifacts found on these sites 
are the fragments of earthenware vessels. This depart- 
ment of archeology, has been somewhat neglected from the 
point of study and observation. It is most important in de- 
termining the culture of the early Indians. 

Pottery, to my idea, is at the pinnacle of aboriginal art. 
I am convinced that it ranks above pictographic art. The 
pottery makers' industry was a very difficult one, investi- 
gation shows. 

The right kind of materials to be used in pottery making 
had to be obtained. These consisted of clay, coarse sand, 
disintegrated granite, clam shells, and of a kind of glue-like 
substance to hold the entire mass in shape, before being 
baked in the kiln. 

I have come to the conclusion that this method must have 
been used. Possibly the pitch from the pine trees, or the 
sap from almost any kind of bush, shrub or plant, from 
which a sticky substance could have been drawn. It is also 
stated that the blood from animals was used for this pur- 

The pottery maker had no molds or forms of any kind, 
the pots, bowls and other vessels being shaped entirely by 
hand. A hole may have been made in the earth or sand, 
in which the piece to be made was started. The vessels 
were left in position until they were dry enough to be hand- 
led. A larger hole, sometimes round, sometimes square, 
was then dug into the earth, a small fire was built at the 
bottom of this pit. The finished bowl was placed on the 


hot embers and burnt until it became hard and firm. Such 
kilns are still to be found on the Menomini Indian Reserva- 
tion. . 

The lower part of the bowl usually was a smooth surface, 
and in most cases is thinner at the bottom than at the top. 
Starting at the very base, the thickness usually runs from 
one-eighth to one-quarter of an inch, that tapers upward 
to the rim of the bowl to a thickness of from one-quarter to 
one-half of an inch. 

The larger bowls or pots average from one to five gallons 
capacity. These were storage vessels for food, and were 
placed in graves to aid the departed on his journey to the 
spirit world. 

The smaller vessels were used for domestic purposes and 
in some instances, were placed in the grave, as were the 
large vessels. 

In making a bowl, the manufacturer would select a smooth 
red or dark clay. Clam shells, disintegrated granite, coarse 
sand, or, as suggested by a prominent archeologist, a par- 
ticular kind of micaceous shale, would be pulverized and 
thoroughly mixed with the clay. As this mixture would 
not stand up under the slightest pressure or weight from 
the rim and part of the shoulders, a fluid composition of 
either gum, pitch or blood, would be absolutely necessary 
to make the composition tough and elastic enough to allow 
handling possible, while under construction. 

The decorations were applied by various methods. 
Finger-tip indentations for scalloping was the most com- 
mon method used. Braided grass or twisted-cord, bark- 
marked, stick-marked and perforated decorations are com- 
mon types. These are found extensively in Winnebago 
County. We have approximately one hundred and twenty- 
five different types of decoration represented in body sherds 
and rims in the Oshkosh Public Museum. They are of 
seven distinct colors of clay. 

Potsherds can be collected by the peck on the various 
camp and village sites in Winnebago County. Several thou- 
sand specimens are now a part of the collections in the Osh- 
kosh Public Museum. There are hundreds of other speci- 
mens in private collections. 




\Yinm-bag-o County Karthrn\y;irr. 127 

The most noteworthy discovery of pottery vessels, was 
made in 1922, by Mr. Walter Karow, on his farm five miles 
north of the city of Oshkosh on the Lake Shore Road. While 
plowing a new piece of land, located in the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 30, Township 19 North, Range 17 East, Mr. 
Karow found in a sandy kiln which runs parallel with the 
west shore of Lake Winnebago, a very old burial. Several 
ribs, vertebrae and a broken bowl came to the surface. As 
several very interesting surface finds had been made in this 
region, Mr. Karow hurried back to the house for a spade, to 
excavate this grave. While at the house he called me by 
telephone and told me of his discovery. I asked him to 
wait and not do any digging until I came. I told him he 
might miss valuable material and lose interesting data. Al- 
though I hurried out to his farm as fast as I could, Mr. 
Karow had dug out most of the material and the remains of 
the Indians, when I arrived. There were two bodies in 
separate shallow graves. They were buried lying flat on 
their backs, heads to the west. There were two large flat 
bowls, bottoms of both were burned black, as though they 
had been used over a fire. They are rather heavy at the 
base and taper up to about a thickness of one-quarter of an 
inch at the rim. One of these bowls has a straight handle 
or lug on each side extending out from the side about one 
and one-half inches and about three-quarters of an inch 
below the rim. It is made of a reddish clay, tempered with 
crushed clam shells. A deep incised line encircles the en- 
tire bowl. Between this center line horizontal short lines 
run from the rim to the center line, also from the center 
line to the curve of the bottom. The rim itself, is plain. 

The other large bowl is of the same form, except that the 
lugs or handles are absent. The rim of this bowl is 
notched in diamond shape. Each of these bowls weighs 
about five pounds. 

Two small cups were also found. These are in perfect 
condition. The decoration on these is the same as on the 
large bowls. 

Another round, rather flat bowl, was also found. This 
has a flanged rim and is very heavy for its size. It holds 
about a quart. Another flat dish was found. The one 
which was broken by the plow was reconstructed. It bears 


the greatest amount of decoration. The rim is notched 
and vertical lines run from the rim to the base. 

Sixteen pipes, seven of them made of pottery, were found 
with these burials; besides a large number of bone imple- 
ments, several copper specimens and many prehistoric 
artifacts. It is considered the most valuable archeological 
find made in Winnebago county to date. 

The genuineness of these bowls or pots was questioned by 
the late Alanson Skinner on account of their peculiar forms. 
I am absolutely sure of their genuiness. I agree with oth- 
ers, that they are a southern type of vessel. 

The location in which this find was made, is the village 
site of the Winnebago Chief Wild Cat, or Pescheu. Hopo- 
koekau (Glory of the Morning), the Winnebago princess 
famed in history and drama, also lived on this spot. 

Undoubtedly these bowls were brought from a long dis- 
tance as a gift, or in barter with the Winnebago. Several 
obsidian, jasper, and artifacts made of other foreign ma- 
terials were found on this village site, which appears to 
indicate that these articles were brought to Winnebago 
County by roving Indian bands of another tribe. 

Another very large pot was uncovered on the Lake Shore 
Road in Section 33, Township 17 North, Range 17 East, on 
the Warren Bessey farm, about seven miles south of Osh- 
kosh. Workmen hauling sand from a pit, came upon a 
burial containing a very large pot. It was broken to pieces 
with a shovel, while trying to get it out. About forty 
pieces with a part of the beautiful rim are now in my col- 

A fine bowl was uncovered with a camp burial disturbed 
near the city of Menasha. It was broken in getting it out, 
but was restored to its original form. It is of three gallons 

An elaborately decorated bowl was found with a burial 
while excavating for a basement in the city of Neenah. It 
was recovered intact, but was slightly damaged before 
thoroughly dry, by a bystander who wanted to examine it. 
It was secured by the late P. V. Lawson of Menasha, a 
former active member of the Wisconsin Society, and is now 
in the Oshkosh Public Museum. 

A very odd shaped handled pot was uncovered while dig- 

Cartographic Symbols. 129 

ging a trench for a drain on the Charles Kempf property 
in the Town of Poygan, on the south shore of Lake Poy- 
gan. It was broken in many pieces, but reconstructed, 
with a very few pieces missing. Both handles are in per- 
fect condition. This bowl is in my collection. 

While excavating for a garage in the city of Oshkosh, on 
the McCauley property on the Lake Drive, workman uncov- 
ered several Indian burials. A number of stone artifacts 
and a large pottery vessel were obtained. As usual, the 
pot was broken in many pieces. For this reason, the work- 
man paid slight attention to it, and it was shoveled into a 
wheelbarrow and dumped on a rubbish heap. Several 
hours later, I learned of this discovery and immediately 
went to the scene and recovered what I could find of the 
pieces. This was evidently a very large pot, artistically 

An elk's horn was also found, with every prong cut off 
square. One quite similar was found in Omro township 
several years ago; both are in my collection. 

We expect to carry on extensive excavation work near 
this spot within a short time and it is hoped other burials 
may be found. 

It is more than likely that many pottery vessels have been 
found in Winnebago county by persons who did not appre- 
ciate their value, and for that reason, their existence was 
never recorded. Many more will be found, without a 

We are on the lookout for these. Contractors have all 
been requested to report these finds to us, so that they may 
be preserved for the benefit of future Wisconsin archeolo- 


Charles E. Brown 

The late Prof. Cyrus Thomas was among the first inves- 
tigators to make use of cartographic symbols in the prep- 
aration of archeological survey maps. In the introductory 
pages of his "Catalogue of Prehistoric Works East of the 
Rocky Mountains," which was published by the Bureau of 


American Ethnology in 1891, he presents "a scheme of con- 
ventions adopted for Archeologic Cartography of North 
America." This table contains a total of 59 symbols and 
which are employed on the maps accompanying this report. 
Of this number 23 designate different types of aboriginal 
habitations such as village sites, wood lodges, earth lodges, 
stone lodges, igloo lodges, cliff lodges, cave lodges, towers, 
and groups of these. Twelve designate various classes of 
earthworks, such as round or conical mounds, effigy 
mounds, domicilary mounds, assembly mounds, mounds 
with stone graves, and enclosures, and groups of all of 
these. Six designate different types of interment in 
graves, such as ordinary graves, stone graves, cave burials 
and ossuaries, and groups of these. The remainder are in 
use in locating such other archeologic features as quarries, 
mines, shell heaps, refuse heaps, sculptures, cairns, pits, 
reservoirs, trails, and undefined antiquities. His symbols 
appear to be very well chosen and nearly all American 
archeologists who have since found it desirable or neces- 
sary to construct archeologic maps of any state or region 
have adopted some or many of his cartographic symbols. 

In the fine "Archeological Atlas of Ohio" prepared by him 
and published by the Ohio State Archeological and Histori- 
cal Society in 1914, Dr. William C. Mills has employed only 
thirteen symbols. In his cartographic table the symbols 
which he employs to locate enclosures (square), graves, 
cemeteries, petroglyphs, flint quarries and caches are iden- 
tical with those used by Professor Thomas, and are no 
doubt adopted from his table of these. Dr. Mills, how- 
ever, employs devices to designate the locations of mounds, 
effigy mounds and village sites which are different from 
those employed by Thomas. He also has symbols for en- 
closures (circular), enclosures (cresent), and rockshelters, 
none of which Indian remains Thomas designates in his 
maps. To designate the courses of trails Dr. Mills uses lines 
consisting of alternate dots and dashes, whereas Thomas 
uses dotted lines. Dr. Mills maps are very easily under- 
stood because all of his symbols and trails appear on them 
in red. 

Alanson Skinner and Max Schrabisch in their "Prelimi- 
nary Report of the Archaeological Survey of the State of 

New Jersey," published in 1913, employ seven symbols to 
designate as many different classes of Indian remains. 
These, which are printed on the map in red, are the least in- 
tricate of any. Thus a solid red circle represents a village 
site, a solid red square a burial ground, a solid red triangle 
a camp site, an open or ordinary square a shell heap, an 
open triangle, a rockshelter, an open circle a cache, and a 
St. Andrews cross scattered finds. 

In a report on the "Archaeology of Warren and Hunter- 
don Counties", of New Jersey, published in 1917, its author, 
Max Schrabisch, employs four symbols on his map. A 
solid red circle (dot) represents a camp site, an irregular 
oblique oval a village site, a double-barred cross a burial 
ground and a Y-shaped figure a rock shelter. 

Archaeological maps of other states and regions east of 
the Mississippi River show these and other symbols in use 
in designating the locations of Indian remains. 

In 1923 a bulletin of information entitled "State and Lo- 
cal Archaeological Surveys", containing suggestions in 
method and technique was prepared by Dr. Clark Wissler, 
then chairman of the Committee on State Archaeological 
Surveys of the Division of Anthropology and Psychology of 
the National Research Council. This was printed for the 
Committee by the State Historical Society of Iowa. In- 
cluded in this pamphlet is a figure showing "conventional 
signs for use in field maps", these being adapted from 
Mills' "Archeological Atlas of Ohio", and Parker's 
"Archaeological History of New York." The symbols sug- 
gested for use are only 22 in number and are intended to 
represent such archaeological remains as mound groups of 
several classes, village sites, camp and workshop sites, 
lodge circles, garden plots, enclosures of several kinds, 
boulder effigies, burials, cemeteries, shell heaps, rockshel- 
ters, quarries, petroglyphs, caches or pits, Indian springs, 
and trails. This report was re-printed by permission of the 
Iowa Society, by the National Research Council, in the same 

This bulletin has well served its purpose. If it is re- 
published or a large and more complete archaeological 
field manual is printed, which appears to be now highly de- 
sirable, the cartographic table recommended for the use of 



archaeological investigators, should be made much more 
complete than it now is. For instance if a separate sym- 
bol is assigned to designate each one of a number of dis- 
tinct classes of mounds, as is done in the 1923 bulletin, 
there is every reason why the same should be done to des- 
ignate the different kinds of aboriginal stone quarries, as 
flint, quartzite, quartz, rhyolite, pipestone, steatite, etc.; 
of mines, as copper, lead, hematite, mica, etc. ; of Indian 
springs, as sacred, medical, salt, etc.; of shrines, as 
spirit stones, sculptured rocks, pictograph rocks, etc.; of 
pits, asfire pits, refuse pits, game traps, threshing pits, 
etc., and of trails as main trails, minor trails (laterals), 
water trails, etc. 

There can be no real objection to the number of symbols 
employed in the preparation of a state or regional archaeo- 
logical atlas or map as long as the classification of archaeo- 
logical features thus designated is a proper one, and if a 
cartographic table of these accompanies the atlas or map. 

Paul B. Jenkins 

American Indian cross-bow, made and used by the Croa- 
tan (pronounced Croa-tan) branch of the Cherokees. 

Dimensions: Center of butt to front end of stock, 341/2 
inches. Bow, tip to tip, 36 1/2 inches. Center of butt to 
center of front face of trigger, 13 inches. Weight, 3 
pounds, 12 ounces. Stock of oak; bow, hickory. Bow- 
string, twisted raw-hide. No sights of any kind. 

The arrows used with these bows were of light, stiff 
reeds or of dogwood and similar common arrow-shaft ma- 
terial. Arrow-points were of flint or merely the shaft 

* "Passing reference should be made to the cross-bow in the Vir- 
ginia tidewater area where its introduction by Europeans among the 
Indians of colonial times parallels what happened northward as far 
as the Montagnis Nascapi. It is reported among the mixed Indian 
groups as far south as the Carolinas." Frank G. Speck, "Chapters 
on the Ethnology of the Powhatan Tribes of Virginia," bulletin of the 
Museum of the American Indian, Monographs, v. 1, No. 5, 1928. 

His illustration of this cross-bow shows a slightly curved bow and 
a straight stick-like stock, with a groove and simple "trigger". The 
length of this weapon is given as 32 inches. 

American Indian Cross-Bow. 133 

sharpened to a point and hardened by fire. Effective 
range, up to 30 yards. 

With these bows there were used true Indian arrows 
as the length and construction of the arrow-groove indi- 
cates and not an entirely different projectile, like the 
"bolt" of perhaps the majority of mediaeval cross-bows. 

It will be noted that the operation of the simple pivoted 
trigger of this weapon whose rear face simply shoves the 
drawn cord up and out of the notch to which it is pulled 
back is totally different from the revolving "nut" or catch, 
and separate trigger, of the English and Continental cross- 
bows. (It seems to the writer very doubtful whether such 
"mechanical ingenuity" as the American Indian ever pos- 
sessed, was capable of copying exactly the more compli- 
cated mechanism of the trigger-and-"nut" cord-release of 
the mediaeval cross-bow.) 

The hump directly above the trigger and cord-notch is 
a fixture for preventing the released cord from jumping, 
on its release from the notch, so high as to fail to strike 
the rear end of the waiting arrow. 

The entire weapon save the bow-string is of wood, 
not a piece of metal having been originally employed in its 
construction (though the mentioned hump has at some time 
been broken and repaired with small nails, which may be 
seen in the photograph.) 

In the use of the weapon an increased or decreased ten- 
sion of the bow with corresponding changed velocity and 
power of the arrow was effected by winding or unwind- 
ing the raw-hide bow-string from one end (in this case, 
the right-hand) of the bow. 


The Croatan Cherokees have lived since the discovery of 
America in eastern North Carolina, where the majority 
of them, probably some eight thousand in number, con- 
stitute nearly the entire population of a tract along the 
Lumber River, in Robeson County, a portion of which is a 
Government reservation. They and their leading white 
protagonists have long claimed that the famous "Lost Col- 
ony" of Roanoke Island in 1587, one of several expeditions 

organized by Sir Walter and whose complete disappearance 
by 1591 has ever since remained an historic mystery, joined 
the ancestral tribe near by, and intermarried and merged 
with it. While it is undeniable that there has occurred in 
the past, and is still practiced, a considerable infusion of 
white (and negro) mixture with their people, their claim 
to descent from the "Lost Colony" has, however, received 
scant acceptance from leading historians. Among the 
principal evidences offered in support of the allegation are 
(1) the recorded finding by a would-be rescuing party in 
1591, of the name of the tribe carved in English letters on 
a tree on the site of the vanished colony; (2) their long- 
standing family-names, of which not less than 60 are iden- 
tical with known names of members of the "Lost Colony," 
(3) some apparently old-English words still current among 
them ; and (4) the manufacture and use of these cross-bows, 
which are known to have been in use by them for long in 
the past, and up to 1870, or probably even later. 

It is indisputable that the manufacture and use of the 
cross-bow must have been learned by their ancestors from 
European arrivals. The cross-bow was in use in England 
for shooting deer up to 1621, on the Continent to 1635, for 
birds and small game as late as 1720, and for sport and tar- 
get-shooting until even much later. It is thus entirely pos- 
sible. for their use to have been acquired at any period be- 
tween 1590 and the early part of the eighteenth century. 
The distinctly gun-shaped butt and grip of the weapon 
shown is, however, a very late development of cross-bow 
construction, not earlier than the late seventeenth century ; 
and in the case of this arm was certainly copied directly 
from the stock of a gun, to which it bears every resem- 
blance of form, line and proportion. 

One of the leading elders of the tribe today (Mr. Calvin 
Lowrey of near Pembroke, Robeson County,) is authority 
(1929) for the statement that the weapon shown is be- 
lieved to have been made between an hundred and an hun- 
dred and fifty years ago, and at the time of its construc- 
tion to have been copied from others of then great antiq- 
uity. It was recently secured for the Museum of the 
North Carolina Historical Commission, at Raleigh. The 
photograph was secured through the courtesy of Col. Fred 

|U\YH Archrolcig-iral Survey. 135 

Olds, in charge of the Museum. A duplicate is still in the 
possession of the recognized head-chief of the Croatans. 
Owing to the present modernization of the younger mem- 
bers of the tribe and the remoteness of residence of many of 
the older people with their reverence for their relics of the 
past, the existence and one-time use of these arms has been 
practically unknown until recent years. 

Whatever be the true story of the origin of these arms, 
they certainly constitute the most unique and remarkable 
weapon known to have been made and used by any Ameri- 
can Indians, and they possessed qualities and an efficiency 
which sufficed to retain their use side by side with early 
firearms, for many years. 


Charles R. Keyes* 

In the fall of 1921, the writer was asked by Dr. Benj. F. 
Shambaugh, Superintendent of the State Historical Society 
of Iowa, Iowa City, to direct for the Society an archeological 
survey of the State. After conferences with Dr. Sham- 
baugh, Dr. Clark Wissler, then chairman of the National 
Research Council Committee on state archeological surveys, 
Mr. Edward K. Putnam, Director of the Davenport Acad- 
emy of Science, and others, it was decided that the survey 
should be preliminary in character and that work should be- 
gin as early as possible in 1922. Summer seasons and such 
other time as was available were to be devoted to the in- 

By a preliminary survey was meant the collecting of all 
possible existing information rather than the intensive 
study of a few sites. This meant of course the gathering 
of all possible published data and the locating of the largest 
possible number of people capable of making any contribu- 
tion of facts. 

As preparation for the survey activities, it was decided 
that a personal visit to places in nearby states where arche- 

* Prof. Charles R. Keyes of Cornell College, Iowa, is the director 
of a preliminary archeological survey of Iowa for The State Histori- 
cal Society of Iowa, Iowa City. 

136 \Vlsm.\Sl.\ ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. ,X, No. I 


ological work was being carried on would be highly desir- 
able and profitable. Accordingly, in March of 1922, visits 
were made to Madison, Wisconsin, to consult with Mr. 
Charles E. Brown, Chief of the State Historical Museum; 
to Milwaukee to confer with. Dr. S. A. Barrett, Director, 
and Mr. Alanson Skinner, Curator of Anthropology, of the 
Milwaukee Public Museum ; to Columbus, Ohio, to interview 
Dr. Wm. C. Mills, Director, and Mr. H. C. Shetrone, Cura- 
tor of Archeology, of the Ohio State Museum. On the first 
trip, the Field Museum in Chicago and the Historical Com- 
mission in Indianapolis were also visited. Later, as the sur- 
vey progressed, trips were made also into Nebraska, South 
Dakota, and Minnesota, as well as return trips to the states 
first mentioned. Incidentally too a number of libraries and 
museums in eastern states have been visited and used. 

The first product of the survey was a bibliography of sev- 
eral hundred titles. This included newspaper items and 
articles so far as these were accessible without the expendi- 
ture of an inordinate amount of time. In general the litera- 
ture, with the exception of the articles and notes in the 
early volumes of Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of 
Sciences and the extensive manuscripts of "The Northwest- 
ern Archaeological Survey" (conducted by Hill and Lewis 
from St. Paul as a base, 1881-1895) found in the State His- 
torical Society library at St. Paul, Minnesota, proved rather 
barren, though of course many items are valuable in them- 
selves or provide a starting point for subsequent investiga- 
tion. Most of the early work fell far short of scientific 
standards and all of it together was insufficient to give any 
idea of the prehistoric culture areas of the State. While the 
writer is glad to have in manuscript a rather extensive bib- 
liography of the antiquities of Iowa, he feels like advising 
those who may contemplate a similar undertaking to collect 
the pertinent titles as a by-product of the survey rather 
than to devote a considerable amount of time exclusively to 
the quest. 

Efforts to find those persons within the State and outside 
of it who possess unpublished information have been fairly 
successful. Some fifteen hundred letters mailed in Janu- 
ary, 1924, to members of the State Historical Society and 
others produced the unexpectedly large return of about one 

Archeological Survey. 

hundred answers, many of these with new and valuable in- 
formation concerning mound groups, village sites, names of 
collectors, and the like. A considerable amount of news- 
paper publicity was comparatively barren of results. Evi- 
dently people did not take newspaper appeals very seriously. 

Much the largest part of the substantial information 
possessed by the Iowa survey has been gathered through some 
six seasons of personal contact with the field. Each of the 
ninety-nine counties has been visited, some of them several 
times, and the number of contacts with persons capable of 
giving real assistance has been built up to exceed five hun- 
dred. As was anticipated, the collectors, with their collec- 
tions, were most prolific of information, although other pos- 
sible informants, especially the county agents and the coun- 
ty engineers, were also canvassed. A fortunate finding of the 
survey has been the fact that the great majority of the col- 
lectors are interested in local specimens only and thus are 
not burdened with a mass of uncataloged ancL worthless 
specimens obtained by exchange or purchase. Many are 
farm collectors whose finds are made on their own land only 
or at most extend no farther than the lands of their im- 
mediate neighbors. Others have gone a little farther afield 
and are able to tell of neighboring mound groups, cemeter- 
ies, cave deposits, and other antiquities. And even though 
the collector was not always aware of the existence of a 
village or camp site nearby, the presence in his collection of 
such objects as scrapers, hand mullers, and potsherds was 
often enough to point the way to these all-important loca- 
tions. With these collectors hundreds of miles have been 
traversed by almost every known method of land travel. 
Many miles were covered on foot or in boats in places where 
other means of transport did not avail. 

In several localities where cultural boundaries were es- 
pecially difficult to surmise from the collections studied or 
other indications found, excavations were carried out to a 
limited extent, in a few cases entire mounds being carefully 
examined, in most cases test excavations only being made. 
From the first all evidences uncovered were carefully noted 
and if possible collected for the survey: Artifacts of all 
kinds ; skeletal materials ; flint chips and other stone refuse ; 
kitchen refuse, including especially the potsherds. The sur- 


vey possesses materials from one hundred thirty-eight pot- 
tery-producing sites (village sites, mounds, cemeteries, cave 
deposits) and has examined materials which include pot- 
sherds from more than fifty others. On the basis of these, 
supplemented by the evidence furnished by the numerous 
collections and by the published accounts, it is believed pos- 
sible at this time to outline roughly the prehistoric culture 
areas of the State. 

The available evidence indicates, first of all, that the pre- 
historic culture of most of the State, nine-tenths of it pos- 
sibly, was of the Western Woodland type. This seems sur- 
prising, perhaps, in view of Iowa's reputation as a prairie, 
not a timberland state. As a matter of fact, however, 
nearly all of the Iowa streams originally carried more or 
less extensive belts of timber, and the lake margins also 
were nearly always furnished with their groves of oak and 
other native trees. The village sites, generally covering 
only an acre or two each, are situated (1) on the terraces 
of streams, both large and small; (2) on sandy ridges or 
knolls close to the streams; and (3) on the margins of the 
numerous lakes of the north central portion. A fourth 
type of inhabited site is to be found in the numerous rock 
shelters of the Niagara dolomite cliffs of the east central 
portion, some sixty of which are now known. All these 
inhabited sites produce potsherds of a type generally re- 
garded as characteristic of the Algonkian, roughly de- 
scribed as a rather soft, porous unpolished ware of a 
brown or red color; tempered with rather coarsely crushed 
granite; ornamented with fabric impressions, stamped, 
punched, rouletted, and occasionally incised designs; fash- 
ioned into vessels that usually have a rounded or round- 
pointed base. The vessels seem never to be supplied with 
handles, though occasionally small protuberences on the 
rims may have served as lugs. Smoothly drilled holes, the 
purpose of which is none too clear, are frequently found 
perforating either the rims or the bowls. In his Neale and 
McClaughry Mound Groups, McKern, without committing 
himself as to authorship of this type of pottery, which he 
says is also the type most common in Wisconsin, describes 
it in detail and designates it as Type I. Other criteria 
found on the inhabited sites, as well as on the adjoining 

Iowa Archeological Survej^. 139 

fields, also indicate the Algonkian type of culture : weak de- 
velopment of bone artifacts; strong development of work 
fn stone, this last resulting in a great number of types of 
chipped implements, ground-stone implements, and prob- 
lematical forms. A statement to the effect that all these 
woodland sites, as well as the wide spaces that lie between 
them, were actually occupied and controlled at some time 
by people of the Algonkian stock would be premature at 
present for. two reasons: 1) Algonkian criteria are not set- 
tled beyond all doubt for the Central Algonkian area and 
2) certain Siouan tribes, especially the Winnebago and the 
loway of the Chiwere group, are known to have been much 
under Algonkian influence and may have had a material 
culture not always distinguishable from the Algonkian. 
The Winnebago presumably had little to do with prehistoric 
Iowa, but all accounts agree that the loway had much to do 
with it. Up to the present, unfortunately, little is certain 
as to the loway prehistoric culture. 

All of the so-called "Algonkian" area, with the exception 
of a few counties in southwestern Iowa that are practically 
barren of tree growth, is plentifully provided with mounds. 
These are generally conical in shape, a few are oval, and a 
considerable number are linear. Of great interest are sev- 
en groups in the Des Moines valley between Ft. Dodge and 
Boone, where numerous linears are found mingled with the 
conicals. The mounds usually stand in groups on the 
stream terraces or the bluffs overlooking streams never, 
apparently, on the village sites themselves, but rather in 
proximity thereto. A rough estimate would place the num- 
ber of known mounds at about 8000. Their size is gen- 
erally moderate, ranging for the conicals from 25x25x2 
feet to 80x80x8 feet and for the linears from 12x60x1 1/ 2 
feet to 18x120x3 feet, approximately. The burials thus 
far encountered have been of the bundle reburial or flexed 
primary types, ordinarily without artifacts, though rather 
often accompanied by numbers of potsherds. 

Two comparatively small areas in Iowa, the area of the 
effigy mounds, running along the Mississippi bluffs and 
terraces from near the Minnesota line to the Dubuque line, 
and the Hopewell area, extending similarly from Bellevue 
in Jackson county to Toolesboro in Louisa county, appear 



also to belong to the woodland culture, the one separating 
itself from general Algonkian criteria (as these are now 
understood) only in respect to effigy-mound forms and the 
other only in respect to mound contents. The effigy -mound 
area shows many mounds of the effigy type, the bear and 
the bird predominating, intermingled with linear and coni- 
cal mounds, while the sizes and locations of village sites, 
the village-site criteria, and the mound contents (bundle 
reburials and flexed burials, generally without artifacts) 
are not thus far distinguishable from the "Algonkian" of 
most of the State. A rough estimate would place the num- 
ber of mounds of all kinds in the effigy area at about 2000. 
The Hopewell area shows the same mound types, without 
enclosures, and the same village-site criteria as the wood- 
land part of the State generally, but the mounds have pro- 
duced materials very similar to those of the type region of 
southern Ohio : copper axes and ornaments, curved-base, 
plain and effigy-bowl pipes, pearl beads, and extended, log- 
enclosed burials. The number of known Hopewell mounds 
is about 100, though other mounds within the limited area 
noted may well prove to belong to the same culture. A sin- 
gle mound on the upper Turkey river in Fayette county 
near Clermont produced Hopewell materials, while neigh- 
boring mounds produced bundle reburials only. Elsewhere 
in eastern Iowa also there are suggestions of the Hopewell 
which await fuller investigation. 

A very distinctive culture that occupied solidly the val- 
ley of the Upper Iowa river in Allamakee county, the north- 
eastern county in the State, is unidentified up to this time 
and is called for the present the Oneota, after the old name 
of the river where its remains are most continuous. In 
addition to the valley of the Upper Iowa, several village 
sites overlook the Little Sioux river in Dickinson and Clay 
counties ; again, the Little Sioux is occupied almost continu- 
ously for some five miles south of Correctionville in Wood- 
bury county; a very large site overlooks the Big Sioux in 
the northwest corner of the State in Lyon county ; another 
stands on the Des Moines river bluffs in Warren county; 
and finally a large site is found on the Mississippi bluffs 
adjacent to the Hopewell mounds at Toolesboro in Louisa 
county. In a general way this strange distribution cor- 

lo\va Arrheolog-ical Survey. 

responds to what we know of the wanderings of the loway ; 
but, if these sites are those of the loway, then their pre- 
historic culture was far removed from the Algonkian. The 
sites themselves, covering from ten to a hundred acres each, 
are much larger than the Algonkian and also their situa- 
tion is very different. Instead of being hidden away in 
the timber belts, they stand out in the open on high river 
terraces or broad, rounded bluffs of prairie type. They 
produce quantities of shell-tempered, unpolished potsherds, 
generally light brown in color, with plain decorations of 
trailed or punctate designs, and with the finger-imprinted 
rims either vertical or recurved. The vessels generally 
have either two or four handles set in the angle between 
the rim and the bowl. Hand mullers of granite and 
grooved hammers and mauls of the same material abound ; 
celts far out-number the rather crude all-round grooved 
axes; small triangular flint arrowheads and flake scrapers 
are the usual and simple types; and bone implements are 
plentiful. Both conical and oblong mounds, also enclosures 
of various sizes and shapes (square, round, elliptical, and 
irregular) originally stood on or near the village sites; 
but, as the sites were in the open, these works have suf- 
fered much from cultivation. Drawings of some of them 
may be seen in Thomas, Twelfth Annual Report. About a 
dozen Oneota enclosures are on record and some 500 
mounds appear to belong to the culture. Burials both in 
the mounds and in the nearby cemeteries are primary, us- 
ually extended, and often accompanied by artifacts : small 
mortuary pots of globular shape, diminutive Siouan and 
disk-stem pipes, tub.ular beads of thin copper, bone awls, 
and other objects. Petroglyphs on nearby cliffs of Jordan 
sandstone, and incised pictographs on small polished slabs 
of catlinite, these last usually field finds, appear to be prod- 
ucts of this culture. 

Another very distinctive culture, also an unknown, is 
found in northwestern Iowa. On the Little Sioux and two 
of its tributaries, Waterman's creek and Mill creek, begin- 
ning in the northwest corner of Buena Vista county, cross- 
ing the southeast corner of O'Brien county, and running 
southward nearly across Cherokee county, are thirteen 
compact village sites of from one to two acres each, situ- 


ated, except for a single hill-top site, on the edge of the 
second terrace next to creek or river and surrounded by a 
broad, shallow ditch. Two of the sites which have not 
been cultivated show plainly the circular depressions of 
large earth lodges, one a fourteen-lodge village, the other 
twenty-two. A single site of the same culture stands on 
Broken Kettle creek in Plymouth county about a mile 
from its confluence with the Big Sioux. The village 
refuse is deep and consists of great quantities of 
potsherds and other artifacts, fire-place stones, clam shells, 
animal bones, ash beds, and other debris. Broadly speak- 
ing the artifacts, except the pottery, parallel to a degree 
those of the Oneota. A larger proportion of the small 
triangular arrowheads have notched bases, the celt seems 
to displace the grooved ax even more completely, bone im- 
plements appear to be even more numerous, and there are 
other minor differences. A few discoidal stones are found 
and also a few shell and pottery animal effigies. The type 
of pipe most characteristic is uncertain, as but few speci- 
mens of any kind have been found. The pottery is dis- 
tinctive, with rather hard, fine texture ; tempering of finely 
crushed granite; gray or black color; globular bowls of 
small to medium size, often showing polish on one or both 
surfaces; vertical and recurved rims, which may be plain, 
provided with handles, or surmounted by small animal-head 
effigies. Further, the rims often show cross hatching or 
shallow notches at the top and designs of diagonal, incised 
lines on their outer surfaces. The bowls are either plain 
or encircled by parallel trailed lines. Some 200 rather 
small conical mounds are found on the neighboring hills 
and ridges, which apparently belong to the culture; how- 
ever, as only a small amount of amateur work has been 
done on these, their characteristics remain uncertain. The 
village sites themselves call to mind at once the Mandan 
villages of the Upper Missouri ; the artifacts, however, in- 
cluding the pottery, appear not to support very strongly a 
theory of Mandan origin. 

In several parts of Iowa there are suggestions of cultures 
which, on fuller examination, may well prove to differ from 
any of those to which reference is made above. Time se- 
quences are entirely unsolved, as no undoubted case of 

Apache Plant Uses. . 143 

stratification has been discovered. There are several 
claims to mound building within historic times, but none 
appears to be proven beyond all question of doubt. The 
absence of inclusive deposits of objects of white manufac- 
ture indicates that the mounds are all, or nearly all, of pre- 
historic origin. 


Albert B. Reagan, Ph.D. 

The White Mountain Apache region in Arizona may be 
divided into four distinct plant zones, according to altitude : 

1. This zone includes all the lands of the region above 
5,800 feet, It is well timbered, the principal trees being 
pine and fir. 

2. This zone includes all the lands whose altitude is be- 
tween 4,900 and 5,800 feet. In it the common juniper, 
Juniper occidentalis (cedar), pinyon, and cactus flourish, 
and grass grows fairly well. 

3. All the lower Canyon creek, Cherry creek and Salt 
river canyons, the foothills of the Apache mountains, and 
the region of the Hinton (Tertiary) formation included be- 
tween the altitudes of 3,500 and 4,900 feet are known as the 
zone of Cactus, Agave, "Oboine," and Artemisia (grease- 
wood and sagebrush). It is further characterized by the 
fact that its grass (Filaree and Grama), with few excep- 
tions, is poor, the soil on which it grows being derived 
from granite or late volcanic rocks. 

4. This is the zone of Cactus (Cereus giganteus, predom- 
imating), Yucca, and Agave (mescal, most nearly related 
to Agave decipiens). The altitude of this zone is from 
3,000 to 3,500 feet. It has a scanty vegetation, scarcely 
any grass at all ; but where there is water, a most luxuriant 
vegetation springs up. 

Below are some of the uses the Apaches made of the 
plants of the region. 

The Apaches, for the most part, live in tepees (which are 
also termed wickiups). They are somewhat dome-shaped, 


sometimes with conical top. They are of a framework of 
poles and limbs tied together, over which matting of brush, 
yucca leaves, rushes or flags are placed. Over this a can- 
vas is stretched, or yucca leaves, bark and flags are placed 
in thatch-work. The edifice is open at the top for the es- 
cape of smoke. The door is a low opening on one side, 
over which a blanket or a piece of skin is stretched. The 
fire is built in the center of the tepee. Also in summer the 
family often lives out doors within a circular, brush wind- 
break. They also sometimes set posts in the ground in the 
form of an oblong, on which they tie horizontal poles. They 
cover the inclosure over with a brush roof. Also, on the 
side poles they intertwine twigs and brush in a thatch-lat- 
tice work. Such a house, called a "wick-e-up," makes cozy 
quarters in summer. Sometimes only the posts are set in 
the ground and only a brush roof is made, forming an open 

In the summer wick-e-up, wooden frames are sometimes 
made with a pole base some two or three feet above the 
ground and on this, brush and dry grass are placed, over 
which blankets are spread for a bed. Sometimes the young 
men will also have a "fiddle" made out of a mescal stalk, 
on which they play "tunes" for their sweet-hearts. This 
about completes the furniture. 

The Apache woman still has her tus, water jug, made of 
woven willow splints, and daubed over both within and with- 
out with native resin. She grinds corn much as the Pueblo 
woman does, but has but one metate and one mano and no 
grinding box. To make the meal finer, she regrinds it. 
Flour is now purchased, not ground by the Apaches. Corn 
pone is baked in or under the ashes, or in lard in a skillet. 
A sort of pancake is also made of corn meal in which no 
salt is used in the making, nothing except meal and water 
is used. When thoroughly stirred it is baked in a skillet 
held right side up. Mush is also made much as the white 
women make it, except it is stirred with two sticks. A corn 
bread and also a flour dough bread are also wrapped in 
green corn husks and baked in the ashes, as is also grass- 
seed occasionally. Corn smut is also eaten; on August 22, 
1901, the writer saw one Apache, V-29, make a meal on 

Apache 1'lant I'scs. 145 

honey and boiled smut*. Also, green corn when not yet 
in the "milk" is boiled and eaten cob and all. Walnuts are 
mashed, kernels, hulls and all, and when mashed fine, the 
women pour water over the mixture and boil it. They then 
filter the product; the filtered material is white and tastes 
much like milk. It is a very nutritious food. Green corn 
is also roasted before the fire or in the husks under the 
ashes, or boiled. 

Also, at husking time, green corn is gathered and thrown 
into a pile by itself. When the field is all gathered and 
the ripe corn husked, a pit is dug and a large quantity of 
wood thrown into it. On this stones are piled. The wood 
is then ignited. When the wood has burned down to the 
live coal stage, wet grass, twigs or corn husks are thrown 
over it and the green corn, with the husks on, is hurridly 
thrown on same. More wet grass or fodder is thrown over 
the corn and about six inches of dirt heaped over the pile. 
Just before closing the top, a quantity of water is poured 
in to make steam. The cooking process is then let have its 
course for twenty-four hours, when the dirt is removed and 
the corn taken out. The husks are then stripped up and 
tied together and the corn hung out on the cob to dry. 
When dried it is shelled and stored in large storage baskets 
or jugs for use when needed. The pit is left as a sort of 
mound for future generations to speculate over. 

The bean pod of a species of locust tree that grows in the 
region, probably Robinia neo-mexicana Gray, or the mes- 
quite bean, a tree that resembles our eastern locust tree 
very much, is taken when quite matured and dried. The 
pods and beans are then crushed on the metates to a fine 
powder which is sweet and is called "sugar" by the 
Apaches. The pounded-up pulp is mixed with water and 
cooked or is eaten raw. 

In gathering and preparing mescal tubers (mescal or ma- 
guay plant, our Century plant (Agave americana) or a close 
relative (cousin) of it, is the plant referred to, it having a 
very large beet-like root) , the women go in a company to 

* It ought to be stated that the corn smut (Ustilago maydis) is 
used in the solid state only, while it is firm and white, otherwise the 
reader may form a very erroneous concepton. Corn smut is eaten 
as other fungi, such as mushrooms, are eaten. M. R. Gilmore, 


the hills where it grows, the best place being in the break- 
country east of Canyon creek and in the Oak creek region. 
Here they camp and proceed to the hills to collect the tu- 
bers. There are usually six or eight women in the group 
and it takes them about two days to gather a ton of tubers 
and carry them to the camp (the beet-like root being 
gathered just before the stem is run up by nature to go to 
seed). When enough are gathered, a large pit is dug and 
filled with dry wood. On this a large quantity of stones are 
piled. The wood is then ignited and when it burns down 
to live coals and the stones are a white heat, wet twigs, or 
rushes or flags are placed on them to a thickness of about 
a foot. The mescal roots are then hurled on the smoking 
mass and wet grass and twigs placed over them and then all 
snugly closed over with a foot or more of earth. A fire is 
then kindled over this pile and kept burning. The cooking 
process is let have its course for a whole day. The pit is 
then opened and the tubers taken out and the mound left to 
puzzle the world after the Indians will have disappeared 
from it. The tubers are then packed on burros or carried 
by the women to their tepees and stored for future use. 
They taste like squash, except that 'they have a slightly 
burned taste. The are good food. The Apaches also pre- 
pare an intoxicating beverage, called tisivin, from the 
"heart" or center of the unopened cluster of leaves of this 
plant. This heart is cooked in the same manner as the tu- 
ber, as described above. When it has been thoroughly 
cooked for about fifteen days, the roots and heart are of a 
semi-gelatinous consistence. They are then crushed on the 
metates or in a vessel made for the purpose and the liquor 
poured off into retaining vessels, where it is kept until fer- 
mentation sets in, when they call together all their friends 
and relatives, sometimes the whole tribe, and have a dance, 
which often terminates in a drunken carousal. 

In picking berries, the Indian woman goes to the woods 
and picks them and brings them home. She then usually 
sets them before her host without cooking them. There are 
not many berries in the region. 

There is a great variety of cactus in the region, ranging 
from sour to sweet. The Indian women know when each, 
kind ripens and they make long journeys to secure them, 

J'lant Uses. 1 IT 

The fruit is spiny, but fine eating when the spines are re- 
moved. These the women remove by rolling the fruit in the 
-sand or by rubbing it with a piece of buckskin. All kinds 
of the fruit are eaten as we would eat an apple, except the 
sweet kind, the fruit of the giant cactus (Cercus gigantea), 
which is made into a kind of butter. 

The women go in large numbers to gather pine (pinon) 
nuts every fall. Sometimes a whole band will go. Once 
the writer saw all the Apaches of the reservation from Car- 
rixo westward scouring the Catholic buttes and Cherry 
creek region west of the reservation for nuts. The nuts 
are gathered in the cone which is either burned off the nuts 
near where gathered or after the return home. In this 
process of charring the cones, the nuts are roasted. The 
nuts are next beaten out of the cones. Usually the cone 
is burned or dried till the nuts fall out. These are collected 
and stored in storage jars or baskets for future use. When 
needed the quantity required is placed in an open tray and 
live coals placed with them to further roast them. Then the 
tray is shaken and lightly tossed to aid the parching process 
and to keep the tray from burning. When sufficiently 
roasted, they are taken from the tray and the charcoal and 
ashes removed by tossing (winnowing) them in the wind. 
They are then eaten after removing the "hulls." They are 
also ground on the grinding slabs, hulls and all, and then 
the pinon-nut-flour, thus made, is made into soups and also 
baked like bread cakes, which is good to eat. 

One of the yucca plants (Yucca baccata Torr, and also 
Y. glauca Nutt.) that grows in the region has a pod on it 
which looks something like a bean pod but much larger, re- 
sembling a banana somewhat in shape. This pod is gath- 
ered by the women and roasted before the fire or in the 
ashes. The pod, not the seed, is then eaten, after the epi- 
dermis is removed. It has a slightly burned squash taste, 
but is relished by the Indians. The pod of this plant is also 
dried, after it is split open and the seeds and seed-ribbon 
are removed. It is then boiled when needed. When thus 
prepared, it has a pumpkin flavor. The Apaches also use 
the leaves of the Yucca baccata for strings, splitting the 
leaves into the desired size of the strings. In earlier times 
this yucca leaf was reduced to fiber and made into cloth, 


ropes, cords, etc. The Y. ylauca leaf is also used as "moc- 
casin strings," cords, and as counters in various games. 

A certain acorn (Quercus undulata, var.), called chechil 
by the Apaches, is hulled and the kernel then ground and 
mixed with flour or meal in parts one to five and made into 
bread. "Coffee" is also made out of this preparation, by 
browning the acorns ; and they are also eaten raw. 

Pumpkins are eaten much as we use them. The common 
pumpkin when only half grown is also cut into slices and 
cooked (boiled) seeds and all and then eaten without being 
salted. Squash is also eaten in the same way. 

Melons are raised and eaten ripe or green, rind and all. 
The eating of green melons is the cause of much sickness. 

The leaves of a certain gourd (Cucurbita perennis Gray?) 
that grows in the region are ground up and used as "green 
paint" in making sand paintings. Green corn is cut from 
the cob and mashed to a pulp on the metates, as previously 
noted. It is then often just salted and made into a cake 
and baked in the ashes. The wedding cake, when one is 
made, and the coming-out ceremonial "cake" are also made 
of this mashed green corn, or from finely ground corn meal. 
It is "sweetened" with a yeast preparation made from the 
chewed root of Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers., very similar 
to the way the Zuni, Hopi, and Navajos prepare the "cake" 
for the same ceremonies. The dried root is preserved in 
sacks for this use. In the preparation, a piece of the root 
is chewed and kept in the mouth for a couple of days, a 
virgin usually doing this stunt. The meal is then chewed 
in the mouth with the chewed-up root, or in the "freshened 
mouth" without it, to sweeten it. Often the meal is just 
held in the mouth until the accumulation of the salvia forces 
her to eject the mass, which is deposited in a containing ves- 
sel. This is continued till enough meal is sweetened for 
the "cake." The Apaches now also use sprouted corn and 
partly sprouted wheat to produce this "sweetening." The 
root of E. serphy Hi folia is also used in making tiswin and 
tulapai, as will be mentioned later. 

Walnut kernels and green corn are also mashed together 
on the metates and baked in cake-form. 

The roots of both Yucca boccata Torr. and Y. glauca Nutt. 
are used as "soapweed." The roots are collected and taken 

home and when needed they are pounded up into pulp and 
put in water, which is soon a lather. Baths are then taken 
in it. It is used especially for the hair. The hair is 
shampooed in it, then combed with a stiff (Bouteloua gra- 
cilis (H. B. K.) Lag.) blue grama grass comb, a wisp of 
stiff grass tied in a bundle by a cord and the stiff ends used 
as a comb, the other end often being used as a broom*. The 
hair is then hung over the uplifted arm to dry in the sun, 
after which it is combed and done up according to the cus- 
tom of the Apaches. 

The hay of the region is alfalfa and wild hay. There is 
not much of the former and what there is, is put up some- 
what in the ordinary way. The wild hay, Bouteloua 
gracilis Lag., Eriocoma cuspidata Nutt., Sporobolus stric- 
tus (Scribn.) Merrill, Epicompes rigens Benth; and other 
grasses, grows in bunches as bunch grass and grasses that 
fill little vales in the mountains and along the canyon sides. 
The hay is sold to the U. S. Indian Department and for- 
merly to the Fort and is cheaper than hay that is shipped 
from Holbrook (?). When haying time comes, the In- 
dians go to the hills to cut hay. As the hay is usually in 
bunches and small patches it is cut by hand, usually by the 
women with the old fashioned sickle and even with butcher 
knives ; if a scythe is used, it is usually wielded by the men. 
When a sufficient quantity of the hay is cut, dried and col- 
lected, often being carried long distances by arm loads, it is 
loaded on burros and pack horses and packed to the agency 
or military post for sale ; there are but few wagon roads on 
which to haul the hay. It is a picturesque sight to see a 
long train of burros descending from the mountains laden 
with hay. The year the writer was at the Fort, more than 
200 tons were delivered by the Indians in this manner. 

In the old times the seeds of these same grasses and 
other grasses were gathered, ground, and made into bread. 
The Apaches told the writer that they also mixed the 
ground seeds with meal and water and made the mixture 
into a mush, or a pone which they baked in husks or in the 

* All the tribes of the Plains of my acquaintance made such hair 
brushes from the stiff awns of Stipa spartea (needlegrass). M. R. 


In the making of baskets and water jugs, the Apache 
women gathers a great quantity of willow withes or 
switches of the younger growth of Salix irrorata Anders 
and stems of a sumac (Rhus trilobata Nutt.?). These she 
ties in bundles, which she keeps in a moist place till used. 
When needed, she splits the withes into halves with her 
fingers and teeth, beginning at the heavy end. Then she 
scrapes them to remove the bark and to get them the prop- 
er thickness; the sprouts are sometimes steamed to aid in 
the splitting process. When a sufficient number is pre- 
pared, the basket weaving is begun. A certain number of 
stiff switch-sprouts are woven into a circle with the sticks 
for a base or bottom. The unsplit sticks are then let pro- 
ject in the vertical as ribs or framework around which the 
split sticks are interwoven and intertwined, often so closely 
as to make the receptacle practically water tight. Rib 
sticks are added as needed with the enlarging structure, 
and if the article is to be a jug, they are cut out as it nar- 
rows-in. To finish the article, the rib pieces are often in- 
terwoven as the finishing layer and the whole layer tied 
down with buckskin or interwoven slender withes. Some- 
times a strong withe or a wire is added to make it strong, 
especially in the case of the carrying baskets. Ears are 
also interwoven in loop-form on the opposite sides of the 
article for the attachment of straps, if the article is to be 
used for carrying purposes. In the making of the tus, or 
wide-mouthed water jug, it is woven as carefully as pos- 
sible and then gummed with warm pinon (Pinus edulis En- 
gelm.) pitch both inside and out. A stopper for it is then 
made of a bunch of grass or small brush, as needed. In 
finishing the tus, attachments are woven in the opposite 
sides, about at the top of the bulge, for the fastening of 
the head strap used in carrying it. The tus vary in size, 
the larger carrying ones holding about five gallons. A 
large, unpitched, wide-mouthed storage jar is also made, 
varying in size from a few gallons to a fifty gallon size. 
The baskets vary in size and form according to use. The 
principal kinds are carrying baskets, which will hold about 
a sack of grain, and the smaller baskets made for sale. 
Flaring trays of various shapes and sizes are also made in 
large numbers. 

Apui'hr Plant t'scs. 

The gathering of the cattail flag (Typha latifolia L.) pol- 
len for religious use is done by the women, though the 
writer was advised that some of it was collected by the 
members of the medicine fraternity. This pollen is called 
hadn-tin or hoddentin by the Apaches and Tadatin by the 
Navajos. It is used in every important ceremonial per- 
formance. It is also sprinkled upon the surface of the 
water before crossing a stream. 

The women make tiswin or tulapai as ordered by their 
husbands or by the band. This is an intoxicant made from 
corn or fermented mescal stalk and root. If made from 
corn, the corn is soaked, then placed under the sheepskin 
or blanket bed and slept on to make it sprout. The 
Apache bed is usually a little excavated place in the ground 
to fit the hips over which is placed the bedding. The corn 
is then dried, after which it is crushed on the metates into 
meal. Then various perennial weeds and roots are added, 
including that of the Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers., also a 
small quantity of the root-bark of the "lignum-vitae" tree, 
some loco weed, the peyote bean (the same part of the cac- 
tus plant as is used in the Peyote Society ceremonies), and 
also the juice of the jimpson weed (Datura meteloides DC.), 
or the powdered root of that plant. The whole is then put 
into five gallon coal oil cans, water added and the whole 
boiled for several hours. The "white water" is then poured 
off into empty cans and the residue recrushed on the grind- 
ing slabs. This residue is then put into the "white water" 
again and the whole reboiled. It is then set away and let 
ferment for from sixteen to twenty-four hours when it is 
ready to drink. The Indians claim that it is nutritious, 
but as an intoxicant, it is proving a great detriment to the 

Not only is this tulapai or tiswin an intoxicant but vari- 
ous herbs, including the loco and jimpson weed are often 
added to give the desired effect, although they undermine 
the health. This drinking also causes indolence besides 
the loss of the grain consumed. While drinking, fights 
and immoral practices that otherwise would not occur are 
indulged in. The drinking not only lowers the Indian's 
resistence against disease, but the exposure often indulged 


in while drunk brings on (or conduces to) pneumonia and 

An Indian in one valley makes his wife take the corn the 
family needs, sprout it, and turn it into tulapai. The day 
it ferments he invites his male friends from far and near 
to come and drink with him, and the women in the imme- 
diate vicinity also partake of the liquor. The brawl lasts 
throughout the night. Men and women get drunk and do 
not know what they are doing. Besides indulging in im- 
moral practices and fights, they lie in the night air often 
entirely naked, for hours at a time so that consumption 
and pneumonia often decimate the tribe as a result of such 
exposures. The next day there is a tulapai drinking in 
another valley and all the men go to it, while the women, 
weakened by the previous night's brawl, are left at home 
to do the farm work that their husbands should be doing. 
The next day there is a drunk in another valley, and so on 
throughout the revolving year. 

Drinking mothers often give this tulapai, in large quan- 
tities, to their children even when babies. As an example 
of the effects of tulapai I may cite the instance of a woman 
west of Fort Apache who gave her two weeks old baby 
tulapai at one of their drunks in the spring of 1901. The 
little one died from the effects before morning. 

At Cibicue an Indian stabbed another in the bowel-region 
with a butcher knife, and the writer had to put his intes- 
tines back and sew him up. Another Indian stabbed an- 
other nearly to death on Cibicue creek the same year. 
Two chiefs also killed each other while drunk there some 
years previous, and it was an attempt to restore these two 
men to life that brought on the battle of Cibicue in an effort 
to arrest the chief medicine man Nakaidoklinni, and so on. 
The writer has seen more than 100 Apaches drunk on 
tulapai at one time. There can be no more damaging thing 
to their race. Unless stopped, consumption and kindred 
diseases will in time end this race of once hardy people. 
The writer is glad to note that the Indian Department is 
using strenuous measures to suppress the tulapai traffic 
and has special officers, both- white and Indians, for that 

All the Apaches have fetishes and other things of like 

Plant Uses. ir ' :: 

nature. Some are arrow heads and relics from the ruined 
villages of the region. Feathers, skins of birds and ani- 
mals, claws, bear feet, shells and fossils are sometimes 
used for this purpose. Carvings of parts of trees that 
lightning has struck, the wood being considered sacred, 
also scalps of people killed in the raids of the long ago, 
rock crystals, etc., are used for the same purpose. Many 
of these are alleged to keep their fetish power if rubbed 
with blood now and then. Deer or human blood is usually 
used. The wood carvings are often in effigy shape, though 
in miniature. The smaller trinkets are often worn sus- 
pended over the chest from a cord surrounding- the neck. 
Claws, bear feet, and the like are often w r orn as beads sus- 
pended from the neck. They are also often inclosed in a 
buckskin sack and worn suspended over the chest or tied in 
the clothing. The medicine men have different fetishes for 
each special use. The Apaches believe that these fetishes 
give power in the sphere in which the fetish is supposed to 
control, even conferring supernatural powers to the medi- 
cine man. There are fetishes controlling every undertak- 
ing in life, also those that control sickness and death and 
the mysterious powers of the universe. 

The medicine bag is a little buckskin sack filled with 
various powders, cat-tail flag pollen, berries, seeds, and 
small trinkets. This bag is concealed somewhere about the 
clothing. Its contents are sprinkled in prayer to the gods 
of the universe and over altars to same, over people in the 
dances, and over the sick in the medicine ceremonies. The 
Apache thinks this "medicine" has the power to carry the 
prayers of men to the deities and to bring about the result 
prayed for. 

The medicine accoutrements of the Apaches are their 
fetishes, tokens, medicine bags and other things of a similar 
or allied nature. Medicine hats and various forms of regalia 
and the things of war, such as shields, tomahawks, bows and 
arrows, which are now regarded as having medicinal value 
though formerly used in war, also medicine staffs, effigies, 
wooden gods, wooden lizards, wooden snakes, wooden frogs, 
yucca lath wands, yucca lath playing sticks used in the 
medicine game, yucca lath masked hats, the three dice- 
sticks used in the Setdilth game, medicine hoops, medicine 


canes, and many other things are used in doctoring the 
sick. These things are considered not only as medicine ac- 
coutrements, but are sacred to the Indians; and it is with 
a great deal of reluctance and mental pain that any of them 
will be parted with. 

The Apaches are a much diseased people. The drinking 
of so much Indian whiskey and exposure while drunk, filth 
and sleepless nights at medicine ceremonies are breaking 
down the race. The principal diseases are pneumonia and 
tuberculosis in its various forms, pneumonia usually being 
followed by consumption; tracoma and other eye diseases 
and much- stomach trouble, which medicinal practices tend 
to spread rather than cure. 

As remedies for diseases, the Apaches also effect some 
cures through the use of herbs and minerals. For pains 
in the back, fits, faints, etc., the patient is rubbed with 
scorching cedar and pinon twigs, or burning spruce twigs. 
For stomach trouble, the root of the common reed (Phrog- 
mites communis Trin.) and the root of a "calamus" plant 
is used. The tea of sassafras bark is used as a blood reme- 
dy. For gonorrhea and syphilis they take a tea concocted 
from Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats, which colors the urine 
white. For these same two diseases they take certain 
quantities of the saline deposits that cover the muddy bank 
of Carrixo creek, which seems to consist of sodium-magne- 
sium chloride, sodium sulphate and possibly some potas- 
sium iodine. They also use the bark of several herbs and 
trees, among which are the bark of Populus tremuloides 
and the stems of Ephedra nevadensis Wats, to cure ague, 
fevers and gonorrhea. The bark and herbs are pounded 
up, crushed into a semi-pulverulent condition, then made 
into a tea and the concoction drunk in great quantities. In 
veneral diseases the male genitalia is wrapped in the pul- 
verized decoction, and the vagina filled with it. A splint 
made of cedar bark is also sometimes used to splint frac- 
tures of legs and arms. As a remedy for diseases, the 
medicine game is also played, the dice-sticks being yucca 
lath; and as a last resort the sand-painting, gunelpieya- 
yavachai ceremonies are held, ground up charcoal, various 
colored sand rocks and green leaves being the principal 
paints used in making the painting. Following the said 

Apache Plant Uses. 155 

painting ceremonies comes the medicine dance, which is 
the final act, as the patient usually dies soon thereafter. 


Agave americana? and A. decipiens' Amaryllis family. 

The mescal tubers of these plants are baked in a pit oven 
and eaten, tasting much like slightly burned squash. A 
fermented drink, called tiswin, is also made from the heart 
and tubers of the same plants. 

Agropyron repens Beauv. Blue Joint Grass. Grass 
family. The seed of this plant was formerly eaten. The 
grass is now cut for hay. 

Allium bisceptrum Watson, var. Onion, Lily family. 
Bulbs eaten, both raw and cooked. 

Alnus tenuifolia Nutt. Alder. Birch family. The bark 
is employed in dyeing deerskin and other skins a reddish 

Amaranthus albus, A. blitoides S. Wats (Tumble weed), 
and A. hybridus paniculatus (L.) Uline & Bray (Purple 
Amaranth) . Amaranth family. The seeds of the first two 
were formerly eaten, and the flowers of the last were used 
as face paint. 

Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Sagebrush. Composite- 
Thistle family. Used as tea and seasoning. 

Artemisia wrightii Gray. Thistle family. Used as food. 

Asclepias galioides H. B. K. Milkweed. Milkweed fam- 
ily. The children eat the first buds of this plant. 

Astragalus diphysus Gray. Milk Vetch. Pea family. 
The pea fruit is gathered and eaten both raw and cooked. 

Berberis fremontii Torr. Barberry. Barberry family. 
Used in the ceremonies, because of its yellow wood. 

$Berula erecta (Huds.) Colville. Water Parsnip. Car- 
rot family. Leaves and blossoms were occasionally eaten 
in the old times. They were also used as medicine. 

Bouteloua gracilis (H. B. K.) Lag. Blue Grama. Grass 
family. Securely wrapped bunches of this grass serve for 
several purposes. The stump end is used as a hair brush, 
while the other end is used as a broom, when a brush is not 
used for that purpose. The seed of this plant was also 
eaten in the old times. 


Castilleia Integra A. Gray, C. miniata Dougl., C. parvi- 
flora Bong., and C. minor Gray. Indian Paint brush. Fig- 
wort family. The bark of the root is used with other sub- 
stances in coloring various kinds of skins, especially deer 

ZCercocarpus parvifolius Nutt. Mountain Mahogany. 
Rose family. The wood of this plant was made into bows, 
and powdered charcoal, made from it, was used on burns. 

Cereus gigantea and other Cereus species. Cactus fam- 
ily. The fruit of these species, which is usually sweetish, is 
collected and used as food, often being made into a kind of 

Chenopodium leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt. (Pigweed or 
Narrow-beaked Lambs-quarter) , and C. incanum Watson 
(Desert Lambs-quarter). Goosefoot family. The seed was 
ground and used as food in the old times. The young 
sprouts were also boiled with meat and eaten. 

Chrysothamnus bigelovii (A. Gray) Greene. Rabbit 
Brush. Thistle family. Seed ground and used as food. 
Blossoms were formerly used in dyeing yellow. 

Coreopsis cardamine folia Torr: & Gray. Thistle family. 
Used in dyeing things a dark rich red. 

$Cowania mexicana Don. Cliff Rose. Rose family. Leaves 
used as medicine. 

ZCroton texensis (Klotzsch) MuelL Croton. Spurge fam- 
ily. A tea made from this plant is used for stomach trouble, 
and as a purgative. 

Cucurbita pepo L. Squash. Gourd family. Used as food 
as previously described. The blossoms of the squash and 
pumpkins were also eaten, being cooked with other things, 
or baked as parts of certain kinds of cakes. Watermelons 
are also highly prized by the Apaches, being eaten whether 
ripe or green and eaten rind and all. 

Cucurbita perennis Gray? Gourd family. The ground-up 
leaves of this plant are used as "green paint" in making 
sand paintings. 

Cycloloma artriplici folium (Spreng.) Coulter. Winged 
Pigweed. Goosefoot family. Flour was formerly made from 
the seed of this plant. 

Watura meteloides DC. Jamestown Weed, Jimson Weed, 
Thorn Apple. Nightshade family, The juice of this plant 

Apache Plant Uses. 157 

and also the ground-up flower and roots are used as a disin- 
fectant. The juice or ground-up root is put in tulapai to 
make "heaven and earth meet," and the straight juice, 
mixed with water and let ferment, is drunk for the same 
purpose. The same effect is also obtained by eating the 
root and blossom, whether fresh or dried. The powdered 
root is a strong narcotic, and is used in the religious-medi- 
cine ceremonies to produce a happy, prophesying state. 

This plant is similarly used by the Navajos and Zuni. A 
case of a half Piute-Navajo, Natannie, at Kayenta, Arizona, 
getting drunk on the Datura root and being delirious for 
four days is one which the writer and other white men had 
to watch to keep the Indian from falling into the fire or 
committing suicide. 

SDithyraea ivislizeni Engelm. Spectacle-pod. Mustard 
family. Drunk as a tea in some of the medicine ceremonies, 
producing a sort of intoxication and "much talking," for 
which effect it is drunk. It is also used as an external 
medicine. The entire plant is pounded up, mixed with a 
little warm water and applied externally for throat trouble 
and for reducing swellings. 

Epicampes rigens Benth. Grass family. Seed used as 
food. Grass now cut as hay. 

$Ephedra nevadensis S. Wats. Teamster's Tea; Mormon 
Tea. Joint-fir family. A tea, made from the stem and 
leaves of this plant, is drunk as a beverage. This same 
tea is drunk as a remedy during the first stages of syphilis. 
It is also used as a remedy for gonorrhea. It causes the 
urine to be whitish, or milky in color. 

The Navajos and Zuni also use the tea made from this 
plant as a remedy for venereal troubles. The Navajos also 
use it for kidney complaints. However, it is not given the 
Navajo women as a remedy for venereal diseases, another 
plant furnishing a remedy for these diseases in their case, 
a remedy that makes them sterile thereafter, the Navajos 

Eriocoma cuspidata Nutt. Grass family. Seed used as 
food in the old times. The grass is now cut for hay. 

tEnogonum jamesii Benth. Buckwheat family. Used 
as medicine and in the medicine ceremonies, The plant is 
also chewed to sweeten the saliva. 


Euphorbia serpylli folia Pers. Spurge. Spurge family. 
Used as a mouth sweetener, etc., as previously mentioned. 

ZHelianthus annuus L. Sunflower. Thistle family. Seeds 
were made into flour in the old times. This plant, with 
other plants, is used as a remedy for snake bites. The 
plants are crushed together on the metates and the ground 
product is placed on the wound. 

SJuniperus californica, var. utahensis (J. utahensis) 
(Juniper) ; J. monosperma (Engelm.) Sargent (Cedar) ; 
and J. occidentalis Hook (Cedar). Juniper family. A tea, 
made of the leaves of the trees of this family, was used for 
coughs and colds. The berries were also boiled and eaten. 
The tea was also taken by women previous to childbirth, 
it being supposed to cause muscular relaxation. Scorch- 
ing juniper and cedar twigs are also rubbed on people, as a 
remedy for fits. 

Lactuca pulchella DC. Wild Lettuce. Chicory family. A 
gummy substance from the root is used as chewing-gum. 
The Navajos and Zuni also chew this gummy material as 

Lavauxia triloba (Nutt.) Spach. Evening Primrose. 
Evening Primrose family. The ground-up root was occa- 
sionally used as food in the old times. 

-Linum puberulum (Engelm.) Heller. Yellow Flax. Flax 
family. The "juice of the berry" of this plant is used as eye 
medicine, at times. 

Lycopcrdon sp. Puffball. Puff ball family. Puff balls, just 
before reaching the powdered state, and mushrooms are 
gathered and eaten, but their preparation is unknown to 
the writer. 

$Malacothrix glabrata. Arizona Dandelion. Composite 
family. Roots used as a blood medicine. 

Mamillaria sp. Cactus family. After the removal of the 
outer portion the inner part is used as food, and is good 

VMentzelia pumila Torr & Gray. Stick-leaf. Loasa family. 
A very common pest in the region. The powdered root is 
sometimes used as medicine for constipation. 

zNicotiana attenuata Torr., and N. palmeri Wild.? Wild 
Tobacco. Nightshade family. Smoked in the medicine cere- 

Apache Plant Uses. 159 

monies. It was smoked more formerly than at present, 
commercial tobacco taking its place. 

Opuntia arborescens Engelm., and O. whipplei Engelm. 
Cane Cactus. Cactus family. The spines on the fruit of these 
plants are carefully rubbed off. The fruit is then usually 
eaten raw, though it is occasionally stewed. It is also 
sometimes dried for winter use. 

*Pentstemon torreyi Benth? Bear-tongue. Figwort fam- 
ily. Used as magic medicine. 

Phaseolus angustissimus A. Gray. Wild Bean. Pea fam- 
ily. The use of this plant was not learned. 

Phaseolus vulgaris L. Bean. Pea family. Beans of all 
kinds are eaten by the Apaches. 

zPhragmites communis Tri. Common reed. Grass family. 
The root of this plant is used as medicine for stomach 
trouble, diaorrhea, and kindred diseases. The reed, be- 
tween the joints, is used as pipe stems, and the reed stalk 
is used as an arrow shaft when hunting small birds with 
arrows. The reed between the joints is also used as a 
cigaret, much as the Navajos use it. The hollow is filled 
with tobacco and ignited. The smoker then puffs the smoke 
in turn to each of the sacred regions. 

Physalis fendleri A. Gray. Ground Cherry. Nightshade 
family. The fruit of this plant is eaten both raw and 
cooked, though not eaten as much as formerly. 

-Pinus edulis Engelm. Pinon. Pine family. The nut of 
this tree is eaten raw and prepared for use, as previously 
described. The chewed leaves are used as a remedy for 
venereal diseases. 

SPolygonum lapathi folium L. Smart weed. Buckwheat 
family. Used as medicine, much the same as the whites 
used to use it. 

Populus angusti folia James, and P. wislizeni (S. Wats) 
Sargent. Cottonwood. Willow family. The buds of these 
trees are eaten, or used as chewing-gum. They are also 
similarity used by the Navajos and Zuni. 

tPseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. (Douglas Fir), 
and p. taxifolia (Spruce). Pine family. The pitch of these 
two trees is used as gum, also in pitching tusses, etc., also 
for coughs. 


Psilostrophe tagetina (Nutt.) Greene. Thistle family. 
A yellow dye is produced from the blossoms. 

tPtiloria tenuifolia (Torr.) Raf. Chicory family. Said 
to be a cure for rattle-snake bite. The ground-up powder 
of the dried plant is applied to the bite, the wound being 
first sucked to draw out the poison. 

Quercus undulata Torr., var, and Q. gambellii Nutt. 
Rocky Mountain Oak. Oak family. The acorn of the oak 
is eaten, as previously described. The bark is also used in 
tanning skins. 

Rhus trilobata Nutt. Sumac. Sumac family. Used in 
basket weaving. The berries were also eaten in the old 

Ribes inebrians Lindl., and other Ribes species. Wild 
Currant. Gooseberry family. The fruit is eaten both raw 
and cooked. 

Robinia neo-mexicana Gray. Locust. Pulse family. (Le- 
guminosae) . The beans and pods are eaten, as previously 

$Rumex mexicanus Weinn. Dock. Buckwheat family. 
Used as a sore-throat remedy, the remedy being a tea made 
from the leaves. The tea is also given to childless women 
so they will become pregnant. 

Sambucus racemosa L. Elder. Honeysuckle family. The 
berries are eaten. 

Salix irrorata Anders. Willow. Willow family. Willow 
withes, tied together, are used in stirring mush and other 
foods that are being cooked over the fire. The poles and 
hoops used in the pole game are of willow. The three 
dice sticks (throwing sticks) used in the setdilth game are 
halves of green willow. The split withes are also used in 
basketry, and tepee and wick-e-up thatching, as has been 
previously mentioned. 

ZSolanum elaeagni folium Cav. Bull Nettle. Nightshade 
family, also S. fendleri A. Gray, of the same family. The 
former is used as medicine, but how and for what purpose 
was not learned. The latter (the native potato) is eaten 
both raw and cooked. 

Sporobolus striatus (Scribn.) Merrill. (Drop Seed 
Grass), and S. cryptoandrus Gr. Grass family. Used in 

Apache Plant Uses. 1H1 

Svida stolonifera riparia Rydb. Dogwood. Dogwood 
family. Use unknown to the writer, but probably con- 
nected with the medicine ceremonies. 

Triticum vulgar e L. Wheat. Grass family. The breads 
made from flour have been previously mentioned, to which 
the reader is referred. 

ZTypha lati folia L. Cat-tail Flag. Gat-tail family. The use 
of the Cat-tail flag pollen has already been given. The 
flags are used in thatching the tepees and wick-e-ups. 

Ustilago zeae. Corn smut. This smut is boiled and eaten. 
Once the writer saw an Apache making a meal on smut and 
wild honey. 

SXanthium commune Britton. Cocklebur. Ragweed fam- 
ily. In the old times the seeds of this plant were ground 
and made into bread, usually being mixed with meal. A 
blood medicine was also made from the roots and leaves of 
this plant. 

Yucca baccata Torr. (Datil), and Y. glauca Nutt. (Soap- 
weed). Lily family. The uses which are made of these 
plants have been previously given in detail, to which the 
reader is referred. 

Zea mays L. Corn. Grass family. The various uses made 
of corn have been previously given. 


Vol. 8, No. 4 



A meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society was held at the 
Milwaukee Public museum on Monday evening, May 20, 1928. 
President Huron H. Smith occupied the chair. In the absence of 
Secretary Charles E. Brown, who was returning from attendance at 
the Conference on Midwestern Archaeology at St. Louis, Missouri, 
Vice President W. W. Oilman was appointed to act as secretary. 
Mr. Arthur P. Kannenberg of Oshkosh, a vice president of the So- 
ciety, presented a very interesting paper on Indian Earthenware 
Vessels in which the described particularly a series of these now in 
the collections of the Oshkosh Public museum. This paper was 
afterward discussed by the members present. 

Mr. Roy S. Corwin gave an interesting illustrated talk on The 
-Ohio Valley-Arterial Highway of Pioneers. Dr. Barrett presented 
a report on the Conference on Midwestern Archaeology at St. Louis, 
and President Smith a report on the meeting of the Central Section of 
the American Anthropological Association, at Evanston, Mr. Ru- 
dolph Boettger exhibited specimens collected from Muskego Lake 

At the meeting of the Executive Board, held earlier in the evening, 
there were elected as annual members of the Society Clarence Stark, 
E. W. Dieffenbach, Karl Aichelen, Dr. E. G. Bruder, L. L. Greget, 
Dr. N. P. Justin, Arthur Nolde, D. E Roberts of Milwaukee, and 
Iran Otto of Fairwater. Governor Walter J. Kohler was elected an 
honorary member. Princess Chinquilla, a Cheyenne woman, and 
Albert Thunder and Mike White Eagle, members of the Winnebago 
tribe, were elected Indian honorary members. Resolutions on the 
death of Mr. William H. Vogel, a recently deceased vice president of 
the Society, prepared by a special committee, the Messrs. Dr. A. L. 
Kastner, Geo. A. West and Dr. E. G. W. Notz, were adopted. Mr. 
West reported that Mr. Walter Schroeder had generously agreed to 
place on the Hotel Schroeder at Milwaukee a tablet marking the 
site of the Potawatomi Indian village once located there. This at the 
request of the special committee, Messrs. C. E. Brown, Geo. A. West 
and J. G. Gregory, appointed to urge the marking of this and other 
local Indian villages. 

The Messrs. Vetal Winn, Louis Pierron, Anton Sohrweide, and 
Dr. E. J. W. Notz, were appointed to report on the condition of the 
existing Milwaukee County Indian mounds, and the desirability of 
preserving and marking those at present unprotected and unmarked. 
The Messrs. Winn, Notz, Rev. Thomas M. Schmitz and Milo C. Rich- 
ter were appointed a committee to report on the condition of the 
mounds preserved in State Fair Park at West Allis. Mr. Robert P. 
Ferry was authorized to make further improvements at Aztalan 
Mound Park. 

The directors again voiced their interest in the movement begun 
by the History and Landmarks Committee, Wisconsin Federation of 
Women's Clubs, to preserve the old U. S. Indian Agency House at 
Portage. Messrs. Edward F. Richter, Chas. G. Schoewe and W. W. 
Gilman were appointed a committee to cooperate in this worthy un- 
dertaking. Appointments of several members and others to assist in 
archaeological researches in several counties were made. 

An invitation extended by Mr. Robert J. Kieckhefer to hold a meet- 

Archeolog-ical Notes. 163 

ing at this woodland preserve at Brookfield, on Saturday, June 15, 
was accepted. 

An invitation received from the Winnebago County Archeological 
and Historical Society to attend the unveiling of a tablet on the site 
of the Grignon-Porlier trading post at Butte des Morts on June 16, 
was also accepted. 

The Eighth Annual Meeting of the Central Section, American An- 
thropological Association was held at Harris Hall, Northwestern Uni- 
versity, Evanston, Illinois, on Friday and Saturday, May 10 and 11, 
1929. Dr. Carl E. Guthe, of Ann Arbor, president of the Association, 
conducted the meetings. 

Of twenty-five very interesting papers presented at this meeting, 
nine were presented by members of the Wisconsin Archeological 

These were as follows: Comparison of the Upper Palaeolithic of 
Algeria with that of France, Dr. Geo. L. Collie; Plants Used by the 
White Mountain Apache of Arizona, Dr. Albert B. Reagan; Notes on 
the Natives of Africa, Dr. S. A. Barrett; Ethnobotany of the Winne- 
bago Indians, Huron H. Smith; The Isle Royale Archeological Ex- 
pedition, Geo A. West; The Algonquin in Iowa; Prof. Chas. R. 
Keyes; Cartographic Symbols for Archeological Survey Maps, Charles 
E. Brown ; Maps New and Old of the Great Lakes Region, Dr. W. 
B. Hinsdale, and Megalithic Monuments of Madagascar, Prof. Ralph 

Mr. George R. Fox, director of The Warren Foundation, Three 
Oaks, Michigan, is the very efficient secretary-treasurer of the Cen- 
tral Section. 

On the afternoon of Saturday, June 15, a field meeting of Milwau- 
kee and other members .of the Wisconsin Archeological Society was 
held at the woodland nature preserve of Mr. Robert J. Kieckhefer, at 
Brookfield, in Waukesha County. Among those who were in attend- 
ance at this gathering of archeologists were, Dr. A. L. Kastner, 
Chas. G. Schoewe, Charles E. Brown, Huron H. Smith, Edward F. 
Richter, Joseph Ringeisen, T. M. N. Lewis, Theodore T. Brown, Dr. 
Frank Ehlman, Alfred R. Rogers, Edward Grobben, Irving McHenry, 
Dr. William H. Brown, Frank Ames and Richard Phillip. An op- 
portunity was given to view the fine log cabin retreat which is being 
erected on the edge of this large woodland preserve and to visit the 
Indian wigwams, tipis, and other structures erected, and the woodland 
trails laid out by Mr. Oliver Lemere. A campfire supper was served 
by Mr. Kieckhefer. The meeting was in every respect a most en- 
joyable and interesting one. An old Indian camp site is located in 
one of the Kieckhefer fields, which borders on the Fox (Pishtaka) 
river. Near at hand are the well known Showerman Indian mounds. 

The Winnebago County Archeological and Historical Society on the 
afternoon of Sunday, June 16, 1929, unveiled a boulder monument on 
the site of the old Grignon-Porlier fur-trading post, on the Overton 
farm at Butte des Morts. A large company of members of the so- 
ciety and of friends from Oshkosh and neighboring cities and vil- 
lages were present during the very interesting ceremonies. Miss 
Gene Sturtevant, corresponding secretary of the society lead the com- 
pany in singing at the opening of the program. President Robert J. 
Barnes introduced the speakers. Mr. George Overton gave a very 
interesting account of the early history of the region and of the trad- 
ing post which was situated on one of the fields of his farm on the 
Lake Butte des Morts shore. Three young people of the Overton 
family unveiled the monument. Following the unveiling Mr. Charles 
E. Brown, secretary of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, delivered 


an address on "Augustin Grignon, Fur Trader", in which he paid a 
fine tribute to the memory of this most noted of French traders," 
whose influence during the early years of the nineteenth century ex- 
tended from Green Bay to the Mississippi River," and whose very 
interesting recollections the State Historical Society published. An- 
other song, directed by Miss Sturtevant, closed the program. Many 
of those attending the dedication afterwards ate their picnic suppers 
together on the lawn of the hospitable Overton farm home. Here 
Mr. Overton displayed a large collection of American trade imple- 
ments and Indian stone implements collected from the site of the old 
trading post. Some of those present, under the guidance of Mr. 
Thomas Petford, made a visit to a number of plots of old Indian gar- 
den beds in the pasture of the old Petford farm. Some of these were 
reported to have had growing crops upon them when the owner's 
father came as a pioneer settler to the region. The monument erec- 
ted by Mr. Overton to mark the old post site is unique among boulder 
markers in Wisconsin. It consists of a pyramid of large boulders 
firmly cemented together on the top of which a large upright boul- 
der has been placed. This bears an artistic bronze tablet. Mr. Arthur 
P. Kannenberg was Mr. Overton's principal assistant in erecting this 
fine monument which stands by the side of the Oshkosh to Butte des 
Morts highway. 

The Conference on Midwestern Archaeology arranged by the Com- 
mittee on State Archaeological Surveys, Division of Anthropology 
and Psychology, National Research Council, was held at Hotel Cor- 
onado, St. Louis, on Friday and Saturday, May 17 and 18, 1929. 

The meeting began with an open meeting of the Committee on 
State Archaeological Surveys, at which various matters connected 
with the surveys in different states were discussed. Papers were pre- 
sented by Dr. Warren K. Moorehead, Dr. Greenman, Peter Brannon, 
Dr. S. L. Barrett and W. C. McKern. In the afternoon a visit was 
made to Monks Mound of the Cahokia Mound Group at East St. 
Louis, under the direction of Dr. Moorehead. In the evening H. C. 
Shetrone, director of the Ohio State Museum, gave an illustrated lec- 
ture on "The Ancient Indians of the Mississippi Valley" in the audi- 
torium of the Medical Society building. 

The Saturday program included papers on "The Conservation of 
Public Sites by Prof. Fay Cooper-Cole, on "The importance of Sys- 
tematic and Accurate Methods of Investigation" by Dr. F. W. 
Hodge, "The Values of Prehistoric Sites to the States in Which 
They Lie", by Dr. Arthur C. Parker, and "The Human Interest of 
Archaeology", by Dr. Clark Wissler. All of these papers were ful- 
ly discussed. A banquet was served in the evening. 

The arrangement of this fine meeting of American archeologists 
reflects great credit on Dr. Knight Dunlap, chairman of the Division, 
and on Dr. Carl E. Guthe, chairman of the Committee, which con- 
sists of the Messrs. Peter A. Brannon, Amos W. Butler, Charles E. 
Brown, Roland B. Dixon, Frederick W. Hodge, Chas. R. Keyes, A. 
V. Kidder, Warren K. Moorehead, and H. C. Shetrone. 

Perhaps the greatest good obtained from this Conference was not 
the scholarly papers read, or the discussions which followed, but the 
personal contacts which many archeologists from the Middle West, 
the East, the South and West were thus enabled to thus make with 
each other. Of the representatives from the Southern and Western 
states many brought with them fine collections of interesting speci- 
mens which they exhibited in their hotel rooms after the meetings. 

Among the many who were in attendance, and who are not else- 
where mentioned, were Dr. Calvin Brown and George Williams of 
Mississippi, Dr. S. C. Dellinger, Harry J. Lemley and Jay L. 

Archeologieal Notes. 

Taylor of Arkansas, Dr. Franz Blom of Louisiana, Prof. J. E. Pearse 
of Texas, E. E. Baird and Dr. F. P. Titherington of Missouri, P. E. 
Cox of Tennessee, William Webb of Kentucky, Lawrence K. Fox 
and W. H. Over of South Dakota, G. F. Will of North Dakota, Wil- 
loughby M. Babcock of Minnesota, Geo. R. Fox and Dr. W. B. Hins- 
dale of Michigan, H. K. Putnam of Iowa, Dr. Don C. Dickson of Illi- 
nois, and Theodore Brown of Wisconsin. 

On Friday, June 14, 1929 (Flag Day), a fine bronze tablet mounted 
on a huge glacial boulder was formally unveiled on the site of a 
group of four prehistoric Indian effigy and other mounds located in 
the new Soldiers' Memorial plot of Forest Hill Cemetery, at Madison, 
by the ladies of John Bell Chapter, D.A.R. Mr. Charles E. Brown, 
director of the State Historical Museum, Madison, delivered the un- 
veiling address. 

These mounds are the remaining earthworks of a group of seven 
formerly located here and which were first surveyed by Dr. A. B. 
Stout, for the Wisconsin Archeological Society, on July 4, 1905. Aft- 
er lying in a neglected state for years the preservation of these 
mounds was urged upon the cemetery board by the landmarks com- 
mittee of the Chapter, at Mr. Brown's suggestion and their restora- 
tion and preservation secured. Of the effigies two are fine examples 
of the panther type, one having a length of 121 and the other of 163 
feet. A linear mound, in line with these, has a length of 115 feet. 
A small wild goose effigy is to be restored. These mounds are beau- 
tifully located for public inspection in a fine grove of tall oak trees. 

On Saturday, July 8, a pilgrimage was made by a large number of 
representatives of state and county historical societies to the old U. 
S. Indian Agency House on the Fox River, at Portage. This was 
conducted under the auspices of the Committee on History and Land- 
marks of the Wisconsin Federation of Women's Clubs, of which Mrs. 
Charles E. Buell of Madison, is the present chairman. The arrang- 
ments for the meeting were made by a Madison committee consisting 
of Mr. Theodore T. Brown, chairman, Mr. Burt Williams, Mrs. E. 
H. Van Ostrand, and Mr. Albert O. Barton. A local committee, of 
which Mr. H. E. Andrews was chairman, cooperated with the Madi- 
son Committee. 

The members of the pilgrimage gathered beneath the three great 
elms on the Agency House lawn at noon and here a picnic lunch was 
served. The program consisted of addresses by the following: 
Judge Chester A. Fowler, "Early Wisconsin History"; Burt Wil- 
liams, "The Plan Proposed for Preserving the Old Agency House"; 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, "The Historic Significance of the Agency 
House"; Col. Howard Greene, "State Landmarks", Charles E. Brown, 
"The Present Need of Preserving Additional Historic Sites;" and H. 
E. Andrews, "Early Life Within the Old Agency House." 

The plan of various organizations for preserving the old Indian 
Agency House, beneath whose roof Mrs. John H. Kinzie wrote "Wau- 
Bun", is the most important historical undertaking now before the 
people of the state. 

The Michigan State Archaeological Society held a two-day meet- 
ing at Three Oaks, on June 24 and 25, which was very well attended. 

Among the many interesting papers presented was one by Mr. Ed- 
ward Stevens of Kalamazoo who gave an account of a state archaeo- 
logical map which he had prepared, and exhibited a section showing 
the Indian village sites, mounds and trails of southwestern Michi- 
gan. Dr. Alvin LaForge of Chicago presented a report on the Isle 
Royale Archaeological Expedition, of which he was a member. Dr. 


Carl E. Guthe gave an illustrated talk on "The Hidden Story of the 
Indian". Mr. Geo. R. Fox, Mrs. Vina S. Adams of Battle Creek, 
Robert Burgh of Three Oaks, Dr. H. T. Montgomery of South Bend, 
Mr. L. Ben Reber of Royalton, Mr. Wilbur D. Marshall of Paw-Paw, 
Mrs. Fred Dustin of Saginaw and Mr. Michael Williams also pre- 
sented interesting papers. 

On the second day of the meeting a pilgrimage was made to the 
Warren Woods, the Warren Dunes, and to Indian village sites at 
Glendora Corner, Painterville, Bear Cave and near Three Oaks. 

The indoor meetings were held in the Chamberlain Memorial Mu- 
seum. Mr. Geo. R. Fox was re-elected president of the Society and 
Mr. Edward Stevens, secretary treasurer, Mr. Fred Edinger was 
elected vice-president. 

On Decoration Day, May 30th, the Geneva Lake Historical So- 
ciety unveiled a metal tablet marker on the site of the grave of one 
of the wives of the early Potawatomi chief Big Foot at Williams 
Bay. Simon Kahquados, an aged chief of the Forest County band, 
whose mother was a Williams Bay Indian woman, delivered the prin- 
cipal address on this occasion. A large number of citizens and 
others were present. Dr. Paul B. Jenkins deserves particular praise 
for his activity in bringing about the marking of historical sites 
about beautiful Lake Geneva. % 

On Saturday, July 13, Mr. Charles E. Brown conducted the annual 
excursion of University of Wisconsin Summer Session students, 
nearly 150 participating in the pilgrimage. Two steamboats made 
the circuit of Lake Mendota landing at the State Hospital grounds, 
Morris Park, West Point and the University farm where features of 
scenic, archeological and historic interest were visited. Dr. Louise 
P. Kellogg, Mr. H. R. Briggs and Chief Albert Thunder, a Winne- 
bago Indian, were the speakers at the several points visited. At 
West Point the company were entertained by a quartette of Sioux 
Indian singers who came from the pageant ground at Kilbourn for 
this purpose. 

New Publications 

Mr. George A. West is the author of a monograph bearing the 
title, "Copper :Its, Mining and Use by the Aborigines of the Lake 
Superior Region", and which is published by the Milwaukee Public 
Museum. Part 1 of this bulletin is devoted to a very interesting re- 
port on the McDonald-Massee Isle Royale Expedition of 1928 of which 
Mr. West and Mr. Geo. 11. Fox were the archoeologist members. 
Part II is devoted to a consideration of "Prehistoric Copper Mining," 
and Part III to "Aboriginal Copper Artifacts". This bulletin is well 
illustrated. The author acknowledges the assistance given in its pre- 
paration by many fellow members of the Wisconsin Archeclogical 
Society, and of other investigators in this interesting field. 

Mr. West has been a devoted investigator of Wisconsin archaeolo- 
gical history for many years. We expect to often refer to his report 
in future issues. 

The Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York, 
has published a fine monograph on "Beads and Beadwork of the 
American Indians", by William C. Orchard, being a study based on 
specimens in that institution. In the introduction of this contribu- 
tion the author says: "Beads owe their origin to the desire by prim- 
itive man for personal adornment; but so ancient are they that at- 
tempts to trace their earliest sources have thus far been futile. So 

Archeological Notes. 167 

far as the New World is concerned, beads in a great variety of 
shapes and materials have been found on prehistoric sites almost 
everywhere, and some of them are undoubtedly of great age. It is 
therefore quite evident that early aborigines of the Western Hemis- 
phere were quite familiar with the use of beads for purposes of 
adornment, in some cases as potent charms and in others as a medium 
of exchange. But many of the uses to which beads have been put by 
early man can only be surmised. Their use was and is worldwide." 

Bulletin 86 of the Bureau of Ethnology is a monograph by Frances 
Densmore on "Chippewa Customs." It is a very welcome addition to 
our knowledge of the customs of the people of this numerous Ameri 
can Indian tribe, and presents information gathered among these 
Indians in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Canada. Chapters are devoted 
to the results of a study of their history, totemic system, dwellings, 
clothing, food, life cycle, dreams, Midewiwin, games, and industries. 
Every member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society should secure 
a copy of this report while it is available. 

Professor Warren K. Moorehead is the author of a fine report on 
"The Cahokia Mounds", this presenting an account of the explora- 
tions carried on at this great group of Indian earthworks located in 
the American Bottoms, near the city of East St. Louis, during the 
years 1922, 1924 and 1927. The "Mound Technique" is by Dr. Moore- 
head's able assistant, Jay L. B. Taylor. Part II of this report con- 
sists of a paper on "The Geological Aspects of Some of the Cahokia 
(Illinois) Mounds" by Morris M. Leighton, chief of the Illinois Geo- 
logical Survey. Dr. Frank C. Baker has made a report on "The Use 
of Molluscan Shells by the Cahokia Mound Builders." The Cahokia 
report is published by the University of Illinois. 

Among other recent anthropological publications is one on "Poly- 
chrome Guanaco Cloaks of Patagonia", by S. K. Lothrop, printed by 
the Museum of the American Indian. Lewis H. Morgan Chapter, 
The New York State Archeological Association, has published a bul- 
letin, "Notes on Eock Crevice Burials in Jefferson County at Point 
Peninsula." The Green Bay Historical Society has printed a bulletin 
on "Fort Howard (1824-1832). This is one of the last papers print- 
ed by our late co-worker, Mr. Arthur C. Neville of Green Bay. A 
University of Wisconsin Summer Session leaflet on "Insect Lore", is 
written by Charles E. Brown. George B. Catlin has contributed to 
the spring number of the Michigan History Magazine a paper on 
"Michigan's Early Military Roads." The National Museum of Can- 
ada, Ottawa, has issued a report of the activities of the museum for 
1926. It contains anthropological papers by Harlan I. Smith and D. 
Jenness. Dr. W. B. Hinsdale has published in the report of the 
Michigan Academy of Science a paper on "Indian Mounds, West 
Twin Lake, Montmorency County, Michigan". 


Mr. T. M. N. Lewis has explored with interesting results the 
Heger group of Indian mounds near Aztalan in Jefferson County. 
Mr. M. K. Hulburt has made a re-survey of the Brooks group of 
mounds near Reedsburg and reported on a number of village and 
camp sites in Sauk County. Mr. J. P. Schumacher has reported on 
certain village sites and burial places in Manitowoc, Kewaunee and 
Shawano counties. Mr. L. R. Cooper excavated an effigy mound at 
Morris Park. Mr. C. E. Brown has prepared a report on the exca- 


vation of a grave at Crystal Lake and the excavation of a bird effigy 
mound at Mendota. Mr. T. T. Brown is engaged in preparation of 
trails maps. Dr. Gerend has supplied information concerning the lo- 
cation and character of mounds and sites in Wood and Portage coun- 
ties. Messrs. Geo. Overton and A. P. Kannenberg, are engaged in 
surveys and investigations in Winnebago County. Rev. F. P. Day- 
ton is continuing his researches in the region about New London. 
Other members and friends of the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
are sending reports of new discoveries and investigations to Secre- 
tary C. E. Brown at Madison. Other members are requested to en- 
gage in field work, as the opportunity offers during the summer and 
autumn, and to send to him the results of their surveys and investi- 
gations. Report forms will be supplied on request. 

ctofcet, 1929 


Jfto. I 




W. 9 

ttober, 1929 


J?o. I 







Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 
1103, Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

arcfjeologtcal g>ocfetp 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



H. H. Smith 


C. G. Schoewe 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand 

A. T. Newman 

Mrs. Theo. Koerner 
W. W. Oilman 
Dr. A. L. Kastner 

A. P. Kannenberg 

Dr. S. A. Barrett 
M. C. Richter 
Vetal Winn 


R. J. Kieckhefer 
E. F. Richter 
L. R. Whitney 
W. C. McKern 

Mrs. A. E. Koerner 
Geo. A. West 


, G.M. Thorne 
National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. S. A. Barrett, J. P. Schumacher, W. G. Mc- 
Lachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, C. E. Brown, W. C. McKern, T. L. 
Miller, A. W. Pond, Geo. Overton, Frank Thomlinson, T. M. N. 
Lewis and M. F. Hulburt. 

MOUND PRESERVATION W. W. Gilman, Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. 
A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Louise 
P. Kellogg, Mrs. H. A. Main, R. A. Maas, J. W. Norris, Mrs. 
F. R. Melcher, Dr. A. Gerend, and G. L. Pasco. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Dr. G. L. Collie, A. C. 
Neville, A. P. Kannenberg, E. P. Hamilton, William Horlick, 
Mrs. H. A. Olson, Mrs. A. E. Koerner and R. S. Van Handel. 

MEMBERSHIP C. G. Schoewe, Dr. W. H. Brown, A. R. Rogers, 
A. C. Cloos, Vetal Winn, C. G. Weyl, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, W. 
P. Morgan, A. E. Koerner, Louis Pierron, C. Baerwald and D. S. 

MAN MOUND PARK M. F. Hulburt, E. A. Gilman and Miss Emma 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, M. G. Troxell, and W. W. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Mrs. W. F. Bauchle, M. C. Richter, E. R. 
Mclntyre and R. K. Coe. 

BIOGRAPHY Dr. E. J. W. Notz, C. G. Schoewe and H. H. Smith. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologrist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thome, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce. Mil- 


Vol. 9, No. 1, New Series 


Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in 

Wiscnsin, Charles E. and Theodore T. Brown 7 


Chief Simon Kaquados, Prairie Potawatomi Frontispiece 

Archeological Map of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 

Plate Facing Page 

1. Pierce Village Site, at foot of Lake Koshkonong 26 

Power Dam at Indian Ford. 

2. Rock River below Indian Ford 40 

The Mill on Bass Creek at Afton. 

Prairie Potawatomi 


Published Quarterly by the "Wisconsin Archeological Society 

Vol. 9 MADISON, WIS., OCTOBER, 1929 No. 1 

New Series 


(Logan Survey) 
Charles E. and Theodore T. Brown 


From the southern extremity of Lake Koshkonong the 
Rock River pursues a winding southwesterly course 
through Fulton Township as far as the mouth of the Catfish 
or Yahara River at Fulton, then it flows in a southeasterly 
direction to the northwest corner of Janesville Township 
and from there continues in the same direction as far as the 
city of Janesville. In the southern part of Janesville it 
makes a turn and flows west for a distance of about two 
miles. From this point it flows in a southwesterly direc- 
tion through Rock Township to the village of Afton. Here 
its course changes and it flows in a southeasterly direction 
to Riton. From this point, in the northeastern corner of 
Beloit Township, it flows south to the city of Beloit in the 
southeastern corner of this township. From the foot of 
Lake Koshkonong to Beloit the distance along the river 
bank is thirty-two miles. 

The principal streams which merge their waters with 
those of the Rock along this part of its course in Wisconsin 
are the Catfish or Yahara which drains the beautiful Four 
Lakes at Madison; and which enters the Rock at Fulton; 
Three Mile Creek, which flows into the Rock at a distance 
of a mile and a half north of Janesville, and Bass Creek 
which flows into it at Afton. All of these flow into the 
Rock on its western bank. Turtle Creek, which has one of 
its sources in Delavan Lake, unites with the Rock at Beloit, 


on its eastern bank. A small creek flows into the Rock on 
its eastern bank about a mile north of Riton and a similar 
brook enters it on its western bank at about the same dis- 
tance south of this place. 

The Rock in this part of Wisconsin, after ninety years of 
occupation of its shorelands by white settlers, who have 
placed these under cultivation or put them to other uses, 
have drained its lowlands, and built cities and established 
summer resort colonies, is still a very attractive stream. Of 
the rather dense forests which once clothed its banks wood- 
ed areas of considerable size remain at different places 
along its course, and trees fringe its banks in other places. 

In the rear of its bluffs and lowlands there formerly 
stretched broad prairies with oak openings. South of Lake 
Koshkonong and east of Indian Ford was a large prairie 
to which early maps and settlers gave the name of Prairie- 
du Lac. South of it was Rock Prairie. 

The old Winnebago Indian name for the Rock was 
E-neen-ne-shun-nuck, or "river of big stones." An early 
Algonkian Indian name was Assini-sipi, or stone river. 
Since this stream became known to white men it has borne 
the names of "Kicapoue R.", "Stoney R." and "Rocky R.", 
and other names. Louis Hennepin's map of 1683 names 
the Rock as the "Seignelai R." and shows the Illinois located 
north (east) of it. 

The Catfish or Yahara River appears on some early maps 
as the "Goosh-ke-hawn" (Koshkonong?), "Cos-ca-ho-e- 
nah," and "River of the 4 Lakes." 

Its Winnebago Indian name was Ho-wich-ra, "catfish." 

The Winnebago Indian name for Turtle Creek is given 
by Dr. N. P. Jipson as Ke-chunk-nee-shun-nuk-ra.* This 
stream is described in the "History of Rock County" : "A 
stream flowing out of Turtle Lake in the northwestern cor- 
ner of the town of Richmond in Walworth County, unites 
near the west line of the town of Delavan with the outlet of 
Delavan Lake, and the united streams form Turtle Creek, 
which following a westerly course enters Rock County on 
Sec. 13 in the town of Bradford, flows west and southwest 
and empties into Rock River just below the State line at 

* 2 Wis. Archeo., 3, p. 128, n. s. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 9 

To this information Mr. Robert H. Becker has added: 
"This description of Turtle Creek tells nothing of the 
beauty of this stream and the fertile valley through which 
it flows. Near Beloit, where the Creek is quite large it is 
especially beautiful, cutting deep into the limestone hills, 
or, as it winds through broad rolling valleys, joined here 
and there by brooks of clearest spring water."* 

The length of this creek is about twenty-five miles. 


A Dutch map of Marquette and Joliet printed by Pieter 
Vander Aa, at Leyden, 1673, gives the name of the Rock as 
the "Kicapoue R." It is shown as flowing from the western 
shore of Lake Michigan directly west to the "R. Missipy." 
The "Maskoutenten" are shown as occupying the lands di- 
rectly north of the Rock, and the Kikabeux," Miamis and 
"Illinoysen" those directly south of it. 

Louis Hennepin's map of 1683 names the Rock as the 
"Seignelai R." with the Illinois located north of it. 

A French map of "Louisiana and Course of the Missis- 
sippi," dated 1718, shows the "R. a la Roche" flowing from 
the region of the "Mascouten or Fire Nation," west of Chi- 
cagou," straight westward to the Mississippi instead of in 
a southwesterly direction to that stream. On an English 
map of 1720 the course of the river is the same and its name 
is given as "Assenini or R. a la Roche." The John Senex 
map of 1718-21 also gives this course and this name for the 
Rock. On all of these maps the presence of a "Christal de 
Roche" or "Christal Rock" is indicated south of the river, 
not far from its mouth. 

An English "Map of the Western Parts of the Colony of 
Virginia," 1754, gives the name of "Assenisipi R." to the 
Rock river. On Debrett's "Map of the United States of 
America," 1795, the stream is called the "Rocky R." This 
map and some other maps of this time show a range of hills 
or mountains extending westward from near the foot of 
Lake Michigan toward the mouth of the Rock. Thos. 
Hutchin's "Map of the Western Parts (Etc.)" 1778, shows 
the "Riviere a la Roche" flowing in its proper direction. 

* 12 Wis. Archeo., 1, p. 7. 


The name "R a la Roche'' or "Stoney R." appears on a 
United States map of 1783. This map shows a "carrying 
place" or portage between the headwaters of the Rock and 
those of the Fond du Lac river. Another map of the same 
date, engraved by Wm. Faden, carries the name "Rocky R." 
and shows the Kickapoo located on its south bank midway 
between its source and mouth. Other American and for- 
eign maps of the years 1790 to 1820 carry the names "R. 
Assenisipi or Rocky R.", "Stony R." or "R. Roche." On 
the J. Warr. Jr., map, 1825, the name "Rock River" ap- 

Some of the maps of the years 1796 to 1817 are curious 
in that they show the Rock river as a rather insignificant 
small stream. In at least one map it is shown as flowing 
into the Illinois river. 

The Rock River does not appear on Jean Boisseau's map 
of New France, 1643, on Joliet's map of 1674, or on Lahon- 
tan's map of the Longue River, 1703. It is apparently in- 
dicated by a small stream on Hennepin's map, 1698. Sam- 
uel de Champlain's interesting map bears the date 1632, two 
years before Jean Nicollet's discovery of Wisconsin. 


A considerable number of Indian trails connected the In- 
dian camp and villages on the lower Rock River in south- 
eastern Wisconsin with each other and with other similar 
sites at a distance in every direction. These ancient trav- 
elways were of two kinds, those which followed the course 
of the stream from north to south, and those which ap- 
proached it from various directions. The courses of some 
of these aboriginal paths are preserved on the government 
maps, and others on other early Wisconsin maps in the pos- 
session of the Wisconsin Historical Society. The courses 
of some others and which the pioneer settlers of this part 
of Wisconsin knew and traveled, are not shown on any 
known map. 

One of the most important of the early trails of the lower 
Rock River region in southeastern Wisconsin came from the 
present location of Newville, at the foot of Lake Koshko- 
nong. This trail followed down the east bank of the river 
avoiding the marshy lands in the northeastern part of Ful- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 11 

ton Township, then following more closely the bank of the 
stream to the site of the present settlement of Indian Ford. 
For this place the Winnebago residents of this river had the 
name of Ho-ru-tchka-ch, or "stream crossing." Here, in 
the shallows, the Indians waded across the Rock to its west- 
ern shore. 

From Indian Ford settlement a trail ran down the. east 
bank of the Rock to the present site of Janesville. This ap- 
pears on Capt. T. J. Cram's "Map of Wiskonsin Territory/' 
1839. A small remnant of this old east bank trail is pre- 
served in a small tract of woodland near Newville. 

On the west bank of the Rock a trail from the foot of 
Lake Koshkonong traversed the high land, following the 
curves of the river rather closely to Indian Ford and the 
mouth of the Yahara River. From this point it continued 
in a southeasterly direction to the site of the present city of 
Janesville. Here it crossed the Rock at a ford, and contin- 
ued in a southerly direction through the townships of Rock 
and Beloit to the present city of Beloit. In Rock Township, 
south of Janesville, this trail was in places from a mile and 
a half to two miles east of the river. In Beloit Township 
it followed the river rather closely. 

Another trail, from the southwest shore of Lake Kosh- 
konong, ran in a southwesterly direction over the southern 
part of the site of the present city of Edgerton and on to 
Fulton. Here the west bank trail united with this trail, 
which crossed the Catfish River at Fulton and continued in 
a southwesterly direction. In Section 9 of Fulton Town- 
ship (in present Edgerton) a trail from the west shore of 
Lake Koshkonong united with the Lake Koshkonong-Edger- 
ton-Fulton trail. 


A trail from the present site of Koshkonong Station on 
the east shore of Lake Koshkonong ran southward across 
the prairies to the present site of Milton, and from that 
point in a southwesterly direction to the site of Janesville. 
The portion of this trail which runs through Milton Town- 
ship is shown on a map prepared by William C. Whitford and 
published in the Milwaukee Sentinel, February 25, 1900. 
He designates it as the "Army Trail." He shows two other 


trails west of this one and leading southward across the 
prairies from an Indian village site and the Thibault and 
other French traders' cabin sites on the southeast shore of 
Lake Koshkonong. The eastern of these two trails forked, 
the east fork running in a southeasterly direction for three 
miles and uniting with the Army trail. The western trail 
ran to Janesville. All of these trails united with or inter- 
sected a trail running from the northern end of Lake Kosh- 
konong to the present site of Newville at the foot of the 
lake. Just before reaching the foot of the lake, in Section 
8, this trail forked, the northern fork crossing the Rock at 
a ford at the foot of the lake, the other following southward 
along the river bank as already described. 

A trail from "Caramanee," an early "paper city" located 
south of the mouth of the Catfish River at Fulton, ran west- 
ward across Rock County to the Sugar River at Livingston. 
It continued on to Monroe. 

A trail from "Rockport," on the west bank of the Rock, 
opposite Janesville, pursued a northwest direction across 
Rock County toward the Madison lakes. Another trail 
from the site of present Janesville ran across the Rock 
County prairies in a southeasterly direction to the site of 
present Delavan in Walworth County. 

These trails and the trail from Janesville to Milton and 
Lake Koshkonong, appear on Capt. Thomas J. Cram's "Map 
of Wiskonsin Territory," 1839. The trail from Fulton to 
Livingston is also shown on a map of Tanner's Wisconsin 
atlas of 1844. This map shows the Delavan to Janesville 
trail continuing westward from Janesville to De Munn's 
trading post, "Centerville," on the Sugar River near Brod- 
head in Green County. A trail from the east, from "Wau- 
keeshah," also came to Janesville. It appears on Farmer's 
map, 1830. 

Beloit was a center for a number of trails besides the one 
already noted. One trail ran from the west bank of the 
Rock, above Beloit, in a northwest direction. In the south- 
east corner of Section 17 of Beloit Township this trail 
forked, the north fork running in a northwest direction to 
Orfordville and on to the Sugar River. The south trail ran 
in a northwest direction to the vicinity of present Brodhead 
on the Sugar. These are shown on Tanner's map. Most 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 13 

of these trails also appear on Aug. Mitchell's map of Wis- 
consin and Iowa, 1838. 

A trail from Fontana, at the western end of Lake Geneva, 
ran to Beloit. This was the Chicago trail. Fontana was 
the location of Chief Big Foot's Potawatomi village. Its 
curving course was at different points from two to six miles 
south of Turtle Creek. 

At a distance of about three miles east of the present lim- 
its of Beloit this trail was intersected by a trail running 
west from the site of Delavan. This trail crossed the Creek 
and ran in a southwest direction to the mouth of the Creek 
in Beloit. These appear on Cram's map of 1839. A trail 
also followed the north bank of Turtle Creek. 

A trail from the southwest shore of Lake Kegonsa in 
Dane County ran down the we^t bank of the Catfish River 
to about two miles below Dunkirk where it crossed the river. 
It continued down the east bank to Fulton where it again 
crossed the river. Its course is shown on the Milwaukee 
Land District map, 1840. 


The Rock River was forded by the early Indians in a 
number of the shallow places along its course. The exact 
site of some of these river crossings is well known. One of 
these was at the foot of Lake Koshkonong at the site of 
present Newville. At Indian Ford the river crossing is re- 
ported to have been at the river bend just north of the set- 
tlement. The Indians are also said to have crossed at times 
in the shallows just below the present highway bridge and 
power dam. 

There was a ford about a half mile below the mouth of 
the Catfish River where a highway bridge was afterwards 
erected and later removed. Another ford was located op- 
posite the Parish and Shoemaker farms at the Four Mile 
bridge, north of Janesville. At Janesville there were sev- 
eral fords, "Rock Ford," the best known crossing, being near 
the present Janesville to Beloit highway bridge, formerly 
known as the Monteray bridge. 

Another crossing was probably north of the mouth of 
Bass Creek at Afton. At Beloit there were several cross- 


ings of the Rock, and at least one of Turtle Creek. The ex- 
act locations of these we have been unable to learn. One 
was near the northern limits of the city. 


A Dutch map, elsewhere referred to, evidently based on 
the explorations of Marquette and Joliet, printed at Leyden, 
in 1673, names the Rock the "Kicapoue." On this map the 
"Maskoutenten" (Mascouten) are shown as occupying the 
lands on one side, and the "Kikabeux" (Kickapoo), "Mia- 
mis" and "Illinoysen" (Illinois) those on the opposite bank. 
Hennepin's map of 1683 shows the Illinois located there. 
Doubtless they had camps and villages along the Rock in 
both Northern Illinois and southeastern Wisconsin. 

In 1^27 some of the Winnebago, who were at and near 
Green Bay, moved to the Rock River. By 1742 half of the 
tribe were located on this river. From that time on the 
Rock River Band maintained its position on the Rock with 
villages at Horicon, Hustisford, Watertown, Lake Koshko- 
nong, Janesville and other places in Wisconsin, and others 
in Illinois to as far south as Dixon. Dr. N. P. Jipson has 
written an account of the history of the Winnebago villages 
located between Lake Koshkonong and Dixon and which has 
been freely drawn upon in preparing parts of this survey 

Royal B. Way in his book, "The Rock River Valley," 
says: "The Winnebago Indians were the first settlers of 
the county (Rock) . From the north line of the county near 
the south end of Lake Koshkonong to the State line at Be- 
loit, along the Rock River, an almost continuous line of In- 
dian mounds, villages and camp sites testify to the fact. 
Before 1835 and the advent of the white man the Indians 
had left. 

The Winnebagoes never had, however, unassailed posses- 
sion of the county. The Sauk and Foxes and Pottawato- 
mies claimed with them an ownership of the Rock River 
country, while the Pottawatomies disputed the possession 
of Rock County with them. The first treaty made by the 
United States for any of the lands of the Rock River was 

2 Wis. Archeo. 3, n. s. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 15 

made with the Winnebagoes, January 30, 1816, followed by 
those of 1826 and 1833. The remaining part of the county 
was secured to the United States by the treaty with the 
Chippewa, Ottawa and Pottawatomie Indians at Chicago in 
September, 1833. All doubt as to the title was removed by 
the treaty with the Winnebagoes in 1838 in which that tribe 
ceded all of their lands east of the Mississippi. 

"The treaty of 1832 with the Winnebagoes secured to the 
United States for settlement the western half of Rock 
County, while that of 1833 with the Ottowas, Chippewas 
and Pottawatomies secured the east half of the county." 


The many Indian villages located along the course of the 
Rock River between its source and its mouth made this 
stream a rich field for the fur traders. The earliest of the 
French traders came from the post at Green Bay, visiting 
the Indian villages and gathering the furs and skins which 
their inhabitants possessed. In later years British and 
American traders operated over the same route. Some of 
these traders came by canoe following a water trail up the 
Fox river to Lake Winnebago, then going to the foot of the 
lake and up the Fond du Lac river. At its source was a 
portage or "carrying place" across which they transported 
their goods to the head of the Rock river. Another route 
was by way of the Fox and Wisconsin and from the latter 
river by means of Pheasant Branch to Lake Mendota. In 
wet years the waters of these two streams so closely ap- 
proached each other that no portage between them was 
necessary. The remainder of the route to the Rock was 
through the Madison lakes and down the Yahara or Catfish 
river to the larger stream. In 1778 Charles Gauthier de- 
Verville made a journey over this course from Green Bay 
to the Rock.* 

One of the early traders on the Riviere Roche was Pierre 
La Porte, a Canadian Frenchman, who worked for the old 
American Fur Company for a great many years. Begin- 
ning with the nineteeth century, and for a period before 
that time, he had as his territory the Rock River running 

* W. H. Colls., 10-72. 


from a point just above where Janesville is now located." 
"The great double bend about half way up the Ouisconsin 
line was one of the camping spots or trading stations. The 
mouth of the Rock River was the downstream terminal. On 
a few occasions LaPorte traded up-stream along Rock River 
and at the end of such trips he sold his furs at Green Bay."* 

Capt. Thomas A. Anderson spent a winter in trading 
with the Winnebago on Rock river, probably at the foot of 
Lake Koshkonong, in 1802 and 1803. There were some 
French traders located near him at the time.* 

Two trading cabins were located on the shores of Lake 
Koshkonong. One of these was located on the west shore 
of the Lake on the Bingham farm on Crabapple point. Here 
on a former Indian village site, Mr. Rufus Bingham in 1839 
found the excavation, rotting timbers, and fallen stone of 
an old trading cabin and its chimney. Nothing is known of 
the trader, whom Rev. Stephen D. Peet supposes to have 
been Le Sellier. This site is about three miles from the foot 
of the lake.* On the east shore of the lake, about a mile 
north of its Rock River outlet, was located until the winter 
of 1837-38 the log cabin home of Joseph Thibault (Thie- 
beau). Three other traders, Charley Poe, Elleck (Alex.) 
Le Hear (Lemere) and Cavelle, occupied three other log 
cabins in this first white settlement on the shores of the 
lake. Thibault was an agent for the Milwaukee trader, Sol- 
omon Juneau, who is reported to have made more than one 
visit to the lake to see him. He was a Canadian, the earli- 
est settler at Beloit. He had two Indian wives and three 01 
four children.* 

Joseph Thibault was the American Fur Co. trader at the 
Winnebago village at Turtle Creek at Beloit for about a 
dozen years before 1836.* 

Other traders who supplied the Indians of the Rock River 
villages with trade goods in return for their furs were 
Shephen Mack, whose post in 1829 was at Bird's Grove, on 
the Rock at the mouth of the Pecatonica River, in Illinois. 
The Indians were very fond of him and he settled many 
disputes between the Winnebago and Potawatomi. At 

* A. B. Way, The Rock River Valley, 137. 
*Wis. Archeo., 7, 78-79; 99-100. 

* A. B. Way, The Rock River Valley, 141. 

* W. H. Colls., 9-152. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 17 

Grand Detour on the Rock was the trading post of Pierre 
Lasaliere (Le Sellier), a Canadian and long an employee of 
the American Fur Co. His name is mentioned as one of its 
employees at Mackinac in 1818-19. He made visits to the 
Indians of the Rock and Wisconsin in the fur trade interests 
as early as 1813. Near Dixon was located the trading post 
of John Dixon, founder of the Illinois city which bears his 
name. Other traders located not far distant from the Rock 
were Jules de Munn whose trading house was on the Sugar 
River near the site of the present city of Brodhead ; on the 
shore of Lake Kegonsa at its Yahara River outlet the cabin 
of the trader Abel Rasdall, and in Madison the post of the 
French trader, Oliver Armel. De Munn was a near rela- 
tive of the Choteaus, the noted company of St. Louis Indian 
traders.* All of the later traders also traded with the Rock 
River Indians. 


In "The Antiquities of Wisconsin," published by the 
Smithsonian Institution in 1855, Dr. Increase A. Lapham 
devotes a chapter to a description of the "Ancient Works in 
the Basin of Rock River and its Branches." He describes 
and figures the group of mounds located on the Beloit Col- 
lege campus, another group three-fourths of a mile north of 
Beloit, those at "Indian Hill" at the mouth of the Catfish 
River, the enclosure at Fulton, and mentions some of the 
other mound groups formerly existing near the latter place. 

Rev. Stephen D. Peet, in Prehistoric America (v. 2) fig- 
ures and describes the principal mound groups in the Rock 
River valley between Beloit and Lake Koshkonong. He pre- 
sents a map prepared by James Wilson, Jr., C. E. of the In- 
dian mound groups located along the Rock River and its 
tributary, Turtle Creek, in the vicinity of Beloit. Twelve 
mound groups are located on the Wilson map which appears 
to have been carefully prepared. Dr. Peet's book was pub- 
lished in 1895.* 

In 1908 the Messrs. A. B. Stout and H. L. Skavlem pub- 
lished in The Wisconsin Archeologist (v. 7, no. 2) their re- 
port on "The Archeology of the Lake Koshkonong Region/' 

* Lower Rock River Winnebago Villages, Wis. Archeo. 2-3. 

* Papers first printed in The American Antiquarian. 


This report contains descriptions of the mounds and vil- 
lage sites at Newville, at the foot of Lake Koshkonong, and 
which are within the river region covered by the present in- 

Mr. H. L. Skavlem in 1914 published a description and 
plat of the mound group at "Indian Hill" near the mouth of 
the Catfish River. This is a correction of the survey made 
by Dr. Lapham in 1850. (Wis. Archeo., v. 13, no. 2). 

A report on the Indian mounds and village sites on the 
banks of Turtle Creek was published by Robert H. Becker 
in 1913. (Wis. Archeo. v. 12, no. 1). In 1919, Mr. Ira M. 
Buell published a report, "Beloit Mound Groups," in which 
he presented the results of a re-survey with illustrations of 
the Indian mound groups on the banks of the Rock River 
and Turtle Creek near Beloit. (Wis. Archeo., v. 18, no. 4). 
He mentions the surveys made in previous years of some of 
these groups by Lapham, Lathrop, Peet, Collie, Riner, 
Riggs, Becker and Hyde. 

A paper on the "Winnebago Villages and Chieftains of 
the Lower Rock River Region" in Wisconsin and Illinois 
was published in The Wisconsin Archeologist (v. 2, no. 3, 
n. s.) in 1923. 

Other references to Lower Rock River Indian history and 
prehistory occur in the Wisconsin Historical Collections, in 
other volumes of The Wisconsin Archeologist, and in the 
several histories of Rock County. Both Mr. H. L. Skavlem 
and the late Mr. W. P. Clarke have published descriptions 
of Mound groups at Janesville, Afton and elsewhere in the 
Rock River valley in past issues of the Janesville Gazette. 


Black Hawk Village Site 
(Cent. Sec. 7) 

The site of the camp ground, occupied by the Sauk chieJ 
Black Hawk and his warriors in 1832, is described by Geo. 
W. Ogden in the History of Rock County, published in 1856 : 

"We left Milwaukee in the month of September, 1836, 
with an ox team wending our way westward for the Rock 


The numbers correspond with those on the map cdioming 

1. Black Hawk Village Site 

2. Quarry Mound 

3. Newville Cache 

4. Rock River Village Site 

5. Pierce Village Site 

6. Newville Village Site 

7. Riverview Resort Village Site 

8. Ridgeview Village Site 

9. South Bank Camp Sites 

10. Oak Ridge Village Site 

11. River Bend Shell Heap 

12. Edgerton Camp Sites 

13. Miller Camp Site 

14. Devil's Oven 

15. Brown Camp Site 

1 6. Southworth Farm Village Site 

17. Indian Ford Camp Site 

18. Indian Ford Heights Camp Site 

19. South Indian Ford Camp Site 

20. Indian Ford Flats Village Site 

21. Rainbows End Corn Field 

22. Indian Hill Mound Group 

23. Catfish Village 

24 Stone Farm Village Site 

25. Murwin Camp Site 

26. Hubbell Village Site and Mounds 

27. Beggs Camp Site 

28. Northwest Sections Camp and Village 

29. Four Mile Bridge Village Site 

30. Parish Camp Site 

31. Elmhurst Village Site 

32. Three Mile Creek Camp Sites 

33- Wixon Hill Site 

34- Riverside Park Village Site 

35. Sutherland Graves 

36. Crystal and Hiawatha Springs Village 
37- Stonehenge Camp Site 

38. Broege Island Camp Site 
39- Riverbank Camp Sites 

40. West Bank Camp Sites 

41. Pearl Street Cache 

42. Round Rock Village 

43- South Palm Street Camp Site 

44- Spring Brook Mounds 

45- Bailey Mounds and Corn Fields 
46. Eastern Avenue Village Site 

47- Kellogg Corn Field 
48. West Janesville Mounds 
49- Rulondale Camp Site 

50. Afton Mound Group 

51. Afton Mill Camp Site and Mounds 

52. Holzapfel Camp Site 

53- Antisdell Village Site 

54- Mouth of Bass Creek Camp Site 

55- Bass Creek Site 

56. M. E. Church Picnic Ground Camp Site 
57- River Heights Camp Site 
58. Willard School Camp Site 
59- Riverside Camp Site 

60. Coates Camp Site 

61. Woodstock Mounds 

62. Oakley Farm Camp Site 

63. Inman Camp Site 

64. Rasmussen Camp Site 

65. Rice Camp Site 

66. Clam Shell Site 

67. West Bank Camp Sites 

68. Big Hill Camp Site 

69. Poe Mound 

70. West Beloit Camp Sites 

71. Roth Mounds 

72. The Oaks Camp Site 

73- Yost Park Village Site* and Mound 

74- Baldwin Mound 

75- Weirick Mound Group 

* Standing Post Village. 

76. Beloit Country Club Camp Site 

77. Henderson Effigy 

78. U. S. 51 Camp Site 

79. Adams Mounds 

80. Water Tower Mounds 

81. Beloit College Mound Group 

82. Turtle Village 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 19 

River Valley. We reached Rock River at the foot of 
Lake Koshkonong. Here we concluded to stop and com- 
mence our future home. My claim included the camp 
ground of Black Hawk and from indications the Indians 
must have remained several weeks living on clams, fish, wild 
rice and game. We found heaps of clam shells, three or 
four feet across and a foot deep. And even at the present 
day (1856), I frequently run my plow through these heaps 
of shells. This old camp ground covered nearly two acres. 
The tent poles were then standing together with his flag 
pole painted in a fantastic manner. These poles remained 
standing several years. Here were several recent graves, 
also one skeleton placed in a wood trough with another 
turned over it, inside of a small pen laid up of small poles all 
on the surface of the ground. I have plowed out at various 
times large shells at least a foot and a half in length, shaped 
like the periwinkle (undoubtedly sea-shells) but how they 
came there is the question. 

A large number of ancient mounds are here. I have, 
however, leveled several of them with my plow and turned 
out various relics, such as human bones, heads, pieces of 
wampum, stone battle axes, etc. The Indians in consider- 
able number remained around in this vicinity for several 
years (after 1836) and even until very recently they have 
made annual visits to fish and gather rice." 

Mr. H. L. Skavlem describes this village site : 

"At the south end of Lake Koshkonong the river is again 
confined within its ordinary channel. Near the center of 
Section 7, Town of Milton, the shore on the south side is low 
and marshy for some distance back from the river. 

It gradually rises to a dry and sandy plane. Back of this 
to the south and east are moranic gravel ridges rising from 
40 to 70 feet above and enclosing this almost level plateau, 
forming a beautiful amphitheatre of several hundred acres. 
Here is where the pioneers located Black Hawk's camp in 
1832. Vestiges of the shell heaps mentioned by Mr. Ogden 
are still discernible in the plowed fields and the mounds de- 
scribed as being leveled by his plow can still be located."* 

This village site, located south of the Rock River at the 
foot of Lake Koshkonong, was an important one being sit- 

7-1 Wis. Archeologist, 74. 


uated on the Indian trail which ran down the east shore of 
the lake, and which forded the river at this point. A fork 
of this trail followed the south bank of the river. 

There were Winnebago camps on this site for many years 
before its temporary occupation by the Sauk Indians of 
Black Hawk's band, in 1832. Small numbers of Winnebago 
continued to camp here for some years after 1836. 

Large numbers of stone, and some bone, shell, copper and 
other implements and ornaments have been collected from 
the fields of this site in past years, the character of some of 
which appear to indicate that it was also occupied by some 
Algonquian people before its Winnebago residents erected 
their rush and bark covered wigwams here. 

Among the specimens collected there were stone celts, 
grooved axes, adz-celts, chisels, grooved hammers, mauls, 
notched sinkers, balls, rubbing stones, grinding stones, flint, 
blanks, arrow and spearpoints, knives, scrapers and per- 
forators, of many different shapes, bone awls, flakers and 
scrapers, copper knives and spearpoints, a hematite celt and 
cone, pieces of cut antler, lumps of galena ore. A slate gor- 
get, stone beads, shell disk beads and an oval shell pendant, 
stone discoidal, fragmentary pottery pipe, rectangular cat- 
linite pipe, sea-shell pendant, lead disk bead, bone tube, wam- 
pum beads and two stone plummets. Some of these spec- 
imens were in the collection of W. P. Clarke, the former 
Milton collector. The unearthing by the plow of a cache of 
several large sea shells has been mentioned. Burned hearth- 
stones were scattered over the site. Potsherds were once 
commonly found. Some of these were cord-marked and 
crushed-rock tempered, some were unornamented sand-tem- 
pered sherds, and others were ornamented with indented and 
incised markings and made of shell and sand-tempered clay. 
Years ago much more might have been learned from an ex- 
amination of this site. Mr. Clarke found that both flint im- 
plement manufacture and stone celt or axe making had been 
engaged in on this site. 

Near this site on a hill crest Messrs. Stout and Skavlem 
found two conical mounds, and about 300 feet west of these 
on a slight ridge another. Five hundred feet beyond were 

* Wis. Archeo., v. 7, no. 2, p. 50. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 21 

two nearly leveled earthworks of the same class. About one- 
quarter of a mile to the southeast, near the farm buildings 
(N. W. % of S. E. 14 Sec. 7) were three linear mounds. 
These mounds they have named the "Ogden Group."* 

Quarry Mound 

(NW. % Sec. 7) 

A solitary conical mound, about 45 feet in diameter and 3 
feet high at its middle, is located on a river field of the W. 
Splitter farm near Newville. It is in a grassy pasture near 
the marshy bank of the Rock River. This pasture is on the 
west side of the new highway from Newville to Fort Atkin- 
son. The mound is about 60 feet from the highway and 150 
feet from the edge of a small abandoned limestone quarry. 
It shows indications of having been dug into at its middle. 
Of the results of this digging nothing was learned. We 
mention this mound because it appears to have been missed 
in earlier surveys of the archeological remains of this re- 

Flint chips and fragments and some hearthstones were 
found in this field which is very likely a camp site. Being 
under sod other evidences of this could not be found. Some 
flint implements and burned stones have also been found in 
the cultivated fields on the opposite side of the road. In 
times of high water the pasture field would be subject to at 
least partial overflow. 

Winnebago Indians camped along this shore in early 
years of white settlement. The cabin of Joseph Thibault, a 
trader, was located two miles north of this site on the east 
shore of Lake Koshkonong. 

Newville Cache 

(NW. % Sec. 7) 

A cache or hoard of leaf -shaped flint blanks was found 
some years ago by Louis Pierce of Newville on the present 
August Rutz farm, on the highway from Newville to Mil- 
ton. These were found in a small area having been un- 
earthed and scattered by the cultivation of the land. They 
had probably been placed beneath the surface of the soil by 
their former Indian owner to keep the material in good con- 
dition for later use in implement making. A few speci- 


mens from this deposit of blanks are in the collection of his 
brother, W. S. Pierce, at Newville. These specimens are 
about 2 ] /2 inches in length. 

Similar caches of blanks and blades have been found on 
many Indian village sites in Wisconsin. Several are in the 
collections of the State Historical Museum at Madison. 

Rock River Village Site 

(SW. 14 Sec. 6 and NW. % Sec. 7.) 

Mr. H. L. Skavlem has described this village site in The 
Wisconsin Archeologist issue of April-June, 1908.* 

"Here are abundant indications of an extensive aborigi- 
nal village site and long continued occupation. 

On the extreme edge of the steep river bank, which here 
rises from ten to twenty feet abruptly above the water, are 
extensive shell and refuse heaps several feet in depth and 
extending along the edge of the river bank for several hun- 
dred feet. Lake erosion of the river bank shows this "kjok- 
ken modding" in some places to be over 3 feet in depth and 
extending back and some distance up and along the sides of 
the larger tumuli. Remains of shell heaps and the burned 
stones of fireplaces are scattered over an area of at least a 
hundred acres. Broken pottery, large quantities of flint- 
arrow and spear points, spalls and chips, hammerstones, 
stone axes, mauls, celts and gouges and numerous copper 
spears, axes and knives, have been collected on these 
grounds. Iron, brass and copper materials of trade origin, 
appear to be of rare occurrence." 

This village site begins north of the creek bed which 
forms the eastern boundary of the Pierce Village Site. It 
occupies the fields of the Morris Cooper (formerly Benja- 
min Cooper) farm on both sides of the road, and extends 
on to the more elevated lands of the Herman Krueger farm 
beyond on the Lake Koshkonong shore. Mr. Skavlem's de- 
scription applies more particularly to the latter part of this 

On the Cooper farm the richest part of the site occupies a 
level field about two city blocks in extent on the south or 
river side of the road. It is elevated only a few feet above 
the waters of the river. It extends from the hillside slope in 

* 7 2 Wisconsin Archeologist, 73, 50-51. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 23 

the rear of the Krueger home westward to the line of sum- 
mer resort cottages known as "Koshkonong Retreat" and 
most of which face the creek bank. 

Across this field and the adjoining lands formerly ex- 
tended the group of eleven conical mounds described by Dr. 
Arlow B. Stout in 1908 as the "Rock River Group."* Most 
of these mounds have now been plowed out of existence or 
removed. Two remain near the Cooper house and in the or- 
chard west of it. One is indicated by a slight dark eleva- 
tion in the Cooper river shore field, and one is located by the 
side of the road (the Milton-Fulton town line) in a grove of 
oak trees near the "Shadow Hill" shack of the Retreat cot- 
tages. This mound is 24 feet in diameter and about 1% feet 
high. An oak tree about one foot in diameter stands on its 
top. Human bones were recently disturbed in digging a 
hole for a telephone pole in the mound near the Cooper 

Evidences of aboriginal occupation are abundant in the 
river shore field. Hearthstones and flint refuse are abun- 
dant. Here and there along the river bank and in the field 
itself are traces of former clam shell heaps and pits of small 
size. One appears to have encroached on one side of a for- 
mer mound. The largest was located on the river bank 
just east of one of the Retreat cottages. All of the former 
shell heaps the plow has demolished and scattered. 

Deer and other animal bones and pieces of turtle shell 
were in some of these heaps. The part of this village site 
in the Cooper field on the north side of the road also shows 
traces of former shell deposits. 

The number of flint implements, chiefly arrow and spear- 
points, collected from the Cooper fields has been very large. 
Mr. Morris Cooper states that in the past twenty-nine years 
fully one thousand of these have been gathered here. Three 
collections of these have been made one of which is the prop- 
erty of Horatio Marsden at Albion and another remains in 
his own possession. Of his collection about 250 specimens 
are displayed in a frame in his house. Seven of these are 
perforators of the simple stemless form and the balance ar- 
row and spearpoints of the triangular, stemmed, notched 
and barbed forms. Twelve are small triangular points. A 

* 72 Wisconsin Archeologist, 73, 50-51. 


fine notched spearpoint with a finely serrated edge is about 
three inches long. Another is of about the same shape and 
length without the serration. These points are made of 
white, grey, bluish-grey, red, light brown, pink and flesh- 
colored flint, fragments, and chips of which material are 
scattered over the surface of the site. Three of the notched 
points are made of light brown quartzite. 

On October 17 we excavated a small refuse pit located 
within a few feet of the "Koshkonong Retreat" cottages. 
This was located on the river bank. This small pit about 
three feet in diameter and two feet deep was entirely filled 
with closely packed valves of partly decomposed clam shells. 
This heap must have once extended above ground. Near it 
small pieces of shell are scattered by the plow over an area 
about sixty feet long and ten or more feet wide. Test pits 
were dug elsewhere in this vicinity but no other shell depos- 
its were encountered. 

One hundred and fifty potsherds dug from or collected 
from the surface of the western third of this site on October 
11 and 12 are evidently fragments of vessels of both large 
and small sizes. All are crushed rock tempered. Of these 
sherds, the majority, are thick and made of brown clay. 
Some are made of red clay, some of these are thick, others 
thin. Some are of dark colored clay, surfaced on one or 
both surfaces with red clay. 

Of six rim pieces, four have straight and two outward 
turned rims. Three thick brown clay rims show no orna- 
mentation. One (brown ware) is surfaced on both sides 
with red clay. Its rim is ornamented with small indenta- 
tions and its outer surface with faint markings. 

One piece (brown ware) is ornamented below the rim 
with small elliptical diagonal indentations. One (thin red 
ware) is unornamented. 

Three sherds (dark brown clay) are ornamented with 
rows of parallel incised lines unequal distances apart. One 
shows twelve such lines. 

Forty-one sherds (brown ware, and brown ware surfaced 
with red clay) are ornamented with coarse or fine twisted- 
cord impressions. 

One sherd (brown ware surfaced on the outer surface 
with red clay) is ornamented with two parallel rows of small 
roulette impressions. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 25 

One sherd (thin, red clay) is ornamented with several 
parallel rows of small oval indentations. 

One sherd (brown ware) shows cord impressions and a 
single incised line below them. 

One sherd (thin, red clay), the best ornamented of the 
lot, is ornamented with a series of twisted-cord impressions 
above which is an incised curved line above which are sev- 
eral parallel lines of small circular impressions probably 
made with a hollow plant stem. 

So far as known no perfect vessel has as yet been ob- 
tained from the black, sandy soil of this field. 

Test pits dug at a number of points on this village site 
show that in places the village refuse (flint chips and frag- 
ments, pieces of broken bone, shell fragments, etc.), the 
relic-bearing layer, extends at least from three to four feet 
beneath the surface. 

The Lake Koshkonong west shore trail passed over or 
near this site, which appears to have been an early Algon- 
quian place of residence. 


Pierce Village Site 
(SE. % Sec. 1) 

At Newville on the north side of the Rock River road on 
the Henry Pierce farm is a very sandy cultivated field. In 
this field, extending back from the highway, are four sand 
ridges elevated but a few feet above the road. On the top 
of these ridges evidences of aboriginal occupation are very 
abundant. Hearthstones of all sizes are of very frequent 
occurrence. Flint chips, flakes, spalls and fragments of 
various colors and kinds of flint are very numerous. Nearly 
three hundred of these were counted on the top of the most 
westerly ridge within a radius of about thirty feet. 

Although this site has been frequented by collectors for 
the past twenty or more years and hundreds of flint arrows 
and spearpoints, and many scrapers, perforators, knives 
and some axes and celts collected we were able to gather 
from the several wigwam and workshop sites on the three 
ridges in less than an hour's search a number of flint blanks, 


entire and broken, several arrowpoints, a scraper, several 
rejects, several entire and broken hammerstones, flint peck- 
ing hammers, broken flint nodules, an anvil stone, a red 
sandstone smoothing stone, and two notched stone net 
weights. A single cord-ornamented potsherd was also 

These three low ridges are about 400 feet north of the 
river bank. The most westerly ridge is separated from the 
one east of it by a distance of about 175 feet, and this one 
from the next east by a shorter distance. Each of these 
ridges appears to have been occupied at some time by a wig- 
wam, the west ridge probably by two. 

On the east side of the road, in the NE. 1/4 Sec. 2, evi- 
dences of former camp life also occur, though not so abun- 
dantly, on several knolls or elevated spots in a field thinly 
overgrown with grass and in use as a pasture. Such evi- 
dences also occur on knolls and level places in a field adjoin- 
ing this one on the west. 

At the eastern end of this rich village site a brook flows 
down to the river through a small marshy bed from a high 
wooded ridge in the rear. The river bank is here steep and 

The two net-weights found on the Pierce site are rather 
unique. The largest, made of red sandstone, is 2% inches 
in length and 1% inches in width and 11/4 inches thick. Its 
surface is roughly flaked. Its two edges are notched by the 
use of a pecking hammer. The other specimen, made of red 
granite, is 21/4 x 1% x 11/4 inches in size. It is roughly 
flaked, the notches at the two sides being made in the same 
manner. They were found within a short distance of each 
other. Several similar specimens have been collected here. 
They may be part of a set or quantity of such weights. 

The flint worked here is largely of greyish-white, buff, 
and flesh (to pink) colors. Blanks of all of these, some 
broken, occur here in fair numbers. All is Wisconsin ma- 
terial and its source was probably not distant. Other flint 
used in implement manufacture is of bluish-grey, white and 
dark red colors. This is not as common. One rhyolite 
(black) and one quartzite (buff) chip were found. 

Mr. Geo. H. Sherman of Newville has in his collection five 
pieces or lumps of galena or lead ore which he collected at 


Plate 1 

Indian Village and Cainp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 27 

different times from the Pierce farm site. The largest of 
these weighs 5 pounds and the smallest about one pound. 
Mr. Sherman has in his collection of about one thousand 
flint implements many which were found here. 

Opposite both the Rock River and the Pierce village sites 
there were when the first white settlers came to this region 
large beds of wild rice which the Winnebago Indians then 
encamped here gathered. Mussels were also abundant in 
the river. Some of these the Indians dried for future use. 
Both sites might be termed fishing villages, their inhabi- 
tants depending on water products (fish, mussels, wild rice 
and the edible roots of water plants) to a very considerable 
extent for food. Both sites exhibit evidence of having been 
occupied by an Algonkian people at an earlier date. 

Neivville Village Site 
(NE. 14 Sec. 12) 

John Farmer's "Map of the Territories of Michigan and 
Wisconsin," published in 1836, shows the location of a Win- 
nebago village at Newville. This was on the south bank of 
the Rock River a short distance from the foot of Lake Kosh- 
konong, and on the trail leading from the lake down the 
Rock. On a map of "Wiskonsin Territory/' 1837, the name 
of this village is given as Tay-cheedah, translated as "mud 
village." Of this village and the number of its inhabitants 
during these years very little is known. Its chief or chiefs 
were not sufficiently prominent to have won historical rec- 
ognition. It was a good fishing locality and Indians con- 
tinued to visit and to camp in this locality in numbers for 
many years after the white settlers came to this region. 

L. B. Carswell, who resided at the foot of Lake Koshko- 
nong with his parents who settled in this locality in 1837, 
stated that the lake was a great resort for Indians who 
camped here often by hundreds. These were principally 
Winnebago and Potawatomi. The Indians subsisted on 
fish, game and wild rice. The wild rice was gathered by 
means of canoes and after being hulled and winnowed was 
stored for future use in sacks made of hides or rushes. The 
lake had the appearance in the summer time of a large mea- 
dow. The growing wild rice completely covered it and wa- 
ter was scarcely visible. The water was uniformly only 


four or five feet deep. The prairies and oak openings of 
the locality were smooth and easily travelled. The prairies 
were very beautiful. The Indians burned the prairie grass 
every year.* Other old settlers state that fish were taken 
by the Indians in several ways by spearing and clubbing 
them, and by pinning them in the shallows with a split, 
forked pole. 

The great number of stone implements and of other In- 
dian artifacts collected in this region, on both banks of the 
Rock, in the past ninety or more years, appears to bear 
abundant testimony that as an Indian dwelling place this 
locality goes far back into the prehistoric period, and that 
Algonquian as well as Siouan Indians have occupied it. 

On the William Aids place on the north bank of the Rock 
a camp site is indicated by scattered hearthstones, ashy 
areas in the soil, bits of mussel shells and flint rejectage. 
Mr. Louis Pierce of Newville has collected a number of flint 
arrowpoints here and other collectors have gathered others 
and a few stone celts and grooved axes from these fields in 
past years. In Newville itself a few burials have been un- 
earthed in road construction and house building. Very lit- 
tle exact information concerning these is now obtainable. 
The Aids property is in the northern part of the northeast 
quarter of Section 12. A Winnebago name for this locality 
is Nee-ouitch, or foot of the lake. 

At Newville Indian camp and village sites extend from 
the Rock River bridge down the north bank of the Rock to 
the bend of the river, a distance of a mile or more. 

The first indications of a former Indian village site on the 
north bank of the river were found in a small potato patch 
on rather low black, sandy soil several hundred feet in the 
rear of the Simon store in the village. At this place, within 
a few feet of the river bank, aboriginal camp refuse consist- 
ing of hearthstones, flint chips and spalls, blanks and pieces 
of clam shell were abundant. Small sherds of cord-marked 
and indented earthenware were also found. This site ex- 
tends eastward to the main street of Newville but this por- 
tion was occupied by weeds and tall grass and could not be 
examined. It also extends westward along the river on 
more elevated land into a barnyard adjoining the potato 

* Hist, of Rock Co., C. F. Cooper & Co., 1908. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 29 

field. In past years a goodly number of flint points, sev- 
eral stone celts and axes, and several native copper imple- 
ments were gathered from this site. 

Riverview Resort Village Site 
(NW. 1/4 Sec. 12) 

A short distance west of the foregoing site there is near 
the river bank a picturesque small limestone and yellow 
sandstone outcrop, where some quarrying has been done. 
At its base runs a river road. On the grass-grown top of 
this quarry flint chips and hearthstones also occur, these in- 
dications extending into the cultivated field in its rear. Be- 
yond the quarry flint refuse occurs in the road and in the 
road bank. Here was located in the bank a small deposit of 
partly decomposed and broken clam shell valves. These 
were tightly packed in a small cavity or refuse pit, the de- 
posit not exceeding eighteen inches in depth. This small 
pit was excavated but disclosed only the clam shells. 

Beyond this place the land along the river bank is rather 
level and covered with sod. This common, over which are 
scattered the cottages of the Riverview resort (most being 
grouped at its western end) is about a thousand feet in 
length and at different points from 60 to 80 feet in breadth. 
On it are scattered oak and other trees. It is traversed by 
the river road. Near its western end a spring-fed brook 
runs from an adjoining field into the river. Throughout 
the entire length of this common flint refuse and hearth- 
stones of workshop and wigwam sites are exposed at inter- 
vals in the road and in other places which are bare of sod. 
These sites extend into the cultivated fields in the rear of 
the resort. The river opposite the resort is about 400 feet 
wide from bank to bank. 

Collectors of Indian artifacts at Edgerton, Indian Ford, 
Fulton and Janesville have gathered many flint implements 
and a smaller number of stone celts, hammers, stone balls 
and sandstone grinding stones here in past years. Among 
the more interesting finds were a bone awl, small circular 
clam-shell pendant and a copper spearpoint with a tapering 
blade and long pointed tang. No potsherds were collected. 


Ridgeview Village Site 
(NE. % Sec. 11) 

Beyond ^Riverview the lake bank is higher and the slope 
of a wooded ridge parallels the shore line for a short dis- 
tance. Among the oaks on this slope are grouped half-a- 
dozen summer cottages. In a small sandy garden plot at 
the eastern end of this resort flint refuse and hearthstones 
of a former wigwam fireplace were exposed. Similar in- 
dications of former Indian occupation are found at inter- 
vals in the bed of the river road and the bank of the cottage 
lots fronting on the road. 

In the sandy road bank in front of the "Snug Harbor" cot- 
tage, with flint chips and fragments, many pieces of a small 
cord-marked earthen vessel were dug out of the bank. About 
120 feet beyond this place the road cuts through a shell heap 
which is irregular in outline. Its greatest length is about 
50 feet and its width from four to twelve feet. This de- 
posit of decomposed and broken clam shells mixed with 
earth is in places about two feet in thickness. It is located 
about twenty feet from the river bank and from ten to 
twelve feet above the water. It is nearly opposite the last 
of the line of cottages. We dug over parts of this shell 
heap but without other results. 

Beyond this point the wooded ridge turns toward the 
north and then again to the west. Between its base and 
the river shore there is a cultivated field from which a to- 
bacco crop had just been cut and removed. In this field, 
which slopes gently from the base of the ridge to the river 
bank, indications of a former camp site occur. The east- 
ern end especially, of this field was littered with scattered 
flint rejectage and hearthstones. Several hammerstones and 
flint blanks were among these. Local and other collectors 
have found this field and several adjoining farm fields good 
collecting grounds for flint points. The latter fields were 
growing crops of clover and alfalfa and could not be exam- 
ined. A narrow grassy common separates the southern 
margin of all of these fields from the river bank. This 
common the river road traverses. At a number of places 
the top of the river bank is at least ten feet above the water 
of the river. Here a line of large granite and other boul- 
ders had been moved from the fields to the river edge of the 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 31 

road. At the western limits of these fields a dirt road comes 
down to the river from the Newville to Edgerton highway, 
and unites with the river bank road. A short distance be- 
yond this road camp site indications are also found. 

On the shore near the southward bend of the Rock are 
other summer resort homes. Here the land along the bank 
is forested and covered with sod, giving no present oppor- 
tunity for its examination. Beyond this place, south of Ed- 
gerton, the higher river bluffs come down to the river bank 
with farm lands on their top. 

A seemingly favorite flint in use by the former Indian 
residents of these north bank village sites between Newville 
and the river bend is of an attractive bright red color. This 
material, in the form of chips, flakes, spalls, fragments, bro- 
ken blanks and small masses, is distributed over the length 
of these sites. Other kinds of flint in use on these sites are 
a flesh-colored, a dark bluish grey, and a grey and white. 
The first of these is also of quite common occurrence. All 
were very probably obtainable from Rock River or other 
local sources. Flint implements made of these are in local 
and other collections. Nodules of white flint occur in some 
of the fields. 

We collected from these sites a notched arrowpoint made 
of red flint, a stemmed point made of the flesh-colored flint 
and broken points made of this material, hammerstones en- 
tire and broken, a small lump of hematite, and pieces of 
clam shell valves. Potsherds found on the Ridgeview site are 
some of them of a reddish color, and some of a blackish 
color. Some of the latter are ornamented with cord im- 
pressions and small indentations. All are tempered with 
crushed stone particles. The pieces of a small broken ves- 
sel found at "Snug Harbor" cottage are of a reddish color 
and are ornamented with cord impressions. These are also 
tempered with crushed stone. 

Mr. D. Willard North has fragments of a large vessel 
which in the year 1922 or 1923 he excavated from beneath 
the roots of an oak tree standing about on the north and 
south boundary line of Sections 11 and 12. This location is 
by the side of the old trail from Newville to Indian Ford and 
the mouth of the Catfish River. This vessel was of a dark 
brown color, its surface paddled with coarse cord markings, 


and with small elliptical impressions made with a small 
cross-lined stamp or object, also with small circular nodes 
punched out from the interior of the vessel. Some of the 
sherds are nearly one-half inch in thickness. This pot ap- 
pears to have been quite a large vessel, perhaps a kettle. 
The clay is tempered with crushed stone. 

Mr. North informed the writers that in the year 1918 he 
found on the Richardson farm at Newville, the bones of an 
Indian buried which had been exposed in the plowing of a 
field. It was a full length burial. The site of this inter- 
ment was a short distance west of the stone outcrop on the 
river bank on that farm, and about 300 feet from the bank. 

Mr. North has numerous flint implements from the vil- 
lage sites on the north bank of the Rock at Newville. 

Mrs. George Doty of Edgerton has a small collection 
made by her son, Lawrence Doty, at Newville and elsewhere 
at the foot of Lake Koshkonong about thirty years ago. This 
small collection consists largely of arrowpoints of which 
there are about one hundred. Of this number 50 are 
stemmed points, 45 notched, 3 barbed, and 5 triangular in 
form (more common in Northern Illinois) with truncated 
or blunted barbs, one having serrated edges. There are a 
number of flint blanks. The points in this collection are 
made of red, flesh colored, pink, grey, white, and salmon col- 
ored flint. One notched point is made of light grey quartz- 
ite. One perforator is made of grey flint, another of grey- 
ish quartzite. Both are simple, elongated leaf-shaped forms 
lacking a stem. Two scrapers are both re-chipped arrow- 
points. One is made of grey, the other of buff flint. The 
only heavy stone cutting implement is a five inch celt. 

Mr. Darcey Biggar, Louis Pierce, Edward Amerpoll, Hor- 
ace McElroy, H. C. Son, W. P. Clarke, are among many oth- 
ers who have collected from the sites at Newville in past 
years. The total number of Indian implements collected 
here must number in the neighborhood of 5,000 specimens. 

In the Logan Museum at Beloit there is an arrowshaft 
grinder which was collected here, and in the Geo. A. West 
collection in the State Historical Museum, three flint perfor- 
ators from Newville. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 33 

South Bank Camp Sites 

(NW. 14 Sec. 12 and NE. 14 Sec. 11) 

On the south bank of the Rock River indications of for- 
mer camp and workshop sites occur along the river road 
from near the Newville bridge westward to the Peek farm 
at the bend of the river. Remains of these early Indian 
homesites are here more difficult to locate than on the north 
bank of the river because of woodland tracts, an orchard 
and other conditions of the land which are unfavorable for 
the making of a satisfactory surface survey. 

Several visits were made to this locality. On one of 
these occasions a deposit of flint chips and spalls, a small 
workship site, was removed from the roadside bank oppo- 
site the Charles Zebell farm. Other flint rejectage was 
found in other places, in the river bank, along the road and 
in gardens. In the course of years quite a number of flint 
points and some stone celts and grooved axes have been 
picked up by Newville and other collectors of Indian imple- 
ments along this stretch of river road. In places in the cul- 
tivated fields of the Peek farm wigwam hearthstones are 
quite numerous. The excavation of several of these former 
fireplaces produced only charcoal, and ashy soil. No pot- 
tery fragments were found on these sites. 

The flint in use in implement manufacture in this local- 
ity is apparently the same as that which was in use on the 
north bank sites. Two notched arrowpoints found during 
our investigations are made of white flint, a broken point 
and a portion of a knife are both made of flesh-colored flint. 

The river road above referred to is a picturesque country 
highway with scattered summer cottages between it and 
the rather high river bank. Beyond the most western of 
these cottages rather level cultivated fields extend to beyond 
the river bend. In early days of white settlement small 
groups of both Winnebago and Potawatomi Indians fre- 
quently camped here. 

Oak Ridge Village Site 

(E. % Sec. 14) 

The Rock River makes a big bend to the west opposite 
the road and rather level river fields of this farm. At this 
bend a large marsh extends inland in a southeasterly direc- 


tion for a considerable distance. On the border of this 
marsh on the Ulysses 0. Miller farm is a sandy knoll in 
use during the summer of 1928 as a watermelon patch. Here 
were found the scattered stones of a wigwam fireplace, flint 
refuse and a broken flint blank. Some flint points have 
been found here by the son of the farmer. Other likely 
spots in the Miller fields from which numbers of flint points 
have been collected were covered with grass and weeds and 
could not be examined. Across the marsh from the farm 
fields to the south is a woodland. 

Indications of this former village site also extend on to 
the Mrs. Will Earl and adjoining farms. From this site 
Mr. Miller has made a very good collection of Indian imple- 
ments. Other collectors have also visited and gathered 
flint and other implements here. The manufacture of flint 
implements was quite extensively engaged in. In re- 
cently plowing a field on the Miller farm the plowshare cut 
through a deposit of nearly a bushel of flint chips and spalls. 
In former years it frequently happened that similar depos- 
its were disturbed in cultivating some of these river bend 
fields. Wigwam fireplaces and other hearths were also 
thus disturbed and the burned stones scattered. 

The old Indian trail from Indian Ford to the foot of Lake 
Koshkonong passed over the Miller farm. A remnant of 
this prehistoric pathway can still be seen in the woodland 
north of the Miller farm house. 

The Miller collection includes about 350 flint implements. 
Of these the greater number are arrowpoints, largely of 
stemmed and notched forms. A few are triangular in 
shape. One exceptionally large (3% in.)spearpoint of the 
"heart-shaped" form, with one broken barb, is made of 
white flint. The arrowpoints are largely made of white 
and grey flint, a few of reddish or other colored flint. Sev- 
eral are made of light brown quartzite and one stemmed 
spearpoint of blue hornstone. There are a small number 
of scrapers and perforators, the latter all provided with 

The heavier stone implements in this collection are a cen- 
trally grooved stone hammer, a rude grooved axe, and a 
number of stone balls. The only copper implement is a 
small triangular arrowpoint. A small conical copper point 


Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 35 

was also found here. A small disk pipe made of white lime- 
stone comes from the sites at the foot of Lake Koshkonong. 

Some shell-tempered potsherds are reported to have been 
found on this village site. We were unable to recover any 
specimens of this or other earthenware fragments during 
our several visits to this site. 

This site also extends on to the Hurd farm adjoining the 
Miller farm on the west. On this farm, east of where the 
C. M. & St. P. R. R. line crosses the Rock, Mr. Darcy Biggar 
once collected a grooved stone maul weighing six pounds. 
This site is in the SW. % of Section 14. 

River Bend Shell Heap 

(SW. 1/4 of the NW. 1/4 of Sec. 14) 

A shell heap was formerly located on the A. Salisbury 
farm on the north bank of the Rock in the big bend of the 
river. When Mr. Darcy Biggar first noticed this refuse 
heap years ago it had been deeply plowed by the owners of 
the land preparatory to cultivating the field. He examined 
the ground at the time but no Indian implements were 
found upon or near it. This shell mound was low and of 
small dimensions and was a mixture of the valves, broken 
and entire, of river clams and earth. It was in appearance 
similar to other refuse heaps once located along the Rock 
River bank between this point and the foot of Lake Kosh- 
konong. River mussels of, which there were formerly 
many beds, worked in recent years by pearl hunters, appear 
to have been a quite common article of food of the early In- 
dian occupants of the Rock River. 

This place is across the river from the Oak Ridge village 
site elsewhere described. The north bank trail from New- 
ville and Lake Koshkonong passed over it. 

Edgerton Camp Sites 

(N. 1/2 Sec. 15) 

Camp and workshop site debris occurs in several culti- 
vated fields on the north bank of the Rock overlooking a 
bend of the river. These are about three-fourths of a mile 
south of the southern city limits of Edgerton. The river 
banks are high at this place, a number of cottages being lo- 
cated on the river shore. The camp sites are on top of the 


high banks at a distance of three hundred or more feet from 
the water's edge. The flint worked at these wigwam sites 
was of white, bluish grey, light brown and reddish colors. 
Several small broken flint blanks and the base of a small 
leaf shaped point were found. Of special interest is a small 
flint pecking hammer. Indications of its use in implement 
manufacture circle the edge of one of its faces. 

The very weedy condition of the cornfields in which these 
evidences occur prevented our making a larger collection. 

Both east and west of these farm fields are ravines and 
woodlands. Mr. Darcy Biggar has collected some flint ar- 
row and spearpoints from a camp site located in the NE. 1/4 
of Section 15. 


The southern city limits of Edgerton are at different 
points within a half mile or a mile north of the Rock River. 
Two trails, coming from the northwest, ran across the site 
of the present city in a southwesterly direction and united 
just beyond its southwestern limits, then continued on to 
the mouth of the Catfish River. In various collections and 
in other hands are Indian implements found in past years 
within the present limits of Edgerton, or near the city. The 
exact locations from which some of these were obtained is 
unfortunately unknown. The character of some of these is 
such that they deserve to be mentioned despite this uncer- 
tainty. These include an adz-axe made of greenstone, a 
grooved axe with a pointed poll made of basalt, a fluted 
stone axe made of grauwacke, and a bannerstone of the but- 
terfly form made of hornblende schist, all of which are in 
the Logan Museum at Beloit College. In the State Histori- 
cal Museum there is a copper knife (A 2451) found near the 
city. Also an iron trade axe cut out of the trunk of a large 
white oak tree at Edgerton and presented by Matthew 
Croft. Mr. H. C. Son has an antler point found near the 

Within and near the city many specimens of such com- 
mon Indian weapons and tools as flint arrow and spear- 
points, and some stone celts and grooved axes have beei 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 37 

Miller Camp Site 

(NW. 1/4 Sec. 15) 

Mr. Bert Cox of Indian Ford reports that a favorite camp 
ground of the early Indians was on the Charles Miller farm 
on the north bank of the Rock, in the northwest corner of 
this quarter section. This site is a short distance northeast 
of Indian Ford. The river trail passed over it. He has in 
his collection some flint points, blanks and a knife collected 
here. Flint chips and fragments and burned stones occur in 
a field on this place. 

Mr. Cox has a large polished grooved axe with a deep 
groove and prominent ridges. This was found on the old 
Wm. Bell farm, where the slaughter house stands. It 
weighs 5 pounds. The Bell farm adjoins the Miller farm 
on the east. Numerous indications of flint working, also 
occur here. Mr. David Van Wart, a former Evansville col- 
lector, had a flint hoe made of tan-colored flint which was 
found on the Miller farm site. This implement was bell- 
shaped in form and 8 inches in length. Its width at its 
squared top was 2i/o inches and at the expanded base of its 
blade 6 inches. Its curved cutting edge was polished 
through long use. Hoes of similar form are of frequent oc- 
currence in southern Illinois. 

Devil's Oven 

(NE. % Sec. 16) 

Two small caves occur in the limestone wall on the river 
bank on the William Wille farm. The larger of these is 
known as "The Devil's Oven." This cave is near the top of 
the sloping river bank at a distance of about 50 feet from 
the water's edge. Its mouth is somewhat circular in out- 
line, about 5 feet high and 6 feet wide at the floor. Its 
length is about 18 feet. It becomes lower and narrower 
within. Its floor is of earth and loose fragments of rock. 
In an emergency it might shelter rather uncomfortably four 
or five persons. This cave has a local reputation of having 
been occasionally used by Indians in former years as a tem- 
porary shelter. A short distance south of it is a smaller 

The riverbank fields of the Wille farm were in pasture 


and could not be examined. Some stone implements have 
been found here in past years and it is probable that camp 
and workshop sites occur here also. 

Brown Camp Site 

(SE. 1/4, NW. 1/4 Sec. 16) 

On the F. T. Brown farm indications of a former camp 
and workshop site were found in a level field between the 
farm barn and the high river bank. Hearthstones, a bro- 
ken white flint blank, and chips and spalls of white, grey 
and red flint were scattered over a small area in this field at 
a distance of about one hundred feet from the top of the 
river bank. Mr. Brown, the owner of the farm, has also 
found a few flint arrowpoints here. 

Limestone outcrops along this bank of the river and ex- 
tends from south of Cliff Lodge as far north as the William 
Wille farm beyond the Brown farm. This stone has been 
quarried in several places one of these quarries being on the 
Brown and another on the river shore on the Wille pro 

Southworth Farm Village Site 
(NE. 1/4 Sec. 16) 

An Indian village site is located on the Southworth farm, 
formerly the John C. Kurd farm, on the eastern bank of the 
third bend of the Rock River. Its southern limit is at a 
distance of about two city blocks north of the northern lim- 
its of Indian Ford. Its northern limit extends into the 
southwest corner of the NW. 14 of Section 15. This site 
is located on ground now under cultivation. It was partly 
occupied by a large cornfield and partly by pasture fields 
during the summer of 1928. 

Along the river front of these fields for a distance of 
nearly six hundred feet were scattered groups of hearth- 
stones, flint fragments, chips, flakes, some flint nodules, 
fragments of animal bones and of river mussel shells, and 
occasional broken pebble hand-hammers. 

From this site, in past years, numbers of flint imple- 
ments, hammerstones, and some stone celts, hammers and 
grooved axes have been collected. A pebble pipe, the stem 
of a broken pottery pipe, a broken slate gorget, a bone awl 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 39 

and several perforated shell disk beads were also obtained. 
Messrs. Bert Cox, Darcy Biggar, D. Willard North and 
other collectors have found these fields a good hunting 
ground. Some sherds of twisted-cord marked and indented 
earthenware are among other specimens gathered. We 
collected during our inspections of this village site broken 
hammerstones, flint blanks and a flint double-end scraper. 

The flint in use in implement manufacture is largely of a 
reddish color, with some chips and fragments of white 
and bluish-grey flint. Years ago, when some of these fields 
were first cultivated small heaps of flint chips were over- 
turned by the plowshare in different places in these river 
bank fields. Near the river bank were some shallow circu- 
lar depressions, probably former provision cache pits. 
Evidences of Indian occupation extend from 150 to 300 feet 
or more inland from the river bank. The river bank along 
this shore of the Rock rises from 6 to 15 or more feet 
above the water the land sloping gradually upward toward 
the east. 

The Rock River trail passed over this farm on its way to 
Indian Ford, according to early maps, a considerable dis- 
tance back from the river bank. 

The Rock River opposite this land is a very attractive 
stream, and is 400 or more feet in width. The banks on 
both shores are clothed with oak trees. On the opposite 
shore, across from the northern part of the Southworth 
farm, there is a limestone quarry. 

Indian Ford 

At this settlement on the highway from Edgerton to 
Janesville there was an Indian crossing or ford of the Rock 
River from the trail on its eastern bank to that on its west- 
ern. The old Winnebago Indian name of this locality was 
Nee-ru-tcha-ja, or "river crossing," also given as Ho-ru- 
tchkach. Pioneer and other old settlers remembered num- 
bers of both Winnebago and Potawatomi Indians crossing 
the river in the shallows at this place, the women at times 
rather heavily laden with bundles on their backs and shoul- 
ders. They were on their way to Lake Koshkonong or to 
points down the river. The early ford is reported to have 
been just above the present highway bridge. Doubtless 


there were other crossings. Even today the river bed is 
shallow below the dam and may be crossed by means of 
sand and gravel bars. One good crossing is about 300 feet 
below the power dam. 

On some maps both the names Indian Ford and Fulton 
Center appear for the part of the settlement on the east 
bank of the river. 

From the highway at the base of the river bluffs on the 
east bank the locality is quite picturesque. On the oppo- 
site shore the river hills, now occupied by farm and other 
houses slope down to the small settlement on this bank. 

Mr. Bert Cox of Indian Ford has a collection of some five 
hundred Indian implements. Some of his best specimens 
were obtained from the village site on the old Stone (the 
present Flom) farm, on the east bank of the river about a 
mile southwest of Indian Ford. Others are from the South- 
worth and other sites up the river. Of special note in His 
collection are a perforated oval stone ornament or amulet 
with a groove extending from the perforation to the top and 
made of mica schist, and a polished black stone ball two 
inches in diameter. Two stone celts are triangular in form 
and from 3 to 4% inches in length. The smaller is polished, 
the larger has a pecked surface. Three knives are made of 
rhyolite, purple-brown quartzite and light brown quartzite. 
These are from 21/2 to 3% inches in length. Six large 
stemmed, notched and barbed spearpoints are from 3Va to 
4% inches long. Five are made of flint and one of light 
brown quartzite. A grooved stone axe has a blade short- 
ened by frequent sharpening of its cutting edge. Some 
flint scrapers, perforators and reamers are in this collec- 
tion. A small lump of hematite is of interest. 

Indian Ford Camp Site 

(SW. 1/4 Sec. 16) 

Within the part of the village of Indian Ford located on 
the east bank of the Rock traces of a former Indian camp 
site are exposed in a small garden field adjoining the M. F. 
Krueger home on the south. In this field located between 
the highway and the river bank hearthstones are most num- 
erous in the southwest corner at a distance of about 50 feet 
from the river bank. An unornamented crushed-rock tern- 



Plate 2 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 41 

pered potsherd, a flint blank, a flint pecking hammer and an 
ordinary hammerstone were found here. 

A short distance north of this field at the northern limits 
of the village a brook flows into the Rock. The Indian site 
probably covers the entire distance from this brook to the 
Indian Ford bridge. All of it but this field is now occupied 
by dwellings and barns of the village. 

Several stone celts and numbers of flint implements have 
been found in this part of Indian Ford. 

Indian Ford Heights Camp Site 
(SW. % Sec. 16) 

On the west bank of the river at Indian Ford a camp site 
is located on the D. Willard North property on the heights 
overlooking the settlement and the river below. This is in- 
dicated by the presence of a few scattered hearthstones and 
flint chips and fragments in the garden south of the North 
cottage. This site extends across the highway into the gar- 
den of the Becker home. Here many flint arrowpoints 
have been collected. It also extends over parts of a culti- 
vated field along the top of the river bluff from the barn on 
the North place northward to the Cliff Lodge resort. 

Several examinations were made of the black soil of this 
field after its tobacco crop had been removed. These re- 
sulted in the finding of scattered hearthstones, chips and 
spalls of light brown and flesh-colored flint and of white 
quartz, two flake scrapers, a broken blue hornstone arrow- 
point, a sandstone rubbing or smoothing stone, and a light 
grey flint blank. Some small sherds of cord-marked pot- 
tery were also found in the North garden. 

This site probably extends beyond the Cliff Lodge resort. 

South Indian Ford Camp Site 
(SE. 1/4 Sec. 20) 

From Indian Ford in a southwesterly direction the south 
shore of the Rock for a distance of a mile westward to the 
SE. 1/4, of Section 20 is hilly and covered with woodland ex- 
cept where the hills have been denuded of trees. A number 
of small ravines lead from the tops of these hills down to 
river shore. 

At one place along this stretch, just west of where a 


brook enters the Rock, there is a small grassy flat between 
the base of the hills and the river shore. This is about the 
distance of a city block west of the present tourist camp 
ground at Indian Ford. This small area was recently un- 
der cultivation. It is known to have been an Indian camp 
site, and quite a few flint implements have been found here 
by collectors. Here, in a spot not entirely overgrown with 
the grass and weeds which have again taken possession of 
this former field, we found a group of fireplace stones, scat- 
tered chips of white flint and a broken hammerstone. The 
latter had probably seen secondary use as a fireplace 
stone. Bits of clam shell valves were also found. The 
river bank opposite this camp site is quite high. Opposite 
this point the Rock is about 300 feet wide. 

The river trail passed over the top of these bluffs. 

Indian Ford Flats Village Site 
(NW. 1/4 Sec. 20) 

On the north (west) bank of the Rock south of the village 
of Indian Ford the land along the river is quite level. Along 
the shore south of the power plant at the dam a number of 
summer cottages have been erected and the name "Sunny 
View" given to this addition. In the rear of these is a 
grassy pasture which rises gradually toward the Fulton 

Adjoining Sunny View on the south is a large cultivated 
field of the Schofield farm. In this field, bearing a crop of 
corn at the time of our visit, the evidence of former Indian 
occupation was abundant. Burned stones from wigwam 
fireplaces and fragments, flakes and chips of flint were scat- 
tered over the entire river frontage of this field and ex- 
tended for a considerable distance toward its rear. Hearth- 
stones of all sizes were more numerous here than on any 
site along the river which we have recently examined. Small 
fragments of clam shell valves were also scattered over 
some parts of the field. 

The flint employed here in implement making is of white, 
grey, tan, flesh, and reddish colors. All or nearly all of it 
could have been very conveniently obtained from some of 
the gravel hills or gravel slides along the river between this 
point and Janesville. The character of some of the numer- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites pf the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 43 

ous flint implements found on this site appears to show, 
however, that some other flint was imported, coming from 
greater distances. Flakes and chips of light colored quart- 
zite show that this material was also in use in implement 
manufacture at this village. Other artifacts found in the 
course of a search of this site were pebble hammerstones of 
different sizes and weights (some of them evidently broken 
in use), sandstone smoothers, flake scrapers, flint blanks, 
pieces of broken arrow and spearpoints and knives, flint 
nodules and masses of white flint. No potsherds were ob- 
tained although a number have been collected here by other 

This village site extended over the adjoining grassy field 
of "Sunny View,'' also into the woodland cottage resort of 
"Rainbow's End," which adjoins the Schofield field on the 
west. Mr. W. C. Schofield has a small collection of Indian 
artifacts collected from this site. Mr. Darcy Biggar has 
collected some twenty-five or thirty flint arrowpoints and 
two or three flint knives from here. A grooved stone axe 
has also been found. The river bank opposite this field is 
from six to ten or more feet high and the stream opposite 
about three hundred feet wide. 

Rainbow's End Corn Field 

(NW. % Sec. 20) 

West of the Hansen cottage at Rainbow's End woodland 
numerous Indian corn hills are to be seen near the river 
shore. These are covered with sod and although they have 
been trampled over by cattle the hills of the old planting 
ground are still fairly distinct. The hills are not arranged 
in rows but are scattered about here and there and are quite 
close together. This cornfield covered about a third of an 
acre of ground. Some of the hills are within a few feet of 
the lake bank which is rather low. The Indians are re- 
ported to have been still growing some corn here after the 
first white settlers came to this part of Rock County. 

Indian Hill Mound Group 

(NE. 1/4 Sec. 19) 

This interesting group of mounds was first described by 
Dr. Increase A. Lapham.* It was replatted in recent years 

* The Antiquities of Wisconsin, 1855. 


by Mr. H. L. Skavlem (See Wis. Archeologist, v. 13, no. 2, 

There are 28 mounds in this group, nine being tapering 
linears from 74 to 205 feet in length, and the balance short, 
straight linears, oval and conical earthworks. 

This group is located on the bank of the Rock between the 
Pratt pasture lands and the mouth of the Yahara or Catfish 
River. The mounds are near the river bank in an open 
woodland. This contains but little underbrush being in use 
as a pasture and most of the mounds can be plainly seen 
from the lakeshore path. Nearly all of the conical mounds 
have been dug into by relic hunters and some of the linears 
also. Although thus mutilated (the excavated holes being 
left open) this group of ancient earthworks makes a fine 
appearance on the green woodland sod beneath the fine oak 
and other trees. In its arrangement, nearly all of the 
tapering linears being located at right angles to the lake 
shore with their heads toward the water, this group is more 
or less unique among southern Wisconsin mound groups. 
It deserves to be saved and preserved as a county park by 
Rock County. 

Brief accounts of the results of the exploration of a few 
of the mounds have been published. At least one exhibited 
evidence of human cremation. One was excavated by Mr. 
Darcy Biggar years ago. In this conical mound he found 
a flexed (?) human burial the bones being stained with red 
ochre. With this burial were found two elliptical blue horn- 
stone knives. One of these is 5% inches long and 2 inches 
wide at its middle, and the other 5% inches long and 2 3/16 
inches wide at its middle. They are fine specimens of this 
class of implements. Dr. Lapham gave the name of "In- 
dian Hill" to this locality. 

Catfish Village 

(NE. % of the SW. 14 Sec. 19) 

At the mouth of the Catfish or Yahara River, where it 
empties its waters into those of the Rock, was located the 
Winnebago Indian village known as Catfish Village. This 
location is one and three-quarters miles southwest of Indian 
Ford and less than a mile south of Fulton. 

This was a village site of some importance. Several 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 45 

trails from the northeast, the north and the south centered 
here. There was a ford across the Catfish at the village 
and one across the Rock a short distance below the mouth 
of the Catfish at the location of the later highway bridge. 
The Catfish was the canoe route from the Four Lakes at 
present Madison to the Rock. It was a stopping point for 
Indians passing down the Rock from the Indian villages on 
the shores of Lake Koshkonong by canoe or by trail. 

Tradition and history appear to indicate that the Winne- 
bago occupied this site for at least a hundred years before 
the first white settlers arrived in this region. The Winne- 
bago name, or one of their names, for the site was Ho- 
winch, "catfish" The chief of the Catfish Village was Lit- 
tle Priest (Little Chief), whose Indian name is given as 
Hounk-kono-nik-ka. His knife and its sheath are pre- 
served in the State Historical Museum. Whatever may 
have been the number of its early Indian inhabitants there 
were only two lodges with thirty-eight inhabitants here 
when U. S. Indian Agent John H. Kinzie made his official 
census of the Winnebago in 1829. Small numbers of these 
Hochungara, as they called themselves, continued to camp 
and to grow corn here for years after the whites appeared. 
Their planting ground or "Indian garden" was on the river 
flat on the north side of the mouth of the Catfish. This lo- 
cality has long been known to the settlers and their descend- 
ants by this name. The site of the Indian garden lies a 
short distance beyond the wooded slope on which are located 
the "Indian Hill" group of mounds. Several of these 
mounds, now nearly leveled, intrude on the village site on 
the elevated fields above the garden. 

The site of the Indian garden is a tract of low, flat land 
which has this year been under cultivation as a grain field. 
A broad border of rank weeds lies between it and the waters 
of the Rock, and a narrow strip of woodland pasture be- 
tween it and the Catfish River at its mouth. The peaty 
black soil of this field is subject to occasional (or frequent) 
overflow. Scattered over its surface are numerous shells 
of land and water snails. In its rear are brush and trees, 
a wildwood tangle. No good description of this Indian 
planting ground has been preserved. Doubtless the In- 
dians also grew beans, gourds and squash here. 


Although the principal part of this Indian village site was 
on the elevated fields of the Jensen farm above and north 
of the planting ground the aborigines also camped in, or on 
the edge of the garden itself. In various places in this 
field the burned stones of wigwam, and perhaps outdoor 
fireplaces, flint chips, broken clam shells, bits of animal 
bones, potsherds, flint blanks, and occasional stone imple- 
ments are found. Local and other collectors have visited 
this planting ground site for many years. From their ac- 
counts it appears that fragments of earthenware vessels 
were once numerous here and that many flint and other 
stone implements have been gathered from this field. 

The special interest to us were the considerable numbe 
of fragments of earthen vessels scattered over a number of 
places on its surface. Most of these were of small size, 
probably broken up during the cultivation of the field. The 
greater number of these sherds were made of light brown 
clay and were tempered with crushed rock and particles of 
sand. Several are of a grey color. To the outer surface 
of one of these a light reddish slip has been applied. 
Another grey sherd has had a light reddish slip or surfacing 
applied to both its inner and its outer surfaces. One small 
unornamented sherd is of a black color. 

Among the ornamented sherds (rim and other pieces) 
are ten belonging to as many different vessels. These are 
ornamented with twisted cord impressions, the cords being 
applied to the clay vertically, horizontally and diagonally 
in different sherds. One bears both diagonal and horizon- 
tal cord impressions, the latter being applied over the other. 
In two instances cord impressions extend over the rim on to 
the interior of the vessel. Twisted cords of several thick- 
nesses, fine, medium and coarse, were in use in ornamenting 
these vessels. Some of these sherds are further orna- 
mented by indentations made with seeds (?) or with 
pointed instruments, and arranged in single or double con- 
centric rows. One sherd bears a small perforation as if the 
vessel had been cracked and mended by tying through this 

The thickest of the sherds recovered from this site is not 
quite % of an inch thick, and the thinnest a little over 1/16 
inch. Most appear to be sherds of vessels of small or med- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 47 

ium size. The patterns are well-known Algonkian orna- 
mental patterns. 

Two other specimens of special interest found on this site 
are a pebble hammerstone (5 inches long, 3% inches wide 
at its widest part, and 21/2 inches thick) made of a tough 
crystalline rock and having abrasions at its pointed end, 
one edge, and two sides, the latter being probably finger- 
holds. This tool weighs two pounds. 

An irregular boulder is somewhat conical in form, the 
conical top being battered as if it had been employed as an 
anvil. This weighed about five pounds. 

A spearpoint, stemmed, is made of grey flint and is 2% 
inches long. 

To the east and south of Fulton the Catfish winds in beau- 
tiful curves like a silver ribbon through an extentive area 
of marshy meadows southward for a distance of a mile to 
where its waters unite with those of the Rock River. At 
its mouth is a small wooded island with another similar is- 
land in the Rock just beyond it. 

On the Paulson (Jensen) farm, which occupies the entire 
eastern bank of the Catfish from the Fulton to Indian Ford 
highway southward to the mouth of the river, evidences of 
former Indian residence are found on a large part of the 
cultivated fields bordering on the river marsh and on the 
bank of the Rock and the Indian garden already described. 
Along the Catfish this cultivated land, at its margin, is in 
some places elevated as much as twenty feet above the 
marshy meadows. 

These fields we examined, finding on their surface numer- 
ous scattered hearthstones, flint-workers' refuse, bits of de- 
composed clam shells, burned and cracked animal bones, 
jewel stones of the sheepshead perch, occasional pieces of 
deer antler, fragments of plain and cord-marked pottery, 
and other village site debris. Among the implements recov- 
ered in our search were pebble hammerstones, flint blanks, 
rude scrapers, arrowpoints and a rude or unfinished stone 
celt. A curious sharply-pointed light grey flint point with a 
deeply serrated edge was probably fashioned for use as a 
fish spear or harpoon point. This is 3% inches in length 
and one inch wide at its middle. It is of an elongated oval 
or elliptical shape. 



Vol. 9, No. 1 

The flint employed in implement manufacture is of white, 
light brown and flesh colors. Some white quartz, and 
brown and bluish-grey quartzite was also in use. The lat- 
ter is probably Waterloo quartzite. 

The potsherds found on the part of the site along the Cat- 
fish marshlands are plain or ornamented with twisted-cord 
or other indentations. Some are sand tempered, some sand 
and crushed quartz tempered, and some sand and shell tem- 

Hundreds of flint points, scrapers, perforators and knives 
have been gathered from the Paulson fields on this site by 
local and visiting collectors in the course of the past thirty 
years or more. 

The best collection made from this village site is that of 
Mr. Darcy Biggar, a former resident of Fulton, who began 
to gather specimens from these fields during his boyhood. 
His collection, recently presented by him to the State His- 
torical Museum, includes quite a wide variety of interest- 
ing Indian materials: 

45 Flint blanks 

2 Quartzite blanks 
170 Flint arrowpoints 
117 Small flint arrowpoints 

32 Flint spearpoints 

2 Quartzite spearpoints 
76 Flint scrapers 

40 Flint perforators and 

17 Flint knives 

1 Flint celt 

5 Stone celts 

1 Grooved stone axe 

1 Stone ball 

1 Copper wedge 

1 Copper stemmed arrowpoint 

1 Clay tube 

1 Catlinite effigy pendant 

3 Stone gorgets 

2 Shell beads 

1 Pottery pipe, broken 

3 Stone pipes 

Pieces of worked steatite 
1 Lead disk bead 
1 Bear tooth ornament 
1 Elk tooth 

Pottery fragments 

Gun and pistol flints 

Gun parts 

Section of gun barrel 

Lead musket balls 

Galena lumps 

Section of lead bar 

Lead steelyard weight 

Glass beads 

Fragments of brass and cop- 
per kettles 

Silver button 

Of the small flint arrowpoints sixty are triangular in 
form. The flint scrapers present quite a variety of form. 
Many are flint flakes or spalls one extremity or edge of 
which has been chipped for such use. Others are oval, cir- 
cular or triangular in shape. Others are broken arrow and 
spearpoints which have been re-chipped for use as scrapers. 

Fifty ornamented potsherds in the Biggar collection are 
fragments of nearly as many different vessels, nearly all of 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 49 

vessels of small or medium sizes. This earthenware was 
nearly all of a dark brown color, some of it of a reddish 
brown color. The majority of these sherds are shell-tem- 
pered, some show no tempering material in the clay. 

Forty-three rim sherds are as attractively ornamented as 
any found on any Rock River site. No two of these are 
alike in ornamentation. Most are ornamented with decora- 
tive designs made by impressing thin twisted cords of short 
lengths into the clay. These are arranged in horiontal, ver- 
tical and oblique lines, or in combinations of these. In 
some specimens these extend over the rim on to the interior 
surface of the vessel. The cord-impressed decoration is in 
some sherds varied by one or more parallel rows of indenta- 
tions made with blunt-pointed implements, or very short 
pieces of twisted cords. A small number of sherds are orna- 
mented with trailed parallel lines with small circular or 
other indentations made with round ends of plant stems or 
sticks, fossils, or other objects. One sand-tempered sherd, 
of red clay, has a cord-paddled surface with rows of circles 
made with a hollow implement. Several sherds show small 
drilled perforations. 

Those who hold to the belief that the Wisconsin Siouan 
Indians used crushed shell as a tempering material more or 
less exclusively, and that cord-impressed decorative pat- 
terns are confined to crushed-stone tempered Algonkian 
earthenware, may find in this collection a need to modify 
their ideas on this subject. 

Mr. Harvey Pease of Fulton and other collectors have 
also gathered many interesting specimens from the Catfish 
Village site. A catlinite disk pipe, bone awls, stone bead 
and a pottery disk are among these. 

Several of the conical and oval mounds of the Indian Hill 
group occur in the fields of the Catfish Village site. These 
have been under cultivation for many years and have been 
pretty well leveled. 

In early days of settlement Indians also camped now and 
then on the lands on the south side of the mouth of the Cat- 
fish River. On this side of the river the fields are sod- 
grown and in use as cattle pastures. They have been in 
such use for many years. The digging of a few test pits 


and examination of the river bank produced no evidence of 
an earlier occupation, traces of which may, however, yet be 

A few willow trees grow along the river bank which is 
six feet high in one place and low and marshy in others. 
Along the Rock River frontage of these fields the land is 
also marshy. A broad marshy area lies west of the pas- 
ture. At a distance of about 150 feet from the Catfish bank 
is what appears to have been a low oval mound. Its out- 
lines have been disturbed by the feet of cattle and other 
causes. Its present length is 45 feet and its width 24 feet. 

Maps of 1836 and later locate a "chalybeate" spring, or 
spring with iron-charged waters, south of the mouth of the 
Catfish. This the Indians are reported to have regarded as 
a medicinal spring. There are a number of springs now in 
this locality. South of the mouth of this stream was the lo- 
cation of the early Rock County "paper city" of Caramanee, 
plotted here by land speculators. The name is no doubt ob- 
tained from that of the noted early Winnebago chief Kar- 

The character of some of the implements recovered from 
the Catfish Village site and other evidence at present avail- 
able appears to indicate that this site has been inhabited by 
Algonkian people before its later Winnebago occupancy. 

Stone Farm Village Site 

(SE. 1/4 and SW. 1/4 Sec. 19, and NW. 1/4 of Sec. 30) 

This village site is located on the east bank of the Rock a 
mile and a quarter southwest of Indian Ford. A part of it 
lies directly across the river from the Catfish Village site. 
This village site appears to have extended over the fields 
and pastures along the banks of the river for a mile or 
more. Only a part of this site, the northern and southern 
ends, were in condition for examination, the balance of the 
land being under a covering of thick grass. 

For many years the old Stone farm, now the Ellingson 
and Flom farm, has been a quite widely known collecting 
ground. Mr. Biggar, Bert Cox, Mr. North, Horace McEl- 
roy and others have visited this site in past years and been 
rewarded by the finding of many interesting and some rath- 
er unusual specimens. A Dr. McChesney collected thirty- 
three flint arrowpoints during one visit to this site. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 51 

The most productive part of this site during our investi- 
gations was in a tobacco field on the river bank, in the rear 
of the farmhouse and barns. Here hearthstones from In- 
dian fires were numerous. Broken flint blanks, and chips 
and spalls of white, grey, brown and flesh-colored flint were 
scattered about among the tobacco plants. In several 
places in this field were quantities of broken clam shells. 
We collected several broken pebble hammer stones, a single 
stemmed flint arrowpoint and fragments of other points. 
No potsherds were found. 

The land along the river shore on this farm is rather level 
for the entire distance. All of it except a narrow strip at 
the southern end of the farm is, or has been under cultiva- 

Beyond the southern end of this site a small creek enters 
the river. On a small knoll on the south side of its mouth 
the hearthstones of a wigwam fireplace were found. In this 
pasture field, at a distance of about 300 feet back from the 
shore a remnant (about 300 feet) of the river shore trail is 
still to be seen. This is nearly a foot in depth in places, and 
three or more feet wide. 

Some Winnebago camped on the river bank on this site in 
pioneer days. Mr. Geo. St. John of Stoughton reported 
that in about the year 1888 an Indian burial was disturbed 
in digging for the foundation of a cattle-shed on the Stone 
farm. This site was about eight or ten rods south of the 
east and west road to the river bank, among the present 
farm buildings. It was four or five feet beneath the sur- 
face of the ground. So far as known no implements or 
other Indian materials accompanied this burial. 

Mr. Darcy Biggar states that Mr. Stone in former years 
pastured his hogs in the field at the northeastern limits of 
this large farm. These rooted up the sod and the soil in 
such a manner as to make collecting easy. He collected 
nearly two hundred flint arrowpoints of a great variety of 
forms from this site, also notched flint scrapers and some 
perforators, a broken pipestone pipe, stone celt, quartzite 
knife, flint saw and a broken gorget made of mica schist. A 
son of Mr. Flom has a collection of flint arrowpoints from 
this site. 


The east bank trail passed over the old Stone farm. Op- 
posite this farm there was a river ford to the west bank. 

Murwin Camp Site 

(NE. 14, Sec. 31) 

A camp site is located on the James Murwin farm, south 
of the Ellingson and Flom farm, on the east bank of the 
Rock. Here a creek flows westward into the Rock. We 
found here a few flint chips, hearthstones, flint nodules 
and a single sherd of plain shell-tempered pottery. Mr. 
Dell Murwin has a small collection of flint arrow and spear- 
points obtained here. 

Hubbell Village Site and Mounds 
(Sees. 30 and 31) 

Miss Minnie F. Hubbell informed us of the former exist- 
ence of a group of isolated Indian mounds on the Alfred 
Hubbell farm (SW. % Sec. 30 and NW. % Sec. 31), on the 
west bank of the Rock River, at a distance of one and one- 
half miles south of Fulton. One large mound was located 
where is now the farm garden and another at the barnyard 
gate, both near the Hubbell farmhouse. These have been 

Other mounds, conical and linear in form were located in 
a field north of the farm buildings, between the river bank 
and the road to Fulton. All but one of these have been 
completely destroyed. This conical mound, which must 
have been of large size, now appears as a slightly elevated 
earth heap near the middle of the field. It is at present 
about 33 feet in diameter and li/2 feet high at its center. 
This field is very level. The mound is situated at a distance 
of about 200 feet east of the road and 300 feet from the 
river bank to the north. 

This site was covered, with grass at the time of our visit 
to it on August 30 but scattered hearthstones, flint chips, 
spalls and occasional flint pebbles were found all along its 
northern and eastern margin. 

South of this field and separated from it by a sparkling 
spring brook which flows to the Rock from the west, is 
another very level field, at this time in use as a pasture. 
This is a part of the old Indian village site from which 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 53 

many flint and stone artifacts have also been collected. This 
village site has been referred to locally as an Indian "battle- 
field." The very level fields of this site are bordered on the 
south and west by a semicircle of hills and elevated land 
once covered with forest. 

Mr. Horace McElroy reported three tumuli on the Alfred 
Hubbell farm, on Section 30, one mile south of the mouth 
of the Catfish River.* Some flint implements and a stone 
celt collected here were in his collection. The mounds are 
probably those formerly located in the level field near the 

The Hubbell family have a number of flint arrowpoints, 
a large flint blank or knife, a portion of a broken stone celt, 
and the blade of an iron trade axe from their farm. They 
formerly also had a large grooved stone axe. Many other 
stone implements were collected here by persons interested 
in making collections. We* were unable to learn where these 

Beggs Camp Site 

(Cent. Sec. 31) 

A camp site is located on the M. S. Beggs farm, south of 
the Hubbell farm, on the west bank of the Rock. Here and 
on the adjoining Farrington farm some flint points and 
scrapers have been collected. This site is slightly over a 
mile and a half south of the Catfish, as the river runs. 


Northwest Sections Camp and Village Sites 

(Sees. 6, 5, 9 and 10) 

Up to as late as the 70's small groups of Winnebago In- 
dians occasionally camped on the Rock River banks at dif- 
ferent places on both sides of the stream in Sections 6, 5 and 
9. In the cultivated fields in these localities hearthstones, 
flint fragments and the finding of occasional flint arrow and 
spearpoints indicate that Indian folk have camped on or near 
some of these same spots in the distant past. One of these 
sites is on the Reid farm in the S. of Section 5. On the 

Hist. Rock County, 59 


west bank of the river near where the north and south cen- 
ter line of Section 9 meets the river bank Mr. Horace Mc- 
Elroy about twenty years ago collected flint points and a 
stone celt from a camp site. This was on the Pahl and 
Diehls farms where camp site debris was scattered over cul- 
tivated fields. 

Cooper's History of Rock County (p. 59-60) mentions 
this site, which was discovered in breaking up eleven acres 
of land in 1908: "The writer and Mr. Horace McElroy 
procured from this locality a large number of broken chert 
spear and arrow heads, one stone axe and 110 knives, spear 
heads and arrow points that were intact. These imple- 
ments were made of a variety of differently colored cherts, 
some hornstone, chalcedony, quartzites, and one arrow head 
of agate, a material not found in this part of the country." 

Another village site is located on the M. O. Connor farm 
in the SE. % of Section 9 and the SW. 14 of Section 10. A 
ravine or wash extending down to the Rock River separates 
the two parts of this site which shows the usual indications 
of a former Indian camp ground. Here Mr. C. C. Babbitt 
of Janesville has collected flint arrowpoints, perforators, a 
scraper, a small flint knife, pebble hammerstones and a 

We were not successful in finding any potsherds here. 

In the rear of the summer resort cottages on the Hack- 
barth farm, on the west bank of the Rock, in the SE. 1/4 of 
the SW. % of Section 10, the presence of fireplace stones 
and flint chips and fragments furnish evidence of another 
camp site. At this place the old Janesville highway crosses 
the Rock over the old "Four-mile" iron bridge. 

Four Mile Bridge Village Site 

(SE. 1/4 Sec. 10 and NE. 1/4 Sec. 15) 

This site is located on the eastern bank of the Rock River 
on land forming a part of the Shoemaker stock farm. It is 
opposite the Four Mile bridge crossing of the Edgerton to 
Janesville highway. This highway, running in an east and 
west direction at this point, cuts this site in two. The part 
of this site located north of the road is on rather level 
ground which rises gradually to the east to elevated ground. 
This field was under cultivation when examined and but lit- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 55 

tie information could be obtained concerning its early In- 
dian inhabitants. Flint rejectage was found in several 
places, a broken hammerstone and several small pieces of 
shell-tempered earthenware. Mr. Horace McElroy was 
among those who have collected Indian implements here in 
former years. A Mr. John Thompson is reported to have 
collected hundreds of flint points and some stone celts and 
axes here in about the year 1902 and later. A river road 
runs northward along the river bank passing this site. 

The part of the site lying south of the highway is in pas- 
ture at this time and could not be examined for traces of 
former Indian occupation. This land is similar in charac- 
ter to that on the opposite side of the highway^ 

Parish Camp Site and Burial 
(W. 1/2, NE. 1/4 Sec. 15) 

An old Indian crossing of the Rock to the Shoemaker 
fields on the east (opposite) bank was located opposite the 
Ed. Parish "Riverside" farm on the west bank. There 
were several springs here and small groups of Winnebago 
Indians are reported to have erected their wigwams in a 
fine oak grove located here, in early days of white settle- 

About the fine spring at the southern end of this prop- 
erty Mr. C. C. Babbitt and others have collected some flint 

Mr. Babbitt states that flint refuse and other indications 
of a camp site were formerly exposed on the slope between 
the river bank and the Parish farm cottage. A single In- 
dian grave was formerly located near the river bank south 
of this point. This was exhumed by a man named Chapelle 
and a stone pipe found with the burial. Every trace of this 
burial place has been lost by the cutting away of the river 
bank by the waters of the Rock. 

Elmhurst Village Site 
(SE. % Sec. 15) 

A short distance south of the Parish site Three Mile 
Creek, a clear and very attractive stream, flows from the 
west through the northern part of the farm of Louis Ander- 
son, called "Elmhurst," into the Rock River. The creek is 


from fifteen to eighteen feet wide in places and its banks 
lined with willow and other trees. 

The soil of the level fields of the Anderson farm is clay. 
These fields, once covered with rather heavy forest were a 
very favorable location for an Indian village site. In pio- 
neer days Indian dugout canoes were occasionally seen pass- 
ing this place or drawn up on its banks. 

Only a part (the central part) of the fields of the Elm- 
hurst farm could be examined for traces of former Indian 
occupation. Numerous fireplace stones were found scat- 
tered over the entire river frontage of this particular field 
and ashy areas indicated where these had probably been im- 
bedded in the soil in shallow hearths until disturbed by the 
plow and harrow. The sites of at least three former wig- 
wams appeared to be thus indicated. Near these locations 
the manufacture of flint implements had been carried on, 
small areas disclosing fragments and chips of white, grey 
and flesh colors. Here also were found a small notched 
spearpoint made of flesh-colored flint, and parts of several 
broken points. Nodules of white flint, entire or broken, lay 
in several places. Several small fragments of cord-marked 
pottery were also obtained. 

Mr. Anderson had recently found here a dark bluish-grey 
blade, a knife or spearpoint, five inches in length ; a notched 
pink flint spearpoint, 4^ inches in length; a broad greyish- 
white flint spearpoint with oblique notches, about 2% inches 
long, and a light brown stemmed quartzite spearpoint about 
2% inches long. During the past thirty years of his resi- 
dence on this farm he has given away to friends many other 
flint implements found here. 

The south field of the Anderson farm we were unable to 
examine as they were under grass on the occasion of our 
visits to this place. This field, opposite the river bend, Mr. 
C. C. Babbitt regards as the richest part of this village site. 
Here the manufacture of flint implements was also carried 
on and scattered hearthstones are numerous. Mr. Babbitt 
has collected from this site in past years numerous flint ar- 
row and spearpoints and some scrapers, pebble hammers, a 
flaked stone celt, and a copper spearpoint. Mr. McElroy 
also found this site a rich collecting ground. He collected 
here a plummet made of porphyrtic syenite. Its tip is en- 
circled by a shallow groove. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 57 

Across the Janesville highway from the Elmhurst farm 
is the suburban residence plat advertised as "Sunshine 

Three Mile Creek Camp Sites 
(Section 15) 

Camp sites occur at a number of different places along 
the course of Three Mile Creek. One of these is on the Wil- 
liam Hackbarth farm (SW. 1/4, Sec. 15), at a distance of 
about a half mile west of the Elmhurst site. Mr. Babbitt 
has collected here a grooved stone axe, hammerstones, and 
flint points and scrapers, and other stone implements. This 
site extends to both banks of the creek. 

This creek is nearly eleven miles in length, having its 
source in the northwest part of Center Township of Rock 
County and flowing in an easterly direction through Leyden 
Township and Janesville Township. At different places 
along its course former camp sites are indicated. The im- 
plements collected from these and other places are chiefly 
flint points and several stone celts. Some of these were in 
the former David Van Wart collection at Evansville. 

Wixon Hill Site 

(SW. 14 Sec. 14) 

Across the Rock River from the Elmhurst site are wooded 
river bluffs. One of these, Wixon Hill, has the local repu- 
tation of having been a camp site of the Sauk Indian chief, 
Black Hawk, during his northward flight with his warriors 
to Lake Koshkonong, in 1832. On its top we found in a few 
spots barren of sod numbers of flint chips indicating the 
presence of a small workshop. The crest of this particular 
portion of the bluffs is bare save for a small group of prick- 
ly ash shrubs, some hop hornbeam trees and a single hickory 
tree. A fine view of the surrounding river country is ob- 
tained from Wixon Hill. 

Riverside Park Village Site 

(S. line of Sec. 14 and NE. 14 of Sec. 23) 
What is probably the most important old Indian village 
site north of the City of Janesville, in Janesville Township, 
is located in the Big Bend of the Rock River, on the west 
bank of that stream. 


In this beautifully located recreation park of the City of 
Janesville traces of former Indian residence were found on 
the grounds of the park -athletic field. This field occupies a 
large level grassy river flat and is now occupied by a base- 
ball diamond, tennis courts, a park pavilion and a curving 
river road. To the south of this playground are the high 
hills of a municipal golf course, the sides of which are cov- 
ered with forest trees. In the river bed, opposite the east- 
ern edge of the athletic field, is a long narrow island bearing 
a growth of tall willow trees, and with a luxuriant growth 
of arrowhead about its shores and extending downstream 
for a considerable distance from its point. 

The rhizomes of this abundant plant of the water plan- 
tain family furnished the water potato, a favorite food of 
the Winnebago and of other Wisconsin Indians, being boiled 
or roasted by them in the ashes of their fires. 

The river bank along the eastern and northern edge of 
the athletic field is elevated at different places from four to 
fifteen feet above the water. 

This village site was a favorite collecting ground of Mr. 
Horace McElroy in past years. From the then cultivated 
fields on this river flat he obtained in the course of his col- 
lecting jaunts quite a large number of specimens, these in- 
cluding many flint implements, pebble hammers, stone balls, 
axes, celts and other artifacts. Some of his finest quartzite 
points and knives were found here. It is to be regretted 
that he is not alive to contribute such information as he pos- 
sessed regarding his collecting experiences here. 

Being under grass this site was in poor condition for ex- 
amination during the year 1928. The evidences of aborigi- 
nal residence found by ourselves were obtained in the then 
thinly grassed strip of land between the river road and the 
river bank, which is here fringed with a growth of ash, oak 
and maple trees. Here, despite the thin sod, we recovered 
quite numerous chips, flakes and fragments of white, grey 
and flesh-colored flint, clusters of hearthstones, a large leaf- 
shaped grey quartz blank, a flint pecking hammer, a rude 
white flint scraper, a grey flint notched arrowpoint, and 
parts of several broken points. One of the employes of the 
park force informed us that he had frequently picked up 
flint points on this field in the course of his labors. No 
potsherds were obtained. 


Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 59 

We examined the river banks south of this site to far be- 
yond the south road entrance to Riverside Park but without 
further results. 

Sutherland Graves 

(NE. 14 Sec. 34) 

Several Indian graves were located on the Geo. S. Suther- 
land farm at Black Hawk, just outside the western limits of 
Janesville. Mr. Harry Young of Whitewater reported to 
the Wisconsin Archeological Society in 1922 that two of 
these had been excavated. With the human bones which 
they contained were found a stone axe, a stone celt and sev- 
eral flint arrowpoints. The Indian trail to Janesville 
passed this locality. 

Crystal and Hiawatha Springs Village Site 
(SW. % Sec. 14) 

This property, located on the eastern bank of the Rock 
River, across the stream to the north of the Riverside Park 
site, was formerly known as Burr Springs, and in an earlier 
day, according to Mr. George Richardson of Janesville, as 
Pope Springs, being so named for Anson Pope, the early 
owner of this land. A portion of this property is at present 
in use as a tourist camp ground. It is about a mile and a 
half north of the city of Janesville.* 

The Indian site at this place is on a rather narrow river 
flat at the base of a range of high wooded river bluffs. The 
land is posted as a Wild Life Refuge. At the eastern end of 
this property a crystal brook flows from a spring (Crystal 
Spring) at the base of the bluffs, through a small area of 
marshy ground to the river bank. This spring Mr. Geo. S. 
Parker of Janesville has kindly informed us was in former 
years visited by a large number of Indians. He believes 
their name for it to have been Mushawaba. This name Mr. 
Daniel Shepard, a Wisconsin Potawatomi, translates as 
meaning "rabbit man." He thinks that this designation may 
have been given to it because of the transformation of an 
Indian into a rabbit at or near this place. The spring was 
very probably a "sacred or medicine" spring. 

* Here the late Capt. Buckles formerly maintained a public picnic 


In a small ravine or draw at the western end of the 
tourist camp another fine clear spring (Hiawatha Spring) 
supplies the campers with water. A former bottling works 
building stands in the rear of the camp ground. Years ago 
some deer antlers and other animal bones are reported to 
have been removed from this spring or the brook which 
flows from it. This may have been another "spirit" spring? 

Midway between these two springs another brook (dry 
during the summer of 1928) flows from the hills to the 

The Indian camp site at this place extends over the whole 
of the property, the evidence of the redman's former occu- 
pation being now largely obscured beneath the sod. Traces 
of it, however, are found here and there. Hearthstones and 
and large flakes of white flint were found in the roadway 
in front of the old bottling works building. Some distance 
beyond the Hiawatha Spring flint chips were found in a 
small cottage garden. At the northern end of the park in 
a disturbed place in the rear of another cottage chips of 
grey and flesh-colored flint were found and a fine barbed, 
white flint spearpoint, 3% inches in length. 

On a grassy flat south of the Crystal Spring brook white 
flint chips and a pebble hammerstone were collected. C. C. 
Babbitt has collected flint points near this place. 

Many flint points have been picked up here in past years 
by collectors. Mr. George S. Parker's country estate, Stone- 
henge," lies a short distance south of this site, at the bend 
of the Rock River. 

North of the park the bases of high gravel hills come 
down to the river bank. These are forested on their slopes 
and tops, except at one place where there is a large gravel 
slide. Among its pebbles and boulders are many rocks of 
white and other flint which could have been utilized by the 
natives for implement manufacture. These hills extend 
along this bank of the stream for nearly a mile. 

This village site may be the one referred to in the "Diary 
of Aaron P. Walker/' an early settler of Janesville, as the 
location of "an Indian village on the east side of Rock River, 
about three miles north of the Janes' tavern, where a small 
brook entered the river." 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 61 

Stonehenge Camp Site 
(NE. 14 Sec. 23) 

A camp site is located on the cultivated fields of the Knut- 
son and Cosgrove properties on the east bank of the Rock 
just north of the city limits of Janesville. On the river 
fields of both of these small "farms" scattered hearthstones 
and flint fragments and chips occur and a few flint points 
have been collected in the course of cultivating the fields. Mr. 
C. C. Babbitt has collected some arrowpoints in the field ad- 
joining the Knudson place on the south. 

"Stonehenge," the beautiful country estate of Mr. Geo. S. 
Parker, adjoins the Cosgrove place on the north. This es- 
tate occupies a high wooded ridge with picturesque lime- 
stone outcrops along its river bank frontage. 

The Indian trail from the north to Janesville passed over 
this property. A few flint arrowpoints, probably lost by 
Indian hunters, have been picked up on the Stonehenge 
bluffs and along the river bank. From "Stonehenge" a fine 
view is obtained across the river of Riverside Park. Over 
the river bluffs, a short distance west of Stonehenge are the 
Crystal and Hiawatha springs elsewhere described. 

Broege Island Camp Site 

Indications of a former Indian camp site occur in a 
cultivated field at the southern end of this island. Here we 
collected a large oval pebble hammerstone, a granite ball, 
a white flint reject and some stone chips and hearthstones. 
Mr. Frank F. Broege, the proprietor of the Rock River 
Service Station located by the side of the Janesville high- 
way, opposite the island, states that in cultivating this site 
quite a few flint implements have been collected by himself 
and others. 

This island in the Rock River at the northern limits of 
Janesville, now largely overgrown with weeds and grass, 
was in former years occupied by large trees. It is about 
a third of a mile in length and four hundred or more feet 
wide at its southern extremity. The soil is black, some- 
what sandy and gravelly. It is elevated but a few feet 
above the river. A road now connects it with the river 
shore. The water between it and the river bank is being 
gradually filled in. 


The Winnebago name of this former camp ground is giv- 
en as Weetch-chi-nuk, "island camp." 

South of this island is Goose Island which by filling in has 
now been attached to the river bank. 

Riverbank Camp Sites 
(E. % Sec. 23) 

On the east bank of the Rock north of the City of Janes- 
ville indications of former camp sites occur in cottage and 
other gardens between the highway and the river bank. The 
late Horace McElroy of Janesville had in his former collec- 
tion a small number of flint arrow and spearpoints and sev- 
eral knives collected along this shore, between Stonehenge 
and the city limits. 

In past years Indian burials have been disturbed in dig- 
ging for gravel in the hills on the east side of the highway, 
north of the city. As they were unearthed by the caving 
of the walls of the pits but little attention was paid to them 
by the men engaged in the digging. 

West Bank Camp Sites 
(Sees. 26 and 36) 

On the west bank of the Rock River in the City of Janes- 
ville the river banks are high. Indians camped on these 
wooded bluffs, sometimes in considerable numbers, when 
the first white settlers came to this region. Some stone 
celts and axes and flint implements have been found on these 
bluffs. This locality, lying east of N. Washington Avenue, 
is now quite largely occupied by streets and buildings. 

According to the early land survey map an Indian trail 
from the west forded the Rock River in the southeast cor- 
ner of Section 36, in the present limits of Janesville. 

Mr. Horace McElroy reported the presence, years ago, of 
three Indian conical mounds near the river in the northeast 
corner of Section 26. Every trace of these appears to have 

Pearl Street Cache 

A cache or deposit of five blue hornstone knives of the 
prized "turkey-tail" type was obtained in November, 1903 by 
laborers engaged in digging a trench at the corner of Pearl 
and Elizabeth Streets in Janesville. Three of these speci- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites .of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 63 

mens were in perfect condition and two were broken, only 
parts of the latter being obtained. With them were found 
the pieces of a broken brown hornstone knife. All were un- 
earthed at a depth of nearly four feet beneath the surface 
of the undisturbed prairie soil. No human remains were 
found with the deposit although the ground was carefully 
dug over. A slight discoloration of the soil suggested a pos- 
sible burial. 

The three unbroken knives were 5%, 5% and 6% inches 
in length, and 1%, 1% and 1% inches in width at the broad- 
est part of their long leaf shaped, pointed blades. Their 
notched tangs were the short triangular stems of this very 
graceful form of prehistoric Ohio and Indiana blue horn- 
stone knife. Mr. W. H. Elkey, a former Milwaukee col- 
lector, reported the finding of this cache to the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society in 1903, Mr. Horace McElroy furnish- 
ing the detailed information on January 30, 1907. 

Mr. McElroy retained the three perfect blades in his col- 
lection, the fragmentary ones being given to Mr. W. P. 
Clarke of Milton, and the broken knife to the Milwaukee 

A Mr. Kenyon, who resided at a distance of about fifty 
feet from the Pearl Street corner, reported to Mr. McElroy 
that when he built his home here there was a round mound 
on the premises. This he removed to fill his yard. This 
locality Mr. McElroy stated to be at a distance of about fifty 
rods from the bank of the Rock River, on the west side of 
the City. 


Round Rock Village 

(Near N. Line of Sees. 1 and 2) 

The most important historic Winnebago village between 
the Catfish Village near Fulton and the Turtle Village at 
Beloit was the village located on the Rock River at Janes- 
ville. The Indian name of this village was E-nee-poro-poro, 
meaning "round rock or stone," taking its name from the 
large stone outcrop in the river known as Monteray Point. 

John H. Kinzie in his Winnebago Indian census of 1829- 
1832 gives the name of this village as Round Rock and its 


distance from his agency at Fort Winnebago as sixty miles. 
He reports that at that time it contained two lodges and 31 
inhabitants. Coming Lightning, Jump-ho-ha-ga, was its 
chief. A few years later the number of Indians camping 
here had largely increased. 

This village was located on the north bank of the river in 
the part of Janesville located along Western Avenue and 
known in former years as Monteray. 

Of this village site, which must have been occupied by In- 
dians for a long period of time, the only traces which now 
remain are a few flint chips and spalls which occur in a 
few of the gardens and vacant spaces along Western Ave- 
nue and River Street. This section of the city has long 
been occupied by homes and other buildings. Mr. Horace 
McElroy, the formerly well known Janesville collector of 
Indian artifacts, knew this site well and mentions it in an 
article contributed to the History of Rock County (C. F. 
Cooper & Co., Chicago, 1908, p. 60). He states that many 
stone implements have been collected here. Of these he 
himself possessed several grooved stone axes and celts, and 
many flint arrow and spearpoints. Other collectors state 
that flint workshop sites, wigwam sites (marked by hearth- 
stones, charcoal and ashy soil), occasional clam shell de- 
posits and other village site debris were found in favorable 
locations at various points back from the river bank along 
nearly the entire distance of a mile or more from near Cen- 
ter Avenue eastward to the bend of the Rock. 

This part of the Rock River was in early Indian days, 
and still is, a good fishing ground. In the broad bed of the 
stream, opposite Western Avenue, there is an extensive 
marsh area composed of arrowhead, cattail and other aqua- 
tic growth. This extends from east of the Center Avenue 
Rock River bridge as far east as the foot of Stone street. 

Monteray Point, a picturesque narrow point, extends into 
the river from near the north side of the Rock River bridge 
at Center Avenue. An ice house building stands at its base. 
Its narrow apex is a limestone and sandstone outcrop. At 
its tip is a small cave about 20 feet in length, 10 feet across 
at its mouth and about 8 feet high. This is excavated in the 
light colored sandstone with a layer of limestone at its top. 
The cave mouth is about 25 feet above the water. It has 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 65 

been stated that years ago there were on the walls of this 
cave some rude incised markings thought to have been In- 
dian pictographic records. These have gone. The Winne- 
bago name of this rock appears to have been E-nee-wa-kan- 
junk, "medicine rock or spirit stone." 

Opposite the "Big Rock" on Monteray Point was the In- 
dian ford from the one bank of the river to the other. It 
was early known as "Rock Ford," the rock serving as a 
guide to the river crossing. Rev. H. Foote in discussing 
this ford in 1856 said that the water in the river was then a 
third lower than when the white settlers came in 1836.* 
Many settlers and travelers coming over the Indian trail 
from Beloit crossed the river at this ford. The rock itself 
appears to have had some traditional sacred significance for 
the early Indian inhabitants of this region, the exact nature 
of which has not been recorded. In the State Hisotrical 
Museum are eighteen flint arrowpoints found by W. H. 
Prisk here at the "Rock Ford." 

Mr. Levi St. John, who settled at Janesville in 1836, says 
of the early Indian inhabitants of this vicinity: "At that 
early day the Indians were quite numerous in this part of 
Wisconsin. I have frequently visited their camps, gone 
into their wigwams and bought honey and maple sugar from 
them. At times as many as a dozen Indians have rode up to 
my house armed with tomahawks, knives and loaded guns ; 
and I have at such times thought how easy a matter it would 
be for them to butcher my family, if they were so disposed. 
It was reported from time to time that they intended to have 
a general uprising. But they were always friendly to me 
and I have traded a great deal with them. They learned to 
.be quite shrewd in their traffic. If they had a large lot of 
peltries or fish to sell, they would show only a few of the 
poorest at first, then producing more, and so on until sold 

South Palm Street Camp Site 

Hearthstones were found on a small plot of cultivated 
ground at the southwest corner of Western avenue and S. 
Palm Street in Janesville. Others and a few flint chips and 

* Guernsey and Willard's History of Rock County, 1856, p. 153. 
** Do., p. 173. 


fragments were found in gardens along Western Avenue 
as far west as the Afton road. The S. Palm street locality 
is one block north of the Rock River bank. Some flint ar- 
row and spearpoints and a hammerstone or two have been 
collected on the land in the rear of the R. F. Murphy home 
on S. River Street. 

Spring Brook Mounds 
(Section 1) 

Two Indian mounds were located on the edge of a very 
steep gravelly bluff overlooking the Rock River and its wan- 
dering tributary, Spring Brook, at the southeastern city 
limits of Janesville. This locality was east of the bend of 
the river and east of Main Street. 

One of the mounds was a tapering linear earthwork 
("tadpole"), with a length of 85 feet, its greatest width be- 
ing about 24 feet, and its greatest height 61/9 feet. Its axis 
lay "in a north by 30 degrees east direction, with the head, 
or larger part to the northeast. The attenuated part is 
about as long as the main body with an elevation of about 
one foot and a width of five feet. The whole south side is 
cut out by erosion. A depression in the center of the high- 
est part indicates a partial excavation of the mound." 

About 80 paces (240 feet) east of the "tadpole" mound, 
and about 30 feet from the edge of the bluff there was a 
round mound 55 feet in diameter and 31/2 feet high." Ex- 
cavations recently made in this mound near its center re- 
vealed several thin, irregular layers of charcoal. The mound 
was constructed of sandy loam, similar to that of the sur- 
rounding surface soil." These mounds were later destroyed 
by workmen engaged in "stripping" the bluff to obtain ma- 
terial for the Janesville Cement Post Co. 

Mr. H. L. Skavlem described the mounds and published a 
copy of his survey of them in the June 19, 1907 issue of The 
Janesville Gazette. 

The above information is quoted from his description. 

Bailey Mounds and Corn Fields 

(SE. %, NW. % Sec. 1) 

Mr. H. L. Skavlem described and figured in the June 19, 
1907 issue of The Janesville Gazette a group of three coni- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites ,of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 67 

cal mounds located on the level plain or bottom land just 
south of Eastern Avenue, and about thirty feet west of 
where this thoroughfare crosses the north and south center 
line of Section 1 of Rock Township. They were between 
Eastern Avenue and the C. M. & St. P. R. R. tracks. All 
had been much levelled by long cultivation of the land. Dr. 
J. W. St. John remembered when they were well preserved 
Indian earthworks the largest perhaps 25 feet in diameter 
and from 5 to 6 feet high. The other two were of consider- 
ably smaller size. Mound No. 2 was located 20 paces 
(about 60 feet) south of the largest mound (No. 1), and 
mound No. 3 about the same distance south of No. 2. The 
largest mound had been excavated years ago and some In- 
dian implements reported found, presumably with a burial 
or burials. 

Some distance southwest of the mound group, in a strip 
of woodland locally known as the "Bailey Woods," were 
plots of Indian corn hills. These were on both sides of the 
C. & N. W. R. R. tracks. Mr. Skavlem's plat shows two or 
three separate plots of these, two being north of the railroad 
tracks and one south of them. They were on gently sloping 
land. Dr. St. John informed Mr. Skavlem that when the 
first settlers came, in 1836, cornstalks were still standing on 
some of these corn hills. 

Eastern Avenue Village Site 
(Sees. 1 and 2) 

Another Indian village site was located along present 
Eastern Avenue and adjoining city streets on the south 
bank of the Rock River in the southern part of Janesville. 
This site appears to have extended from the Monteray 
bridge crossing of the Rock (present Center Avenue) east- 
ward along the river bank to beyond the point where Spring 
Brook flows into the Rock at the proposed Jeffris city park. 
This part of the city is now occupied by the buildings of the 
Chevrolet automobile factory and the homes of its employes 
and others. 

The land along the river in this part of the city is level 
with hills some distance in the rear to the south. In gar- 
dens and bare spots along the river bank flint rejectage and 
hearthstones occur. When the prairie sod is removed from 


some of the unoccupied grass lots and small tree and brush- 
grown tracts further evidence of early aboriginal occupa- 
tion is likely to be found. Mr. McElroy years ago collected 
a few flint and some heavier stone implements here. Some 
Winnebago camped on this bank of the river in the thirties 
and later. 

Other Janesville Implements 

Numbers of Indian artifacts have been found in past 
years at different places about the city, specimens lost or 
left by their former Indian owners at the scattered points 
where they were recovered in the progress of house build- 
ing, garden making or in other ways. 

Mr. Horace McElroy had in his collection a fine specimen 
of long-bitted axe. This granite axe was lO 1 /^ inches in 
length. It had a diagonal handle groove with a prominent 
ridge below. He also had the head of a broken birdstone 
with prominent eye disks. The exact locations of the find- 
ing of these are unknown. Some of his flint implement* 
are in the local Legion museum. 

In the State Historical Museum there is a notched speai 
point 10 inches in length which was found at Janesville. 

Kellogg Corn Field 

(Sec. 2) 

Mr. M. S. Kellogg reported to the Wisconsin Archeologi- 
cal Society in 1911 that a plot of Indian corn hills was for- 
merly located on the land occupied by Kellogg's Nursery. 
This location was in the Fourth Ward of the City of Janes- 
ville. The corn hills were on the edges of an oak grove. 
Every trace of this planting ground had been destroyed 
about twenty years before. 


West Janesville Mounds 

(NE. % Sec. 3) 

A short distance west of the City of Janesville, north of 

the road to Afton, Mr. H. L. Skavlem located three small 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 69 

round mounds, the existence of which he reported in 1907. 
They were located between the river and the railroad track. 
They were east of the creek, which flows in a southeasterly 
direction into the Rock. On the north side of the mouth of 
this creek traces of a small camp site were located. This is 
in the NW. % of the SE.% of Section 3 of Rock Township. 

A camp site is also located on the south side of this creek 
in cultivated fields extending from the Janesville to Afton 
highway to the Rock River bank. These fields could not be 
carefully examined because, of the heavy crop of corn with 
which they were largely occupied. This site is also in the 
NW. i/4 of the SE. % of Section 23. 

Between this place and Afton much of the land along the 
Rock River bank is low and unfit for camp locations. 

Rulondale Camp Site 
(SW. 14 Sec. 10) 

A camp site is reported to exist in a field located on the 
bank of the Rock, on the L. A. Markham Rulondale Farm. 
This field is situated between the river bank and the C. M. & 
St. P. R. R. track. Between it and the Afton road, where 
the farm buildings are situated, there is a marshy meadow. 
At its southern edge a spring brook flows eastward into the 
Rock. From this site a few flint implements have been col- 
lected. The field was in pasture during the present sum- 
mer and could not be examined. 

Afton Mound Group 

(SE. % of NE. % Sec. 28) 

This group of twenty-two mounds was located about a 
mile and a half north of the village of Afton. A survey of 
it was made by H. L. Skavlem and Horace McElroy for the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society, on June 1, 1907. Of these 
mounds, which formed a rather compact group, five were 
round mounds, two oval mounds, three straight linear and 
seven tapering linear mounds, four mammal effigies and one 
a bird effigy. They were located in a wooded pasture and 
were all well preserved. The direction of all of the effigies 
and of the linear mounds was to the southeast. 

When we visited this site on July 20, 1928 there remained 
of this fine group of prehistoric Indian earthworks only a 


short straight linear mound and a remnant of another, all 
of the other mounds having been destroyed in the operation 
of the immense gravel pit of the Central Lime & Cement 
Company of Chicago. The single remaining mound is situ- 
ated about 50 feet in the rear of the Afton public school. 

An effort should be made by the local school trustees to 
preserve this last mound of a once great group of prehisto- 
ric monuments. 

Afton Mill Camp Site and Mounds 
(SW. 1/4 Sec. 27) 

On the north bank of Bass creek east of the Afton Mill in 
the village of Afton is a cultivated field. This small field 
lies between the creek bank and the C. & N. W. R. R. track. 
Its soil is black and sandy and it is elevated about six feet 
above the river at its highest parts. Flint chips and frag- 
ments and hearthstones are scattered over several small 
areas in this field where wigwams were probably once lo- 
cated. An oval hammerstone was also found. Village 
boys have found quite a few flint arrowpoints here. The 
flint chipped here is from local sources (reddish, white, 
light brown and flesh-colored). A single potsherd, sand- 
tempered, and ornamented with cord-marked, indented and 
trailed markings was also found here. 

In an irregular line along the creek edge of this field ar 
four and possibly five Indian mounds. The first of these 
is about 300 feet east of the Mill, and about 50 feet fro 
the water's edge. Eighteen feet east of it is another small 
conical mound, and 20 feet beyond this a third small mound 
of the same character. About 100 feet beyond this is what 
appears to have been a slightly tapering linear mound. Its 
outline has been greatly disturbed by long cultivation and 
not much can now be made of it. Twenty feet beyond this 
is another small conical mound. 

All of these mounds have been long under cultivation. 
Their present dimensions and heights are as follows : 

No. 1 Diameter 30 feet, height 1V 2 feet. 
No. 2 Diameter 28 feet, height 2V 2 feet. 
No. 3 Diameter 21 feet, height 2V 2 feet. 
No. 4 Length about 125 feet, width 24 and 18 feet, height 

to 2 feet. 
No. 5 Diameter 15 feet, height 1 foot. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 71 

This group appears not to have been previously recorded. 
We were unable to learn whether any of the mounds had 
been excavated. East of the mounds is a piece of rather 
low rough pasture land. 

It is likely that this camp site extends along the river 
bank west of the Mill into the gardens of a few of the 
village homes. 

Holzapfel Camp Site 

(SW. % Sec. 27) 

A camp site is also indicated on the Holzapfel land on the 
opposite (south) bank of the Bass Creek in a small culti- 
vated field where the usual indications of aboriginal occupa- 
tion have been found. Potatoes had been dug and corn har- 
vested on this field so that no examination of its surface was 

Antisdell Village Site 

(SW. % and SE. i/ 2 of Sec. 19) 

From a village site on the Simon Antisdell farm on the 
north side of Bass Creek, about two and a half miles west of 
Afton, Mr. Horace McElroy collected many flint points and 
some perforators. Considerable numbers of potsherds 
were also found. A flint workshop was located in the 
southeastern corner of this farm. An Indian camp site was 
also located on the old Bartels (now the Gokey) farm on 
Bass Creek above Afton. Here many flint points are re- 
ported to have been found. 

Mouth of Bass Creek Camp Site 
(SE. 14 Sec. 27) 

In early days of settlement the Winnebago Indians 
camped at the mouth of Bass creek at Afton. The level field 
at the mouth of this pretty stream is bounded on the east by 
the Rock River, on the north by a river slough and on the 
south by the creek bank. In its rear is the C. & N. W. R. R. 
track. It was in use as a pasture and could not be exam- 
ined for evidence of early Indian occupation. Wild tobacco 
plants formerly grew here probably self-seeded from earlier 
Indian plantings. 

Tn the Rock River opposite this camp site is Inman Island, 
an island reported to be about 12 acres in extent. This is- 


r ol. 9, No. 

land the Indians also camped upon. It is approached from 
the mainland by a ford across a gravel bar, the water be- 
ing shallow there at this time. 

This island is well elevated above the water and is prob- 
ably not overflowed by the Rock except in years of very high 
water. It is a very attractive place. On its shores are tall 
elm, maple, ash and other trees. In its middle is a large 
clearing carpeted with tall, soft matted grass. At its north- 
ern edge are a number of large burr oaks which this year 
are yielding an abundant harvest of acorns. Large grape 
vines clamber over several of the trees. Here also are sev- 
eral patches of the stately mullein. The greatest length of 
this island appears to be about 600 feet. At various places 
in the river bed in its vicinity are beds of river clams. This 
locality is today and has long been a good locality for the 
catching of catfish. 

Bass Creek Site 

(SE. 14 Sec. 27) 

On the south bank of Bass Creek, near its union with the 
Rock River, between the creek bank south of the road to Af- 
ton, there is a small cultivated field. In this field hearth- 
stones and scattered flint rejectage occur. Many flint im- 
plements have been found here. This site is a short dis- 
tance east of the Holzapfel site, of which it may be merely 
an extension. 

M. E. Church Picnic Ground Camp Site 
(SW. 1/4 Sec. 26) 

At this place the land along the west bank of the Rock 
River is very level. At this picnic ground indications of a 
former Indian camp site occur in a field near the river bank 
which in 1928 had been recently plowed and sown with a 
crop of winter wheat. The soil of this field is black and 
sandy. Lying on its surface we found a stemmed arrow- 
point, several flint blanks, hearthstones, clam shell frag- 
ments and scattered flint chips. No potsherds were ob- 
tained. The river bank at this place is high and fringed 
with trees. 

Indications of former wigwam sites also occur in the cul- 
tivated fields of the Henbest farm both south and west of 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 73 

the above site, these extending into the SE. 1/4 of Section 27 
and the NW% of Section 35. In the latter locality Bass 
Creek flows into the Rock. 

Three Indian mounds were reported as existing in the 
Henbest fields adjoining the Picnic Ground. These were 
oval in form. They have been under cultivation for many 
years. These are the mounds reported to the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society by Mr. Horace McElroy in 1908. 
They are in the NW. i/i of Section 35. 

Indications of a camp site also occur in the river fields in 
the S. of the NE. of Section 35. 


River Heights Camp Site 
(SE. % Sec. 3) 

On the farm fields of the State School for the Blind, on the 
east bank of the Rock at River Heights, southwest of Janes- 
ville, traces of a small camp site were formerly to be seen. 
A few arrowpoints have been collected here. These fields 
were grass grown and could not be examined. They lie 
high above the water. Traces of this camp site probably 
extend into the farm grove pasture north of the buildings, 
at a bend of the river. 

In a small case in one of the school rooms of the institu- 
tion is a lot of about a dozen flint points, blanks and knives, 
some of which were probably collected here. 

From the School for the Blind lands southward as far as 
the Frances Willard country school building the river banks 
are generally high and in cultivation and in pasture. In 
some of the pastures and on the banks are scattered speci- 
mens or small groups of young cedar trees, these adding 
much to the attractiveness of the green pasture banks. 
Here the river road is some distance east of the river bank. 
Beyond (south of) the Willard schoolhouse it follows the 
river bank more closely to as far south as the Afton Rock? 
River bridge. In many places it is not more than 25 or 30 
feet from the river bank. Along this stretch the river is 
from 200 to 300 feet wide. Farm lands and occasional oak 
groves lie along the entire course of this picturesque but lit- 


tie traveled dirt road for over three miles. The banks of 
the coffee-colored Rock are curtained with a fringe of trees. 
In the river opposite the State School farm is a small wil- 
low-overgrown island. 

Willard School Camp Site 
(NE. % Sec. 15) 

Remains of a small camp site are scattered through a part 
of a small field near the river bank on a farm which adjoins 
on the north the yard of the tiny frame school building 
which Frances Willard attended during her childhood. 
Her early home (Forest Home, 1846-1858) is located about 
half-a-mile north of this place, and is marked with a tablet 
erected by the Rock County W. C. T. U. 

The flint in use in implement making at this site is of grey 
and light brown colors. A few flint blanks and arrowpoints 
have been found here. 

Riverside Camp Site 
(SW. % Sec. 15) 

Some flint arrowpoints have been collected in the south- 
ern fields of the E. Zeaman "Riverside" farm. Here hearth- 
stones and the scattered refuse of a small flint workshop 
were found. 

This farm is on the east bank of the Rock. The old river 
trail passed over it. 

Coates Camp Site 

(NW. 1/4, Sec. 22) 

Opposite the small Marion Coates farm a brook flows 
down to the Rock River through a small ravine which the 
river road crosses. In a cultivated field on the east side of 
the road, south of the brook, evidences of a former camp 
site occur. Other similar evidences (hearthstones and flint 
chips) occur on the west side of the road in a cultivated field 
south of the Coates farm house, also in another field of the 
Emerson farm adjoining this on the south. This latter 
field is a river flat bordering on a bend of the river. South 
of this field is a small tract of woodland. 

On this camp site, with scattered indications of the sites 
of about three or four wigwams, the flint in use in imple- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 75 

ment fashioning is of white, grey and light brown colors. It 
was very probably obtained from some local source. Here 
we also found a broken white flint notched arrowpoint, the 
tip of another, and two flake scrapers. 

Farmer boys have collected a few arrowpoints here. The 
river bank is low, with a fringe of trees along the edge of 
the Coates field. 

Woodstock Mounds 

(NE. 14 NW. % Sec. 22) 

The existence of a group of three conical mounds on the 
Arthur Woodstock, formerly the J. Kilmer farm, was re- 
ported by H. L. Skavlem, on May 19, 1907. The mounds 
were then in a cultivated field. Two were 20 and one 24 
feet in diameter. They were then from a foot to li/2 feet 
high. Mr. Horace McElroy reported the same group in 

Oakley Farm Camp Site 

(SW. 14 Sec. 22) 

A camp site was located on the T. J. Oakley farm, on the 
edge of a cultivated field on the east side of the river road, 
north of the farm house. Here hearthstones were found 
grouped in two places, probably wigwam sites, with a few 
flint chips and fragments scattered over the ground in their 
vicinity. The flint was of grey and light-brown colors. 
These sites are within about thirty -five feet of the river 
bank. A few flint arrowpoints have been found here and in 
the field south of the Oakley farm bulidings. 

Inman Camp Site 

(NW. 1/2 Sec. 27) 

The river lands along the east bank of the Rock River 
from the Afton bridge road southward to the bridge cross- 
ing of the river on the south boundary line of Rock township 
are for the most part broad and level areas with low hills 
rising in their rear. None are elevated more than a few 
feet above the river and some are so low as to be overflowed 
in years of high water. Most of these fields are this year in 
grass and in use as pastures for cattle. Groves of oak and 
other trees occupy some areas and other fields are over- 
grown with young trees and brush. Trees line the river 


On the broad fields of the former Inman Estate running 
southward from opposite the Afton bridge for nearly half a 
mile along the river bank the indications of former camp and 
workshop sites were found to be quite abundant. These fields 
are not under cultivation this year but despite the growth 
of grass and weeds with which they are covered hearth- 
stones, flint rejectage, pieces of clam shells and fragments 
of animal bones occur in a number of places not far from 
the edge of the river bank where Indian wigwams were once 
located. Other specimens recovered during an inspection 
of these places were a granite hammerstone, several broken 
hammerstones, broken flint blanks, a broken leaf -shape ar- 
rowpoint, a small white flint core. In past years several 
flint celts and numerous flint implements have been collected 
from these fields. When they are again under cultivation 
additional specimens are almost certain to be found. Search 
was made in one of the fields for traces of a refuse pit 
said to have existed here but no trace of it could be found. 

Rasmussen Camp Site 
(SE. % Sec. 27) 

Brush overgrown fields of the Schuette farm separate the 
Inman sites from a well marked camp site on the river bank 
farm fields of Mr. C. L. Rasmussen. These fields are sandy 
and well elevated above the water. Near the southern edge 
of these fields, at a short distance from the river bank, In- 
dian camp and workshop site refuse is scattered over the 
surface of the ground. Here were found hammerstones, 
sandstone rubbing stones, broken flint blanks and a bluish 
gray flint notched arrowpoint. Mr. Rasmussen has a white 
flint stemmed spearpoint, about three inches in length which 
he found here in cultivating this land. This farm was for- 
merly owned by H. Fessenden. 

Adjoining this field on the south is a tract of pasture land 
in which are a number of tall walnut trees, being the surviv- 
ors of a former considerable number of such trees once lo- 
cated here. This pasture land is sometimes overflowed by 
the river. 

According to old settlers in this locality an old Winnebago 
Indian who employed his time in making splint baskets, 
once lived on this land. His dwelling was a dugout, roofed- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 77 

over place in a bank at a distance of about 600 feet from the 
river shore. This site is now marked by a group of young 
poplar trees. 

In the river opposite the Rasmussen fields is a small tree- 
covered island which is subject to overflow in high water. 

Rice Camp Site 

(NW. 1/2, NE. % Sec. 35) 

Beyond the Rasmussen site a camp site occurs on the Rice 
farm and the Noyes farm adjoining it on the east. Here 
hearthstones, flint refuse and clam shell fragments occur in 
the river fields. 

Clam Shell Site 

(SW. % Sec. 36) 

Less than a half mile beyond The Oaks site, between the 
highway and the river bank, is a small field, the land areas 
to the north and south of which are boggy, grassy pastures. 
This field consists of very black soil and was occupied by 
a corn crop. No evidences of a camp site were found here. 
Scattered over its surface in a number of places are pieces 
of partly decomposed and broken valves of river clams, the 
probable refuse of clam hunting in the river by the Indians, 
possibly of small shell heaps which the plow has scattered. 
A battered and broken granite pebble hammerstone was 
picked up in this field. The weeds and tumbled corn stalks 
(partly leveled by a recent windstorm) prevented a more 
careful examination of this field. 

West Bank of Rock River 

West Bank Camp Sites 

(Sees. 2, 11 and 14) 

On the west bank of the Rock indications of former camp 
sites are scattered along the edge of the cultivated fields 
along the river bank from the old Kellogg farm in Section 2, 
at the northern line of the township southward through the 
western halves of Sections 11 and 14, nearly to the "Big 
Hill" opposite Beloit. These indications, consisting of 


hearthstones and scattered flint chips, are widely separated 
from each other. A few flint points have been found in 
these places. 

A narrow strip of pasture land lies along the river bank 
along the edge of these fields. The river bank is in different 
places from 6 to 12 feet high, the river from 200 to 250 feet 
wide. The fields are very level and the soil black and sandy 
in places. 

Just north of the "Big Hill" a spring brook courses 
through a flat to the Rock. Opposite its mouth is a marshy 
area. Along the north bank of this brook are cultivated 
fields. These were examined but no indications of former 
Indian residence found here. 

Big Hill Camp Site 

On the top of this high hill on the west bank of the Rock 
River, opposite Beloit, the Sauk chief Black Hawk is re- 
ported to have camped during his northward flight from Ill- 
inois in 1832. 

This high hill rising several hundred feet above the river 
is largely covered with a fine oak forest. It is now, through 
the efforts of the Beloit Izaak Walton League chapter, be- 
come a wild life sanctuary park. 

There is at the southern end of this hill a place where 
there is more or less of an open space. Here we examined 
a number of bare places where the sod had been removed or 
killed out, In these spots we found several hearthstones, a 
small number of flint chips, two small leaf shaped, greyish- 
white flint blanks, and a small grey flint scraper. 

The presence of these specimens appears to indicate that 
Indians have camped upon this hill long before the Sauk 
warriors reached it. The Winnebago Indian name of Big 
Hill was Cha-cha-tay. 

"When the first agricultural settlers came into Rock 
County, the tent poles and remains of the Indian camp fires 
were still to be found in Black Hawk's Grove, and are re- 
membered by some of these settlers, who are still with us. 
They indicated a more permanent camp than that of re- 
treating Indian foes."* 

* Hist, of Rock Co., Guernsey & Willard, 1856, p. 20. 

Indian Villag-e and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 79 

Poe Mound 

(NE. % Sec. 26) 

Mr. Ira M. Buell in his report on the Beloit Mound Groups 
*says of this mound on the west bank of the Rock River : 
"Directly across the river from this group (the Adams 
group in Beloit) , in the midst of a grove on the river bottom 
and north of a little inlet is the site of a mound now obliter- 
ated. This conical burial mound was small, less than twen- 
ty feet in diameter and about one and one-half feet high. 
This inconspicuous "hummock" when disturbed disclosed 
seven burials, a central form encircled by four others and at 
one side two skeletons, one lying partly upon the other. 
These burials were close to the surface, the bones being un- 
covered by the plough in grading the field. No other re- 
mains were found." 

West Beloit Camp Sites 

In early days of white settlement groups of Winnebago 
and of Potawatomi Indians frequently camped on the west 
bank of the Rock River in West Beloit. A band of Winne- 
bago, gathered here for removal, were encamped here when 
Caleb Blodgett came to Beloit in 1836.* Others were here 
in 1837 and other Indians camped here from time to time in 
small numbers for many years afterward. A search made 
by ourselves failed to locate any evidence of earlier camp 
sites in likely places along the river banks between this lo- 
cality and the Big Hill. In the city such evidence has beerft 
destroyed by the erection of buildings and grading of 

East Bank of the Rock River 

Roth Mounds 

(SE. 1/4 Sec. 1) 

A brief description of these mounds on the Roth farm is 
given by Mr. Ira M. Buell in his report on the "Beloit Mound 
Groups," published by the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
in November, 1919. The two short linear or oval mounds 
located here he reports as being about 70 feet long, 35 feet 

* Wis. Archeo. 18, no. 4. 

* Cooper's History of Rock County, p. 24. 


wide and 3 feet high. He says that they are among the 
largest tumuli in the Beloit region. These mounds are lo- 
cated on the brow of the river terrace. In the cultivated 
field in the rear of the mounds are faint traces of several 
other mounds. Flint refuse, scattered by the plow, indi- 
cates the former location of a camp site here. 

Mr. H. L. Skavlem in about the year 1902 aJo located 
these two mounds on the Roth farm. 

The Oaks Camp Site 
(NW. % Sec. 11) 

Adjoining the Yost Park summer resort settlement on the 
north is a large grassy field not at present under cultivation. 
Beyond this is another large field this year under a fine crop 
of corn. This field we examined as carefully as possible. In 
this field nearly all of the evidences of former aboriginal oc- 
cupation are in the part nearest the bank of the Rock River. 
A narrow strip of uncultivated land, not more than thirty to 
thirty-five feet wide with a few scattered young oaks grow- 
ing upon it separates the western edge of this field from the 
low river bank. All along the edge of this field scattered 
Indian fireplace stones are very common. Most occur no 
farther than 50 feet from the edge of the field. 

With them were found scattered chips and flakes of pink 
and white flint, three broken pebble hammerstones and a 
small rudely made white flint implement, probably a scrap- 
er. No hearthstones were found more than about 100 feet 
from the edge of the field. Doubtless this site extends into 
the grassy field previously mentioned. Here the Indian 
wigwams must have been located very near the river bank 
as indicated by the scattered hearthstones. Arrowpoints 
have also been collected here. The highway is here hun- 
dreds of feet east of the river bank. 

The Oaks Gasoline and "Tourist Rest" station is located 
by the side of the highway, north of this camp site. Beyond 
this is a bridge across the river. 

Yost Park Village Site and Mound 

(SW. 14 Sec. 11) 

At this place, on the east bank of the Rock River, on the 
John A. Yost farm and at Yost Park adjoining its fields on 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 81 

the north was located the early Winnebago Indian village of 
"Standing Post." Its location is given as about two miles 
north of Beloit. Its Winnebago name is given as Ho-bo-sa- 
che-nug-ra. U. S. Indian Agent John H. Kinzie gives the 
number of its inhabitants in 1829 as seventeen, and Kaw- 
ray-kaw-saw-kaw, White Crow, as their chief. According 
to Dr. N. W. Jipson White Crow was also a chief of the Win- 
nebago of Turtle Village at that time.* 

Mr. Yost states that in cultivating the very level fields 
along the river bank on his farm many flint implements and 
one stone axe have been found in past years. These fields 
were in pasture during the summer of 1928 and could not be 
carefully examined. Scattered hearthstones were found at 
different places in them. When his father settled here 
these very level lands were covered with a forest. There 
were two good springs on the river bank. Several former 
Beloit collectors of Indian implements have obtained flint 
arrow and spearpoints from the Yost fields. 

Adjoining the Yost farm on the north is the Beloit sum- 
mer resort settlement known as Yost Park. 

On the side of the ridge on the east side of the highway 
(U. S. 51) opposite the Yost farm house is the single short 
linear mound described by Mr. Ira M. Buell.** He gives its 
length as 80 and its width as 16 feet. He gives its location 
as in the center of the SE. % of Section 11. 

The preservation of this mound the Beloit Historical Soci- 
ety should now endeavor to secure. Bur oak trees grow on 
the ridge about the mound and it is crossed by a wire fence. 
A small ravine lies south of it. Here are the Beloit Gun 
Club grounds, now no longer in use. 

Baldwin Mound 

(SE. 14 Sec. 14) 

Mr. Buell in his re-survey of the Beloit mound groups 
found a single conical mound about 25 feet in diameter on 
the edge of the terrace on the F. and H. C. Baldwin farm. 
Two other mounds located here by Mr. James Wilson, Jr., in 
1898 had probably been destroyed by the erection of the 

* Wis. Archeo. 2, no. 3, n. s., 130. 
** Wis. Archeo. 18, no. 4, 126. 


farm buildings. This mound was excavated some years ago 
but without the finding of human remains or implements ac- 
cording to Buell. 

Weirick Mound Group 
(NE. 14 of Sec. 23) 

These mounds were located on the W. C. Weirick farm on 
the Rock River road, about three-fourths of a mile north of 
the northern city limits of Beloit. Mr. Buell gives a de- 
scription and plat of the group of fifteen mounds, five of 
which were located on the terrace east of the highway and 
ten in the river fields west of it. Seven of the mounds were 
effigies, five were linear mounds, and three conical and oval 

Some indications of a former Indian camp site were 
found in the river fields near the mounds. Relic hunters 
have dug into and mutilated most of the mounds of this once 
fine group. One effigy mound was destroyed in construct- 
ing the electric line right-of-way. 

Of the mounds in the river fields tw r o linear mounds of a 
group of three still exist on the Conrad Hansen, Joseph Ma- 
son and William Wilford residence properties, opposite the 
electric line station known as Ridgeway and near the B< 
loit Country Club grounds. The finest of these, a taperii 
club shaped linear, is on the Hansen property, and rui 
from the electric line tracks to the front entrance of the res 
idence. This mound is 126 feet in length, and 24 feet ii 
width at its head, where it is about 3!/4 feet high. The oth< 
mound runs diagonally across the Mason lot (south of tl 
Conrad place), its head extending under the Wilford resi- 
dence. A third mound was destroyed when the Earl Matsoi 
house on the lot adjoining the Hansen place on the nortl 
was erected. This was a linear of the straight type wil 
rounded extremities. It had a projection on one side of th( 
end nearest the electric line. The highway passes nej 
these mounds. The other river field mounds of this grou] 
were a short distance north of these. 

Faint traces of a camp site were found in back yard! 
along the river bank near these mounds. The Hansel 
mound, being a fine specimen and conveniently located foi 
inspection, should be marked with a metal tablet. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 83 

Beloit Country Club Camp Site 

An examination was made of the grounds of the Beloit 
Country Club along their Pleasant Street frontage for evi- 
dences of former aboriginal occupation. Every dirt road- 
way and bare spot was examined both on the top and at the 
base of the ridge. There were many of the latter. On the 
top of a knoll where dirt had been removed in making some 
small road improvements a fine English gunflint was found 
and near it a small number of white flint chips. Other chips 
and fragments of the same material were recovered from a 
bare spot at the base of the ridge a short distance beyond 
this point. Additional chips were found in other places 
where the sod had been disturbed. The knoll where the 
gunflint was found is about 225 feet north of the clubhouse. 

The other spots where evidence of flint working was 
found extend northward as far as Henry Avenue. The 
land along the edge of Pleasant Street is rather level, rising 
gradually to the ridge (knolls) above. The trees on the 
ridge and slope are oaks. The distance from the edge of 
the street to the river bank is about 150 feet. Opposite this 
land the river is at present about 500 feet wide. 

I am informed that in former years many flint points 
were found on this part of the Country Club grounds. 
Hearthstones have been dislodged in a number of places on 
and at the base of the ridge where wigwams were probably 
once located. 

Henderson Effigy 

(SE. 14 Sec. 23) 

This turtle effigy is on the terrace edge on the Henderson 
property less than a half mile north of the Beloit city limits. 
Buell gives an illustration and brief description of this 

U. S. 51 Camp Site 

Another Indian camp site is located in a small tract of 
cultivated land on the Rock River bank on the east side of 
U. S. 51 highway (Wisconsin 13 and 26) , being an extension 
of Pleasant Street of the City of Beloit. This field, especially 
along the river bank is rather low and doubtless at times 
subject to overflow of the river. On a small rise of land in 

* Wis. Archeo., 18, no. 4. 


this field, at a distance of about 150 feet, scattered Indian 
hearthstones were found, chips and fragments of white and 
pink flint, a broken pebble hammerstone, a tiny fragment of 
a pottery vessel and a well made white flint notched arrow- 
point. These tell plainly of the former location of a wig- 
wam at this place. A few chips were also found in another 
small field recently plowed adjoining this field on the north. 
This field was growing a crop of corn at the time of our in- 
spection of it. William Acker, a Beloit collector, has a 
stone celt which was collected on or near this site. This 
specimen is oval in form and six inches in length. Near its 
rounded cutting edge and poll its width is about 2% inches. 
Just beyond this place are the Hansen and other mounds 
visited on one of our previous visits to this vicinity. The 
tourist camp ground maintained by the Beloit Real Estate 
Board is opposite these mounds. These grounds were also 
examined but without result, these being covered with a 
tough sod. Yost Park lies north of these places. 

Adams Mounds 

This mound group "is at the north end of an 80 acre tract 
now a part of the Fairbanks Morse Co. property (Pageant 
Park)/' Buell gives a plat and brief description of it. 
The group consisted of thirteen mounds. Three of the 
mounds were turtle effigies, four conical mounds, and si 
oval and short linear mounds. 

Dr. S. D. Peet also presents an illustration of this grou 
in his book Prehistoric America, II, (Fig. 162) . This is in- 
correct and shows ojily seven of the mounds. 

In 1920 one of the mounds of this group was destroyed : 
"It happened at the location of the new Fairbanks, Mors 
& Co. plant on the Riverside drive where the Leonard Con- 
struction Co. is excavating. Shovels were scraping the sur- 
face from a hillock when the mound suddenly collapsed 
Digging deeper into the mound workmen uncovered a skel 
eton, believed to be that of an Indian. The red man was 
lying on his back, his knees drawn up over his breast almost 
to his chin and his arms outstretched, the palms of his 
hands up. There were no stone or copper implements in 
the grave."* 

* Beloit Daily News, Oct. 1, 1920. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 85 

In the Rock River, opposite the Fairbanks, Morse Co. 
plant there is in the stream a very attractive large bed of 
arrowhead (Sagittaria sp.) This floral "island" is long 
and narrow, about two city blocks in length and at its wid- 
est part about 150 feet across. The tops of the plants are 
a foot or more above the top of the water. There is a bed 
of these plants also along the Pleasant Street shore of the 
stream. The Indians ate the root of this plant and if these 
beds or any part of them were here in early days of Indian 
occupation there was at hand an abundant food supply. 

Some indications of a former camp site were found in 
past years on the site of the Fairbanks, Morse Co. factory. 
These included flint points and a small knife and several 
pebble hammerstones. Mr. Theodore Dustrude of Beloit 
has a stone axe and a flint knife which he picked up on land 
along the switch track of the plant. 

Water Tower Mounds 

Buell mentions that some mounds formerly surrounding 
the Beloit water tower have been destroyed. Vague out- 
lines of several remain. 

Beloit College Mound Group 

In 1855 Dr. Increase A. Lapham published in The Antiq- 
uities of Wisconsin Prof. S. P. Lathrop's survey of the 
group of Indian mounds surrounding Beloit College and of 
the road, an old Indian trail, which crossed the campus, 
running between and also over some of the mounds. This 
original map shows fourteen conical and five linear mounds. 
Mr. Buell gives a rather full description of this group and 
presents a plat of the remaining mounds of it as preserved 
among the buildings on the campus today. This shows a 
total of 21 mounds 14 of which are conical or round mounds, 
1 oval, 5 linear, and 1 effigy (a turtle) mound. A fine tab- 
let now marks this group. Some of the mounds have been 

Logan Museum, in whose exhibition halls Dr. Frank G. 
Logan, Dr. George L. Collie and Mr. Alonzo Pond have in 
recent years gathered so rich a collection of the world's 
archeological treasures, stands near this imposing group of 

* Wis. Archeo. 18, no. 4. 


prehistoric earthworks, the early wisdom of the permanent 
preservation of which has inspired so many Wisconsin and 
other archeologists. 

We examined the ridge of the Beloit College campus along 
Pleasant Street and especially the area about the Turtle 
Mound. This ridge is about a half block east of the bank of 
the Rock River. The top of the ridge is at least thirty feet 
above the street. Opposite this place the river is about 200 
feet wide. 

Owing to the ridge top being largely in sod no evidence 
of aboriginal occupation could be found. Some flint and 
other stone implements have been reported as found here in 
past years. 

We also examined the east bank of the Rock (gardens and 
lots) from the Portland Street bridge northward along 
Fourth and Fifth Streets to Goss Addition and the cultivated 
farm lands beyond, but with no results. 

Turtle Village 

The present site of the City of Beloit was the early site of 
a large and important Winnebago Indian village, being the 
largest of the historic Winnebago villages along the Rocl 
River between the Illinois-Wisconsin boundary and the fool 
of Lake Koshkonong. Concerning the history of the Tur- 
tle Village there is much scattered information in the Wis- 
consin Historical Collections, The Wisconsin Archeologisl 
and the Rock County histories. 

This village was located on the former bottom lands b< 
tween the Rock River and the mouth of its tributary, Turtl< 
Creek. North of it were high hills with broad prairie land; 
on their tops. 

Dr. S. D. Peet gives a description of this village : "There 
was a council house and garden beds at Beloit. The gar- 
den beds were situated on the bank of the Rock River, near 
where the Northwestern depot formerly stood. The first 
settlers raised their first vegetables on the spot where the 
garden beds had been. There were corn fields on the bot- 
tom of Turtle Creek, near where the athletic grounds are 
present. A council house built of bark, forty feet square, 
with poles in the center supporting the roof, stood near Tur- 
tle Creek, where the road to Shopiere crosses the creek with 

Indian Village and Camp Sites .of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 87 

wigwams around it. There were trails which led to Rock- 
ton and to Janesville, on each side of the river, and another 
leading across the prairie toward Delavan Lake. One of 
these crosses the campus through the group of mounds."* 

Where the cemetery or burial places of this village were 
located has not been recorded. Burials are reported to 
have been unearthed at Beloit in the construction of streets 
and buildings at various times since 1850. 

The Winnebago Indian name for Turtle Village was Ki- 
chunck, the name for Turtle Creek, Ki-chunk-ne-shun-nuck- 
er-rah. U. S. Indian Agent John H. Kinzie in his Wiscon- 
sin Winnebago census of 1829-32 gives the Indian popula- 
tion of "Turtle River" (Turtle Village) as thirty-five lodges 
with six hundred inhabitants. General Atkinson, who 
passed through Turtle Village, then deserted, with his 
troops in pursuit of the Sauk chief Black Hawk and his 
warriors, on June 30, 1832, said: "It is a considerable 
Winnebago town, but it was deserted."** 

The early Winnebago chief of this village is reported to 
have been Walking Turtle, or Karramaunee, an Indian of 
considerable prominence among the Winnebago chiefs of 
his time. Mr. P. V. Lawson in his monograph, "The Win- 
nebago Tribe," presents a very full account of his life his- 
tory.*** Karramaunee's calumet, 1832, a pipe of Siouan 
type made of catlinite, lead-inlaid, is preserved in the Green 
Bay Public Museum. 

Kinzie's census shows that White Crow (Kaw-ray-kaw- 
saw-kaw), the Lake Koshkonong chief, became its leader in 
1829. In 1832, sub-Indian agent Henry Gratiot, designated 
Whirling Thunder, "a man of great repute for his sagacity 
in council," as chief of Turtle Village. His Indian name is 
given as Wau-kaun-ween-wak, or Wau-kon-ge-weka. Little 
Priest or Little Chief (Mor-ay-tshay-kaw), chief in 1829 of 
the Catfish Village, was also identified with Turtle Village. 

By the provisions of a treaty concluded with the Winne- 
bago at Washington on November 1, 1337, that tribe ceded 
to the United States the balance of their lands in Wiscon- 
sin. Their removal followed. 

* Prehistoric America, II, 1898, p. 391. 
** West. Hist. Co., Hist. Rock Co., p. 331. 
*** Wis. Archeo. 6, no. 3, pp. 150-152. 


Their lands along the Rock they ceded to the Government 
in 1832. 

The Indian trader at Beloit was Joseph Thibault, a 
French Canadian, and the agent of the Milwaukee trader, 
Solomon Juneau. His log cabin trading post is reported to 
have been located in 1836 "at the south end and west side 
of what is now State Street. 

He claimed to have been living in the general region 
about twelve years. He was succeeded as trader by Alex. 
Lemere, who occupied his post for the next eight years.* 

In past years, when the City of Beloit was being settled, 
considerable numbers of Indian relics, including flint imple- 
ments, stone axes, celts, hammers, some stone ornaments 
and pipes, and some copper implements and beads, were 
found by residents and others on and near the site of the 
Indian village and gardens. Very few of these remain in 
private hands and a very small numoer appear to have 
found their way into the collections of the Logan Museum 
at Beloit College. There are several small collections in the 
city but their contents are largely from other parts of Wis- 
consin and from other states. A flint spade found here 
years ago is 7% inches in length and 3% inches in width at 
its widest part. 

The museum of the Beloit Historical Society has not been 
in existence long enough to have assembled any local Indian 


Our survey permits the making of a count of the Indiai 
mounds located in the Rock River Valley between the fool 
of Lake Koshkonong and Beloit. This count gives the fol- 
lowing figures : 

Township Conical Oval Linear Effigy Totals 

Milton 17 1 18 

Fulton 18 2 14 34 

Janesville 7 7 

Rock 19 5 12 5 41 

Beloit _ . 26 1 18 12 57 

87 8 45 17 157 

This total of 157 mounds does not include several mounds 
on the Hubbel farm which have been destroyed and of 

* Hist, of Rock Co., C. F. Cooper & Co., 1908, p. 128. 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 89 

which no accurate record exists, or of several mounds on the 
Roth farm north of Beloit of which Buell found faint traces 
remaining. Nor does it include the so-called Waterworks 
mounds in Beloit, a small group of which there appears to 
have been no survey made before they were destroyed. 

In making this count we acknowledge our indebtedness to 
the Messrs. A. B. Stout and H. L. Skavlem who published a 
report on the Lake Koshkonong mounds in 1908, to H. L. 
Skavlem and Horace McElroy who surveyed and reported 
on the Janesville and Afton mounds in 1907 and 1914, and 
to Ira U. Buell, who re-surveyed the Beloit groups and 
published a report on these in 1919. 

The several largest mound groups along the banks of tne 
Rock River between the foot of Lake Koshkonong and Be- 
loit were the Rock River group at Lake Koshkonong with 11 
mounds, the Indian Hill group at the mouth of the Catfish 
River with 28 mounds, the Afton group at Afton with 22 
mounds, the Weirick and Adams groups north of Beloit 
with 13 mounds each, and the Beloit College group with 21 
mounds. Of the 17 effigy or animal shaped mounds located 
in these surveys in the five different groups which include 
effigy mounds (in the Afton, Weirick, Henderson, Adams 
and Beloit College groups) 7 are mounds of the turtle, 2 of 
the bear, 2 of the panther, 2 of the mink, and 1 of the bird 
type. Three are nondescript effigies. 


kFor the past eighty years or more collectors of Indian im- 
lements have made collections, small or quite extensive, 
rom the numerous camp and village sites along the banks 
of the Rock River between Beloit and the foot of Lake Kosh- 
konong. Most of these collections have been either sold, or 
given away, or been carried away to other states or other 
parts of Wisconsin by their owners. Very little of the ma- 
terial gathered from these sites or from the cultivated fields 
along the river banks is preserved in Wisconsin museums. 
This public loss appears to emphasize the need of establish- 
ing public historical museums at Beloit, Janesville and Ed- 
gerton where such collections and specimens can be assem- 
bled in the future and saved for educational purposes. 


The most widely known collector in this region was Mr. 
Horace M. McElroy of Janesville. Most of the specimens 
in his large collection were obtained from Indian sites with- 
in and near the present limits of the city in which he re- 
sided. Others were collected from sites as far south along 
the river as Afton, and as far north as Lake Koshkonong. 
He also obtained specimens from other parts of Rock Coun- 
ty. Before his death Mr. McElroy sold many of his choic- 
est specimens. His widow and some of his friends present- 
ed what remained of his collection to the Janesville public 
library in 1916. These specimens consisting of flint, quartz, 
rhyolite, chalcedony and other arrow and spearpoints, 
knives, scrapers and perforators are mounted in glass 
frames. One frame, containing about fifty such artifacts, 
is labelled "Rock River." Most of the other specimens are 
from other regions and from other states. In the Rock 
River frame are five of the broad, barbed spearpoints made 
of white and grey flint. No catalogue of Mr. McElroy's 
former collection appears to exist. Fortunately sketches of 
some of his specimens were made during his lifetime and 
these are available for study. 

At Fulton collections of Indian artifacts were made by 
Mr. Darcy Biggar, Mr. Harvey Pease and Mr. J. T. Thomp- 
son. All were very active collectors. Mr. Biggar began to 
collect specimens in his boyhood. Most of his collecting 
was from the site of the Catfish Village at the mouth of the 
Catfish River and from the old Stone Farm site on the op- 
posite bank of the Rock. He also gathered specimens from 
other sites along the Rock River banks as far north as New- 
ville. His interesting collection was recently presented by 
him to the State Historical Museum at Madison. Mr. 
Thompson's collection was on exhibition in a case in the Ed- 
gerton high school. It has recently been withdrawn. 

At Indian Ford Mr. D. Willard North and Mr. Bert Cox 
both have interesting collections made from local sites. At 
Edgerton Mr. Harry C. Son has a collection made from sites 
at Newville and Lake Koshkonong. 

A collection made by George Doty, deceased, from this 
same region is in existence. 

One of the best collecting grounds along the entire lower 
Rock River region in Wisconsin was at Newville. There in- 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 91 

teresting collections were made by George H. Sherman, 
Henry Pierce, Ulysses G. Miller, Edward Amerpoll of 
Janesville, the late W. P. Clarke of Milton, and C. A. Ski- 
breck of Stoughton. 

At Beloit Theodore Dustrude has a small collection. A 
collection made by C. C. Babbitt of Janesville is deposited in 
the Oshkosh Public Museum. Miss Minnie Hubbell of Ful- 
ton has a small number of specimens from a site on the 
Hubbell farm at that place. Other less important collec- 
tions and specimens are in the possession of various persons 
residing on some of the river farms. 

The Logan Museum of Beloit College has a comparatively 
small number of lower Rock River region specimens in its 
otherwise rich collections. Unfortunately none of these 
have any definite data as to the exact locations where they 
were obtained. Among them are a bannerstone of the but- 
terfly type, made of hornblende schist, and collected at Ed- 
gerton, a grooved stone axe of the pick type, with a battered 
poll, found at Albion, and a sandstone arrowshaft grinder 
found at Newville. Other Rock River specimens are a 
fluted stone axe, an adz-axe, and five other grooved stone 

Outside of those contained in the Darcy Biggar collection 
the State Historical Museum has only a small number of 
specimens from Rock River, Rock County sites. Among 
these is a large flint spearpoint 10 inches in length. This 
is from Janesville. There are a copper knife found at Ed- 
gerton, and a copper perforator from near the Catfish Vil- 
lage, and flint implements and potsherds, sinkers, hammer- 
stones, and other artifacts from sites at Newville, Indian 
Ford, Janesville and Afton. 

A few Rock River implements collected by W. P. Clarke 
are in the museum at Milton College. 


After urging for some years the importance of engaging 
in a survey of the prehistoric and historic Indian village 
and camp sites located along the banks of the Rock River in 
the region between the foot of Lake Koshkonong and the 
Wisconsin-Illinois boundary, this very desirable undertak- 


Vol. 9, No. 1 

ing was at last made possible through the generous interest 
of Dr. Frank G. Logan, who supplied the funds required for 
a surface survey. Very little or nothing was known con- 
cerning the location or character of any of these camp and 
village sites. Survey field-work was begun during the 
early summer of 1928 and continued to near the end of tHe 
year. Some of the sixty-five camp and village sites and 
other aboriginal remains located along the Rock River were 
re-visited during the summer of 1929. As the funds avail- 
able were not sufficient to engage in more than a small 
amount of excavating such work must wait until some fu- 
ture time. A condensed report of our researches is pre- 
sented in this bulletin. A report on the sites along the Cat- 
fish River between Lake Kegonsa and its mouth, at the Rock 
at Fulton, is being held for future publication. 

The results of our investigations show that some of these 
village sites are Algonkian, some are Siouan, and some ap- 
pear to have been occupied successively by representatives 
of both Indian stocks. Some are contact sites. The pres- 
ence of artifacts characteristic of both the Cahokia and 
Hopewell cultures on the sites, and in some of the mounds 
excavated by others, probably indicates an early residence 
of some of these prehistoric Indians in the Lower Rock 
River valley also. 

We have the pleasure of realizing that through our efforts 
much useful information concerning the early Indian inhab- 
itants of the Rock River valley has been rescued from more 
or less complete loss. We wish to strongly recommend the 
permanent preservation and marking of some of the 
mounds yet remaining at the foot of Lake Koshkonong, at 
"Indian Hill" at Fulton, and along the Rock River highway 
north of Beloit. The interest of the county board and of 
the local historical societies and women's clubs should be 
aroused in the great value of their preservation as historical 
landmarks. Their loss would be greatly deplored by pres- 
ent and future residents of the Rock River cities. Markers 
should also be placed on the sites of the historic Winnebago 
villages of the region, especially on the sites of those located 
at Beloit, Janesville, Fulton and Newville. We hope to see 
the archeological collections in the museums at Janesville 

Indian Village and Camp Sites of the Lower Rock River in Wisconsin. 93 

and Beloit greatly increased and made educationally useful 
to the public. At Edgerton a public museum should be es- 

We desire to express our thanks to the many good friends 
who, in one way and another, have assisted, us in this work. 

, 1930 







Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for In Sec 
L103, Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

Utecorartn grcfjeological g>ocfetj> 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



H. H. Smith 


C. G. Schoewe Mrs. Theo. Koerner 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. W. Oilman 

A. T. Newman Dr. A. L. Kastner 

A. P. Kannenberg 

Dr. S. A. Barrett 
M. C. Richter 
Vetal Winn 


R. J. Kieckhefer 
E. F. Richter 
L. R. Whitney 
W. C. McKern 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz 
Mrs. A. E. Koerner 
Geo. A. West 


G. M. Thorne 

National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. S. A. Barrett, J. P. Schumacher, W. G. Mc- 
Lachlan, Rev. F. S. Dayton, C. E. Brown, W. C. McKern, T. L. 
Miller, A. W. Pond, Geo. Overton, Frank Thomlinson, T.~M. N. 
Lewis and M. F. Hulburt. 

MOUND PRESERVATION W. W. Gilman, Dr. F. C. Rogers, Dr. 
A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, Mrs. Jessie R. Skinner, Louise 
P. Kellogg, Mrs. H. A. Main, R. A. Maas, J. W. Norris, Mrs. 
F. R. Melcher, Dr. A. Gerend, and G. L. Pasco. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Dr. G. L. Collie, Mrs. 
A. C. Neville, A. P. Kannenberg, E. P. Hamilton, William Horlick, 
Mrs. H. A. Olson, W. F. Bauchle and R. S. Van Handel. 

MEMBERSHIP C. G. Schoewe, Dr. W. H. Brown, A. R. Rogers, 
Vetal Winn, C. G. Weyl, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, W. P. Morgan, Louis 
Pierron and D. S. Rowland. 

MAN MOUND PARK M. F. Hulburt, E. A. Gilman and Miss Emma 

AZTALAN MOUND PARK R. P. Ferry, M. G. Troxell, and W. W. 

PUBLICITY A. O. Barton, Mrs. W. F. Bauchle, M. C. Richter, E. R. 
Mclntyre and R. K. Coe. 

BIOGRAPHY Dr. E. J. W. Notz, C. G. Schoewe and H. H. Smith. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thome, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Mil- 


Vol. 9, No. 2, New Series 



"Turkey-tail" Points, Charles E. Brown 

The Chicago-Milwaukee-Green Bay Trail, Louise P. Kellogg 103 

The Hopewell People _. -106 

Indian Trade Beads 109 

Urn Burials in Alabama 110 

Cache of Indian Stone Adzes 112 

Indian Overland Travelways 114 

The Huff Mandan Village Site, Charles E. Brown 120 

Brule River Copper Sources, John A. Bardon 122 

Petroglyphs and Pictographs 123 

Thunderbird Legend of the Post 128 

Winneboujou 130 

Archeological Notes _ 131 


"Turkey-tail Point" at the Right 

Courtesy of Ohio State Archeological 

and Historical Society 

Ct)e ^fsconstn arcfjeologtfit 

Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Areheolo^icnl Society 

Yol. l> MADISON, WIS., JANUARY, 1930 \o. 2 

New Series 


By this fanciful name there have long been known to col- 
lectors of Indian implements throughout the Middle West 
a class of flint implements of very graceful form, and quite 
generally conceded to be among the very best productions of 
the prehistoric Indian flint worker. A specimen of these 
implements is illustrated in the frontispiece of this issue 
of The Wisconsin Archeologist. 

The first published description of these very interesting 
implements appeared in a monograph, "The Implement 
Caches of the Wisconsin Indians", published in 1907.* A 
part of this description is here quoted: "The points are 
generally elliptical in shape and are provided with two 
notches near one extremity, producing a short, angular or 
rounded tang. [This tang is triangular or somewhat 
lozenge-shaped.] They are generally considered to be best 
adapted for use as knives, the tang being generally too 
short and fragile in comparison with the length, breadth 
and weight of the blade to permit of their being very se- 
curely hafted for service as spearpoints. 

"In almost every one of several hundred Wisconsin col- 
lections in existence to-day, there are to be seen one or more 
of these implements. Many of them are known to have been 
found en cache, indeed it is an open question whether the 
majority of them were not so obtained, the continual sell- 
ing and exchanging going on among collectors and the fre- 
quent carelessness of the finders being responsible for our 
present inability to trace the facts of their original disposi- 

"The material from which these implements are fash- 
ioned is generally the bluish or grayish hornstone, identical 

* The Wisconsin Archeologist, V. 6, No. 2. See also V. 20, No. 1, 
p. 12. 


with, or resembling that of the Wyandotte cave region in 
[southwestern] Indiana. Some exhibit traces of brown 
color mingled with the blue or grey. [Some are dark blue 
in color or almost black.] All are admirable examples of 
the flint chipper's art." 

A description of the caches or deposits of these "turkey- 
tail" points recovered up to that time, the year 1907, is 

1. Cache of fourteen found in about the year 1878 on the 
Bonn farm, in Section 31, Two Rivers Township, Manito- 
woc County. 

2. Cache of six found in Section 18, Ellington Township, 
Outagamie County. 

3. Cache of four found beneath a stump near Boltonville, 
Washington County. 

4. Cache of eight found in 1904 by Seymour Harris with- 
in the limits of New Lisbon, Juneau County. 

5. Cache of six reported found on the east shore of Pe- 
waukee Lake, Waukesha County. 

6. Cache of three found at the corner of Pearl and Eliza- 
beth Streets, in Janesville, Rock County. 

A few sets of these knives have accompanied interments 
in mounds. A set of eighteen were obtained by Dr. Al- 
phonse Gerend in the excavation of a mound located on the 
edge of the Sheboygan Marsh, in Sheboygan County. These 
were found near the right and left hands of a burial and 
were wrapped in pieces of rawhide. Three of these imple- 
ments accompanied a burial in a mound at Lisbon, Wauke- 
sha County. 

No attempt to plot the distribution of these notched blue 
hornstone knives in Wisconsin has yet been made. This 
may be possible with the cooperation of collectors of Indian 
implements. We know that in eastern Wisconsin they range 
at least as far to the north as the shore of Green Bay and 
that at least one specimen has been found in Chippewa 
County in northern Wisconsin. Their northward distribu- 
tion in the Mississippi Valley counties remains to be deter- 
mined. The secretary will be pleased to receive informa- 
tion on this subject from members and friends located in 
these and other parts of the state. 

Concerning the distribution and frequency of occurrence 

"Turkey-Tail" .Points. loi 

of these blue hornstone implements in the neighboring 
states of Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota 
there is a deplorable lack of information. Published arche- 
ological reports contain very little information concerning 
them. We look to our brother archeologists in those states 
to rectify this lack of data. By every right both caches of 
these implements and single specimens should be quite nu- 
merous in Indiana and Illinois. We should expect to find 
them not uncommon also in southern Michigan and eastern 
Iowa. Moorehead has figured a single specimen secured by 
Harlan I. Smith in the Saginaw Valley, Michigan. He 
states that this form "is peculiar to Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan, Canada, etc."* He also illustrates a specimen from 
Tennessee. The finding of a cache of six in Christian 
County, Kentucky, is mentioned. We would expect them to 
be of not uncommon occurrence in these states south of the 
Ohio River. 

During the month of November 1929 the writer wrote to 
Mr. H. C. Shetrone, director of the Ohio State Archaeologi- 
cal and Historical Society, at Columbus, for information 
concerning these interesting knives. To this communica- 
tion Mr. Shetrone replied also enclosing outline drawings 
of specimens of thes-e and several related forms in the col- 
lections of the Ohio State Museum. 

"These specimens, conforming to a very definite type and 
made exclusively, insofar as I am aware, of the hornstone 
or nodular flint, presumably from the Wyandot Cave region 
of southern Indiana, are most intriguing. I had known that 
their distribution is rather wide but I am surprised to find 
them occurring as far north as Wisconsin. 

"Whether or not they are peculiar to any given 'culture' 
I have been unable to determine. This particular variety 
of flint was used by the Hopewell peoples but I cannot say 
that the specific type is theirs. The type is purely a double 
pointed oval with or without notches, usually notched how- 
ever. I consider the two specimens which you outline as 
being identical, the only difference being that one has re- 
ceived the notches. 

"A number of caches of this interesting type have been 

* Prehistoric Implements. 


found in Ohio, the most notable being one of more than a 
hundred specimens, ranging in size from three inches to 
more than one foot, found not more than fifteen inches be- 
low the surface in excavating for a basement near Chilli- 
cothe, Ross County.* The place of the finding of this cache 
was immediately adjacent to the Mound City Group, Hope- 
well culture, but since they were unaccompanied by any 
other objects there was nothing to indicate definitely affin- 
ity with Hopewell. Their wide distribution, close conform- 
ity to type and the fact that they are made from identical 
or very similar nodular or concretionary chert or hornstone 
is very striking. 

"As of possible interest to you I am outlining several 
specimens from the Chillicothe cache, and some others from 
another cache found near Fort Ancient and constituting 
absolutely the highest artistic development in flint-chipping 
which we have observed here in Ohio/' 

The Fort Ancient cache was one of forty-five specimens. 
These differ in form from those of the Chillicothe cache and 
those in the Wisconsin caches in that they have longer and 
more substantial tangs, larger and deeper notches giving a 
pronounced shoulder with a suggestion of a barb. The 
edges of the blade from the base nearly to the middle are 
nearly parallel or slightly curved. From the middle they 
curve to the point. These also are narrower implements 
than those commonly included under the head of "turkey- 
tail" points. Their shape and stout tangs would permit 
their use as spearpoints, which they probably were. Imple- 
ments of this particular form also occur in Wisconsin. 

From them it is only a step to the stemmed blue horn- 
stone spearpoint. For the present at least we may conclude 
that the blue hornstone disks (of which 8,000 were obtained 
from one of the Hopewell Mounds) the double-pointed 
hornstone knives, the "turkey-tail" knives, the notched 
spearpoints, and the stemmed spearpoints, and perhaps 
other implements made of this attractive material, can all 
be traced, to the workshop sites of the same prehistoric 
aboriginal people. It will be interesting to learn through 
the future investigations of the archeologists of Indiana, 

* Probably the Spetnagel Cache. 

"Turkey-Tail" Points. 103 

Ohio and Illinois just where these workshops were situated, 
how the hornstone was obtained and transported, and who 
these people probably were. Brother archeologists in many 
states will be 'pleased to have this and other information 
which should be procurable. Implements of various kinds 
made of this fine and attractive material are very numerous 
throughout the states of the Middle West. 

To date no actual evidence, or only faint evidence, of the 
manufacture of any blue or brown hornstone inplements on 
Wisconsin workshop or village sites has been reported. 
Several unworked or roughly worked nodules have been re- 
covered. It would appear that most, if not all, of the speci- 
mens must have been brought to this region in their already 
finished state from centers of their manufacture, over well 
known trade routes. 

The largest blue hornstone "turkey-tail" knife as yet 
found in Wisconsin, a specimen from the Ellington Town- 
ship, Outagamie County cache, measures 9Vi inches in 
length and 31/2 inches in width at the widest part of its 
blade. It is in the H. P. Hamilton collection in the State 
Historical Museum. Only the fine specimen in the Chilli- 
cothe cache, measuring about 10% inches in length and 
about 2% inches in width, exceeds it in size. 


Louise Phelps Kellogg 

An Indian trail from time immemorial ran somewhat 
back from the Lake Michigan shore, connecting the three 
historic places of Chicago, Milwaukee, and Green Bay. It 
may have been there when heroic Tonty in 1680 wandered 
through the woods of southeast Wisconsin on his retreat 
from Illinois before the dreaded Iroquois. If so he and his 
companions did not find it, but stumbled on half-starved 
until rescued on the Sturgeon Bay portage trail by friendly 
Indians. No doubt the trail was worn in 1684 when La 
Durantaye, commandant at Green Bay, hastened to the aid 
of the beleaguered garrison on what is now known as 
"Starved Rock", on the Illinois River, near Ottawa. All 


through the eighteenth century there was communication 
between these three favored sites on Lake Michigan. Fur 
traders and voyageurs came and went, war's alarm was 
hurriedly carried from one place to another. During the 
American Revolution, it was at one time feared that Gen- 
eral George Rogers Clark would march north and capture 
Mackinac. The fort at that place was transferred to the 
island, where it has since remained ; detachments were hur- 
ried to the mouths of the Milwaukee and Chicago rivers; 
but Clark and his men never came nearer than Rock River, 
and the British officers retained control of Lake Michigan's 
shore until almost the close of the century. 

It was not until the Americans in 1816 built Fort Howard 
at Green Bay and rebuilt Fort Dearborn at Chicago, that 
this trail became an important link in the military occupa- 
tion of the Northwest, and troops, mail carriers, cattle 
drivers, and others than Indians began to use it. Travel 
by land was almost wholly confined to the winter months, 
the communication in summer being wholly by boats. At 
Fort Howard a soldier was detailed to make the long five 
hundred mile round trip with mail to Fort Dearborn and 
return. He went on foot with an Indian or half-breed com- 
panion, carrying both mail and provisions on their backs. 
The journey took a month in good weather and the mail- 
carrier was often delayed by storms and bad weather be- 
yond the customary time. It was a trip of great danger 
since there were no human habitations except at Milwau- 
kee, and later at Skunk Grove west of Racine until the 
vicinity of Chicago was reached where Antoine Ouilmette 
[Wilmette] cared for the weary travelers. 

One such mail carrier has given his route on the trail ; 
he said he saw the lake only at Two Rivers and Sauk River, 
now Port Washington, and again at Gros Point, Ouilmette's 
home. In detail the trail has been thus defined from Chi- 
cago northward. Starting at the north bank of Chicago 
River, now the end of the Michigan Boulevard bridge, the 
trail ran north along the height of land, on about what is 
now Rush Street to Chicago Avenue. Thus it turned north 
northwest a mile to the present intersection of Clark Street 
and North Avenue, then followed North Clark Street to 
Ridge Avenue, Evanston. The trail then turned at Demp- 

"Turkey-Tail" Points. 105 

ster Street into Greenwood Avenue, thence north to Simp- 
son Avenue, swinging in an eastward curve through Wil- 
mette. From here it ran north through Kenilworth to the 
Sheridan Road, which it followed almost to Lake Bluff. 
There it turned northwesterly to three miles west of Wau- 
kegan. Here the trail went due north and came into Wis- 
consin on what is now United States Highway 41. This 
road was followed to State Highway 50, five miles west of 
Kenosha, thence it ran west a short distance then turned 
north through what is now Franksville, passing five miles 
west of Racine. Thence it continued north through Cale- 
donia and Oak Creek, falling into what is now State High- 
way 15 at about the present town of Cudahy. From here 
the trail turned northwest, crossed Kinnikinnic Creek just 
beyond Twenty-second Avenue, Milwaukee, here again co- 
inciding with United States Highway 41. From this point 
what is now Forest Home Avenue was followed to Lincoln 
and Seventeenth Avenue, then to Vieau's post in the present 
Mitchell Park. From Vieau's place the trail followed the 
south bank of the river to Walker's Point, now South Water 
and Reed Streets. There the Milwaukee River was crossed 
either by swimming or later by -a ferry, and the line of 
East Water Street was followed to Juneau's post at the 
present East Wisconsin Avenue. 

On leaving Milwaukee those who followed the trail kept 
quite near the east bank of Milwaukee River up as far as 
the present Grafton or a little beyond. Thence they turned 
northeast to the lake shore at w^hat is now Port Washing- 
ton. From there the height of land was followed as far as 
Manitowoc Rapids, keeping near but not exactly on United 
States Highway 141 and following that from the Rapids all 
the way northwest to Green Bay. 

The trail which was worn deep by the moccasined feet 
of many Indians and white travelers was not a straight 
road, it wound in and out about obstacles or water courses 
and took its leisurely way along. After American settlers 
began to come in, they shortened the trail at many points, 
cutting across curves and straightening links in the old 
trail. In 1832 Congress passed a law to build a military 
road between Fort Dearborn and Fort Howard, but this did 
not become much of a road until 1838. Even then wagons 


could only go as far as Milwaukee and that only in the most 
favorable time of the year. 

The Wisconsin Society of Chicago has begun to mark this 
old trail and the early road which succeeded it with mark- 
ers a mile apart. A number have been set beside the road, 
and before long the entire road from Chicago to Green Bay 
will be carefully followed by these historic markers. 


In an address on "Mound Areas in the Mississippi Valley 
and the South" delivered by him at the Conference on Mid- 
western Archaeology, held at St. Louis, Missouri, on May 
18, 1929, Professor Warren King Moorehead, said of the 
Hopewell people and the so-named Hopewell culture:* 

"As to the origin of the Hopewell culture, I might offer a 
theory. Years from now, when explorations throughout 
the Mississippi Valley shall have been completed, more com- 
petent observers will probably solve the question of origins. 
My hypothesis may not be correct, although I desire to have 
it recorded. It cannot be set forth very briefly. 

"I have never believed that the Hopewell people origi- 
nated in the lower Scioto valley [in Ohio] . There is no evi- 
dence that they dominated Kentucky to the South, which is 
a buffer state between the Tennessee-Cumberland and the 
Ohio. The Kanawha valley has not been explored, but such 
specimens as are available indicate a considerable diver- 
gence from pure Hopewell. The Muskingum in eastern 
Ohio is probably Hopewell, or closely allied to it. No Hope- 
well objects were carried down into the South so far as we 
can ascertain. There may be some in Kentucky, but I am 
speaking generally, keeping in mind preponderance of evi- 
dence. Trade objects at Hopewell indicate a knowledge of 
the South, and that is more recent than the Southern works. 
"Far up in the Northwest have been found a few monitor 
or platform pipes, log burials occur in the Liverpool district 
(Illinois), human maxillaries worked into ornaments, and 
grizzly bear tusks favorite Hopewell trophies and some 
other objects. It may be, as claimed by some, that this in- 
dicates an offshot of Hopewell in southern Illinois, eastern 

The HopeweU People. 107 

Iowa, or central Wisconsin. With due respect to my dis- 
tinguished co-workers who differ with me in this matter, 
permit me to state that while objects may have been intro- 
duced through barter, or small colonies sent out by the home 
village, I do not believe that that is the correct solution. 

"My theory is to the effect that a certain band or tribe of 
Indians probably very early Algonkin reached or origi- 
nated in eastern Iowa. One branch may have worked up 
into Wisconsin. The other proceeded eastward through 
Illinois and Indiana to central Ohio. The objection to the 
southern theory of origin lies in the fact that the ceramic 
art so prominent in the South is not in evidence to any ex- 
tent in the Hopewell tumuli ; that is, they have found a few 
pots, but in the scores of mounds explored from whence 
they (Putnam, Mills, Shetrone and I) took hundreds of 
burials, it may be said that pottery is practically absent. 
On the Nettler farm in 1927 in one tumulus we found con- 
siderable pottery, six or seven typical Hopewell axes of cop- 
per, cut human jaws, etc. This is the region where it is 
now claimed there was distinct Hopewell development. 

"Mr. Charles C. Willoughby, who has given some atten- 
tion to the subject, is of the opinion that the solution to this 
mound problem lies in a complete study of symbolism, and 
that there were very highly developed mound cults regard- 
ing which, at present, we know little or nothing. He has 
not perfected his study of the earthwork and cosmic sym- 
bols as evidenced in copper, on bones, or presented by the 
earthworks themselves. All of us join in the hope that at 
some future time he will undertake this important investi- 


"I have purposely omitted the great Cahokia group from 
my remarks. It is in a class by itself. It is distinctly 
southern. Five seasons spent at that place in extensive 
work have not yet produced the mortuary edifice of these 
people. It is the largest known village north of Mexico, 
being, by actual tests, about six miles in extent. That so 
large a population made use of one or more structures for 
the interment of their distinguished dead no one doubts. 
Until this discovery is made, it is impossible for us to pre- 


sent conclusions worthy of the name concerning the Caho- 
kians, for, obviously, we cannot study art unless we possess 
art objects. 


"I have said nothing as to the origin of mound building 
in general in our country. That, as writers say, is another 
story and too lengthy to be inserted here. One might re- 
mark, however, that Mrs. Nuttall has found seven distinct 
comparisons between early Toltec art and our Etowah finds. 
Whether this is a mere coincidence, or whether it indicates 
that the Etowahans worked their way gradually from cen- 
tral Mexico to Georgia, is problematical. 

" A chief objection to this theory lies in the fact that it is 
some 1500 miles from the last tumuli of central, northern 
Mexico to the first mounds of size in eastern Texas. Indi- 
ans, familiar with mound building, would scarcely traverse 
1500 miles and leave no remains. Yet how are we to ex- 
plain [the presence of] the monolithic axe, idol heads, 
plumed serpent, seated figures, and other similarities?" 


In discussing Professor Moorehead's paper Professor 
Fay-Cooper Cole said : "I agree very heartily with Dr. 
Moorehead on the desirability of the study of skeletal mate- 
rial. However, we must not depend too much upon such 
studies for this reason: that if we go to any ethnological 
situation in California, for instance we find a very simi- 
lar culture spread over a large number of tribes and groups. 
If we consider our ethnological field in general we find a 
similar culture will spread over diverse physical groups. 
It is quite evident from the little work we have done in Illi- 
nois that there are several physical types in this culture 
area. While it is important to study skeletal material, the 
results obtained do not necessarily affect cultural history." 

Indian Trade Beads. 109 


The Museum of the American Indian has published a 
monograph by William C. Orchard on "Beads and Bead- 
work of the North American Indians." It covers this very 
interesting subject very fully and is finely illustrated. Of 
"Trade Beads" the author writes : "Early explorers in all 
parts of the world found beads of glass, porcelain, and 
metal so acceptable to the aborigines of the lands in which 
they traveled, that a flourishing industry was established in 
Venice for the manufacture of glass beads, in the early part 
of the 14th century, and probably before. Among these 
aboriginal peoples the Indians of America were no excep- 
tion, for they at once recognized the value of beads as a 
medium of exchange through which to express their estheti- 
cism and soon developed an art which has nowhere been 

"The variety of beads most commonly used as gifts and 
for trade was known as seed-beads, a flattened globular 
form ranging in size from about a sixteenth to an eighth 
of an inch or more in diameter. 

"The colors are of almost unlimited range. A preference 
prevailed, however, for bright red, blue, yellow, green and 
opaque white. Intermediate shades were acceptable, but 
were used sparingly in comparison with others. Beads of 
clear, colorless glass, commonly known as crystal, and black 
beads, were also used. The seed-beads were used chiefly 
for covering surfaces with fanciful designs, rather than for 
stringing as necklaces. Larger varieties of many forms 
were introduced for which other uses were found. These 
consisted of spherical, ovoid, tubular, and various bizarre 
shapes and sizes ; indeed they are in such great variety that 
only a representative selection can here be considered." 

He describes and figures a number of varieties of glass 
beads such as "star" or "chevron" beads, Moorish beads, 
corn kernel, and polychrome beads. He also discusses the 
trade values of beads such as were established by the Hud- 
son's Bay Company for their Indian trade. 



At the Conference of Midwestern Archaeology, held at 
St. Louis on May 18, 1929, Mr. Peter A. Brannon of the 
Alabama Anthropological Society presented an interesting 
account of urn burials in Alabama.* 

"The custom of placing the dead in pots at interment is 
said to have been a Choctaw culture indication ; if so, these 
people extended their influence as far east as the source of 
the Alabama River. The traditions of these people say they 
put the bodies out on pole racks or brush arbors when death 
occurred, and then when the flesh had sufficiently decayed, 
they gathered up the bones and buried them. The finding 
of a group of vessels suggesting that they were all placed 
in the grave at the same time corroborates these traditions. 

"Recent finds of pottery washed by the rains of early 
spring (1929) from their original deposit place, at a site 
known in later years as Autosse, in Macon County, indicate 
these people as having been far above their later descend- 
ants, as far as their cultural status went. The vessels are 
of a heavy earthenware, shell tempered, glazed with charred 
grease, and some of them of a capacity of eight gallons. 
One recent day's work by five members of our Society re- 
sulted in the taking out of eleven of these fine pots, all in a 
perfect condition. A number in fragments, beyond recov- 
ery, were also found. These had no skeletal remains in 
them and do not indicate a use other than economic. I be- 
lieve that they were used to store walnut oil, a commodity 
much prized in this section. 

"Less than thirty days ago, Edgar M. Graves, Dr. P. R. 
Burke and Howard H. Paulin of Montgomery located in a 
cache-like arrangement twelve urns, every one covered with 
a bowl, and all containing skeletal remains. The largest is 
twenty-six inches in diameter, about two feet deep, and had 
in it eight skulls and the larger number of the bones of 
these skeletons. Several were adults but there were also 
children and babies. Several of the other pots or urns had 
more than one skeleton in them. The smallest is just eight 
inches in diameter, but in it was the complete skeleton of a 

* Bull. Nat. Research Council, No. 74. 

Urn Burials in Alal>;mi:t. Ill 

baby. The arrangement of the group of vessels may have 
been intended to represent a constellation. The vessels were 
very close to the surface, in fact plowing had carried off 
the cover of one of them. 

"The first indication of this kind of an arrangement of 
vessels noted in this state was on this same stream, Pint- 
lala Creek, but nearer the mouth than those found in April 
of this year. Several years ago we found nine urns grouped 
around a central zone. In this case a vault-like placing had 
been attempted. A hole about twenty-five feet in diameter 
was apparently first cut in the solid red clay. Into this was 
poured quartz gravel, then periwinkle and river mussel 
shells from the kitchen middens or refuse piles, and into 
this ashes. 

"The vessels after arrangement were surrounded with 
layers of gravel, shell and ashes, and then covered with clay. 
This had been hardened by burning, indications of fires on 
the pile being very evident. 

"Frequently interments in the earth alone accompany 
those within the pots and are apparently contemporaneous. 
In most cases these are flexed; that is, bent up with the 
knees under the chin and sometimes with the elbow over the 
head. Occasionally, bark or wood slabs were used in cover- 
ing vessels, and in casing the loose burials, though usually 
an attractive bowl was used to cover the vessels. Burial- 
urns are nearly always of a thin, poor quality of earthen- 
ware, and suggest that they w r ere made altogether for this 
purpose, and rarely served any previous economic need. 
The bowls which we find serving as covers are nearly al- 
ways works of art, many having the ornamentation on the 
inside of the lip. No bowls and few pots have handles. 
Whenever a vessel does have handles, it is more apt to have 
six than four. In no case have we ever found a burial urn 
with legs. 

"The conventional roll-forward and loop-back serpent 
scroll design, and the design in some manner suggesting the 
rising sun, are the most common from central Alabama, 
while the woodpecker and the hand and eye are found most 
common in our Moundville culture. 

"Mr. Clarence B. Moore, of Philadelphia, first noted our 
urn burials. Those most prominently figured by him are 


located at Durants Bend on the Alabama River. In recent 
years, most of our finds have been in Lowndes County at a 
site passed by DeSoto in September, 1540, and noted by one 
of his chroniclers as "an old abandoned town." No evi- 
dences of European contacts have ever been suggested in 
connection with urn burials indicating that the custom was 
obsolete here before the explorers passed through." 


At Prairie du Chien in a hog yard, which occupies a part 
of a former Indian village site, probably prehistoric, a cache 
or deposit of three stone adzes was recently found. Two of 
these large implements were each nearly a foot in length, 
the third was broken in two, only a half of it being recov- 
ered. The two perfect adzes each weigh about three pounds. 
They are long and narrow implements with a flat lower sur- 
face or base, and a ridged, slightly curved back. One ex- 
tremity is pointed and the other ground to a cutting edge. 
They are triangular in section. In their form they are like 
other implements of this character which have been found 
in the state and are preserved in Wisconsin museums. 
Doubtless they were once mounted, or intended to be mount- 
ed, on stout wooden handles. These adzes are considered 
by archeologists to have been wood-working tools and were 
probably used in shaping timbers, shaping and excavating 
dugout canoes, and in performing similar woodworking 
tasks, with or without the aid of fire. The smaller speci- 
mens could be best employed in the fashioning of both up- 
right and horizontal mortars, sap troughs, wooden bowls 
and similar utensils. 

In 1903 Mr. H. A. Crosby published in The Wisconsin 
Archeologist the first known description of specimens of 
this class of Indian stone implements. He described nine 
of these adzes these being found on Indian sites located at 
different places in Racine, Sheboygan 2 , Columbia, Richland 2 , 
Vernon, Wood and Waupaca counties, a rather wide dis- 
tribution in southern Wisconsin.* Illustrations of two of 
these implements were given. The specimens described 

* V. 2, No. 4, 91-93. 

Cache of Indian Stone Ad/cs. 113 

were from six to eighteen inches in length. The largest 
was obtained on the old Richland City village site, in Rich- 
land County. 

Since the publication of this paper, twenty-seven years 
ago, additional examples of these implements, in large and 
small sizes, and occasionally broken, have been found on 
Indian sites in Waukesha, Rock, Dane, Dodge, Sauk, Win- 
nebago and Crawford counties. Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, the 
well-known Milwaukee collector, at a recent meeting of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society, exhibited a series of six 
of these triangular adzes, all being especially fine speci- 
mens. The largest of these, 16 inches in length, was ob- 
tained in Sumpter Township, Sauk County. The others 
came from Richland Township, Richland County; Pewau- 
kee Township, Waukesha County; Fox Lake Township, 
Dodge County; Omro Township, Winnebago County, and 
Vernon Township, Waukesha County. The smallest was 
about seven inches in length. Mr. Ringeisen also exhibited 
three adz-celts at this time, one of these, a most unusual 
form, having a groove across its back between the middle 
of the implement and its poll. This specimen and another 
ungrooved adz-celt were found lying together on an Indian 
site in Norway Township, Racine County. Doubtless these 
adzes were implements in fairly common or at least occa- 
sional use at many early aboriginal villages and the recov- 
ery of many more is to be looked for in coming years. Mem- 
bers and friends are requested to report the finding of such 
specimens to the secretary's office. 

It will be interesting to learn whether such implements 
also occur in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and 
Minnesota. We request our members and friends in those 
states to be on the lookout for them and to report them in 
order that more information may be available concerning 
their distribution. Photographs, sketches, measurements, 
weights, and other descriptive and historical data should be 

Mr. W. J. Wintemberg of the National Museum of Can- 
ada, Ottawa, mentions the finding of a number of broken 
specimens on a site in eastern Canada.* These are very 

* 1928 Report. 


similar to our Wisconsin specimens in form. These he says 
seem to have been from about 8 to 10 inches long. He has 
not seen adzes of the same type anywhere else in eastern 
Canada. He was interested to learn of their occurrence in 


In a paper presented at the Geography Conference of the 
Michigan Schoolmasters' Club in April 1929, Dr. W. B. 
Hinsdale, an honorary member of the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society, presented a very interesting paper on 
"Trade and Lines of Overland Travel of the Michigan In- 
dians." From this paper, with the author's kind permis- 
sion, we take the liberty of extracting some information 
which our members may find of particular interest. We re- 
gret that the entire paper may not be re-printed. 

In his paper, which is accompanied by a map, the author 
describes the course of some of the important overland In- 
dian trails of the region lying east of the Mississippi River 
and which lead to or through the State of Michigan, one of 
these the well-known Chicago-Green Bay-Sault Ste. Marie 
trail, also passing through the State of Wisconsin. 

One of the most important of these old aboriginal trails 
had its beginning on the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, on 
the northwest coast of Florida. From this place it ran 
northward through the country of the Muskhogean tribes 
in Georgia, crossed Tennessee, then crossed Kentucky to 
Cumberland Gap. It crossed the Ohio River and passed up 
the east side of the Scioto River in Ohio. From the head- 
waters of this stream it passed on to the Sandusky River 
and up its west side to Sandusky Bay of Lake Erie. In 
Kentucky this trail was the famous "Warriors Path" of 
early American history. A main trail from the Georgia 
coast united with this trail in eastern Tennessee. "Over 
these lines, many of them, went Michigan copper and back 
came shells from the Gulf". 

The Potomac Trail from the shore of Chesapeake Bay 
passed through Maryland and West Virginia to the Scioto 
in Ohio crossing the Allegheny Mountains on its way. Its 
course is in part followed by the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 

Indian Overland Travelways. 115 

road. From the point where this trail reached the Ohio 
River a trail ran northward to the shore of Lake Erie. 

"A most important line of travel coming into Michigan 
and now paralleled by great arteries of commerce, was the 
Great Trail, probably so designated because of its special 
importance in Indian and pioneer affairs. Its eastern 
branches came from the country around Chesapeake and 
Delaware Bays. It connected with two or three branches 
as it bent around the west end of Lake Erie, and the Sauk 
or Chicago Trail. It was a continuous path between the 
tidewater and the Great Lakes. Over it, in prehistoric and 
historic times, traveled men, savage and civilized, upon mis- 
sions of vital importance in their domestic and political af- 
fairs. For uncounted years, moccasin-footed Indians, then 
Indians upon ponies, soldiers mounted and on foot, pioneers 
with ox-teams and travelers in stage coaches, all upon some 
mission or other, war, adventure, trade, chase, exploration, 
home-seeking, passed over this trail. From the East the 
trail came to the junction of the Monongahela and Alleg- 
heny Rivers, which form the Ohio where Fort Pitt and 
afterwards Pittsburg were built." From this point the 
trail extended to the Ohio border, then continued almost 
due west and forded the Tuscarawas at the site of old Fort 
Laurens. Then it ran in a westerly direction to Mohican 
Johns Town. A few miles west of this place it bent north- 
westerly, passing Sandusky Bay of Lake Erie to Perrys- 
burg at the Maumee Rapids. One branch extended west 
from this ford of the Maumee, turned northwest and en- 
tered Michigan, where Morenci is now situated. It con- 
tinued northward and joined the main Chicago trail. The 
main trail bent north to where Toledo is now located. 

"The Shore Trail, as it is known historically, followed the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, going east from the various 
Michigan trails that converged at Toledo. It paralleled the 
Great Trail to Sandusky Bay where the two met and 
parted. The Shore Trail then led on to Erie, Pennsylvania, 
and to Buffalo and Niagara, New York. In western New 
York the same kind of branching of the main trail that 
existed at its western end made connections with various 
points in the Iroquoian territory. The direct Iroquois trail 
followed down the Mohawk River to the Hudson. There 


were trails leading from the Hudson River to Massachu- 
setts Bay. The Shore Trail led through bloody country ; the 
country that had been held by the unfortunate Erie or Cat 
Tribe, who were virtually exterminated by the Five Na- 
tions, their own relatives. The highway from Cleveland 
and other cities of the Lake Erie shore followed closely the 
old Shore Trail." 

"The Mohawk Trail was an extension of the Shore Trail 
connecting the middle west with the Hudson and points 
east. Not only were there trails to New England but there 
was, for instance, a branch of the Mohawk Trail in west 
central New York going to the old Iroquois town, Tioga, in 
northern Pennsylvania where the Chemung joins the Sus- 
quehanna. It was the gateway towards the Chesapeake and 

"The Sauk or Chicago Trail. There was a trail connect- 
ing Detroit with the Sauk town at the confluence of the 
Rock with the Mississippi in Illinois. The old road from 
Detroit to Chicago follows this route to a point near La 
Porte, Indiana. It deflects around the head of Lake Michi- 
gan and leads on through Chicago to the wild rice fields of 
Green Bay, the Lakes of Wisconsin and far away to the 
copper mines of Lake Superior. Article 6 of the Treaty of 
Chicago, August 29, 1821, states: The United States shall 
have the privilege of making and using a road through the 
Indian country, from Detroit and Fort Wayne, respectively, 
to Chicago.' As a matter of fact what has been referred to 
as the Sauk or Chicago Trail was only a small section and 
finally a branch of a two-thousand mile thoroughfare. Un- 
der the name of the Montreal Trail we mention a branch 
which crossed the Detroit River and went through Canada 
to Niagara Falls and Montreal. That part of this long path 
that extends through Michigan is now known as Trunk 
Line U. S. 112. 

"Montreal Trail. According to maps of John H. Eddy, 
1816, and Thomas Hutchins, 1778, a road, which undoubt- 
edly had been a very old trail coming from Montreal and 
following the Chicago Trail from Detroit, branched off 
from Fort St. Joseph and led south to the Tippecanoe River 
in Indiana to Prophet's Town and Quiatanon upon the Wa- 
bash. From this village there was water communication by 

Indian Overland Travel wa vs. 117 

way of the Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to New 
Orleans, the total distance being given by Eddy as 1,871 

Besides the long trails here described the author also 
gives the courses of several of the more important trails of 
the State of Michigan, among these being the Saginaw 
Trail, the Grand River Trail, and the "Territorial" and 
"Pottawatomie" Trails. 

In discussing incentives to travel the author says: "At 
what stage in culture men became traders and engaged in 
commerce is a question that anthropologists may not have 
settled, although it is probably true that they became trav- 
elers and hunters before they traded. One of the differen- 
tiating traits between the prehuman and human stage was 
the development of cultures. The wants of animals are 
fully gratified with food and life-preserving shelter. Man 
wants more. He has acquired desires for something besides 
food and protection from heat, cold and storm. Early in 
his quest for what nature did not supply immediately, he 
looked for materials to be wrought into implements. Later, 
he began to give the products of his hands a kind of em- 
bellishment, that is, a neatness in form and finish. He ac- 
quired a fancy for colorful flint and stone. This may have 
been the beginning of the aesthetic sense, although it is 
probable that, earlier, such sense was manifested by per- 
sonal adornment. A simple arrow head will illustrate. 
There was a necessity for such a tool or weapon which a 
rough chert nodule near home would satisfy; but later the 
workman strove to have his arrow look pleasing to the eye, 
as well as adapted to the hand, after it was finished, so he 
went afield searching for materials with texture and color 
that had the desired qualities. He began to travel for other 
purposes than the securing of food. He made contacts with 
others in distant parts who had something he wanted and 
took with him something that those others would take in 
exchange. They "swapped" ; the beginnings of barter, the 
first step in commerce." 

"It is not necessary here to discuss the beginnings of 
commerce, because the aborigines of the region under sur- 
vey were sufficiently advanced to be engaged in it, however 
acquired. It may be stated that there were three major in- 


centives to primitive travel. There was the hunt for food 
quest, there was war, and there was the search for mate- 
rials to be used in the industrial and decorative arts. Of 
course, these three factors often worked together, as when 
upon expeditions of hostility, the warriors had to hunt for 
subsistence. In case a war party was victorious, trophies 
varying from prisoners to accoutrements were brought 
back. The New York Iroquois, for instance, ranged as far 
as the Black Hills. Returning, victorious with captives and 
spoils, they lost implements along the path or fragments of 
choice pipestone; at least such an explanation would ac- 
count for the occasional finding of artifacts made of ob- 
sidian and catlinite in the southern parts of the state. The 
illustration may show how foreign specimens may have be- 
come scattered about. Copper from the Lake Superior 
mines traveled as far as the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. 
Shells from the Gulf have been found in a great many 
Michigan burial grounds, and it would appear that the In- 
dians had a peculiar and reverential fondness for them 
when they were made into ornaments and implements. 
Artifacts that must be regarded as intrusive and obtained 
either by trade, raids, or brought by sojourners from a dis- 
tance, are found in our fields. The numerous occurrences 
in ancient graves of articles made of materials not natural 
to the vicinity is proof of the extent and variety of early 
commerce on all of the continents." 

"What has been said must have convinced the reader that 
the Indians traveled considerably, and that communication 
was more developed than is, perhaps, commonly supposed. 
The Indian had no draft animal except the dog, no wheeled 
vehicle, but he was strong and inured to outdoor life, and 
traveled long distances both by canoe and on foot. As with 
the waterways he used the trails in war, in trade, in the 
hunt, and for various other purposes, from local visiting, 
we may suppose, to general wanderlust. In the course of 
events some trails became specialized as war trails, or hunt- 
ing routes, and these uses, linking up with the general geo- 
graphical and cultural situation, were important thereafter 
as determiners of the social process. 

"The Indian was not in all cases the first or only one to 
locate the paths. Deer and buffalo also had the habit of 

Indian Overland Travelways. 119 

filing through the forest and across the openings. 'With an 
instinct no less shrewd than that displayed on the highland 
trail, the buffalo and the Indian found with great sagacity 
the best crossing-places over the streams of America.' 
Many of our substantial and costly bridges are built over 
streams at places the Indian had located as the most fea- 
sible crossings. By trial and error, the large ruminants 
and Indians chose the best possible paths, avoiding obstruc- 
tions and mire, and selecting hard ground, not failing, by 
almost uncanny cunning, to come out at a point aimed for. 
These were not blazed trails. Blazing was a white man's 
invention. The Indian had other and just as unfailing 
signs for picking the way as if he had blazed. 

"Many of our present roads follow these ancient high- 
ways. Those that do not follow the points of the compass, 
that turn and slant by diagonals and wind with curves for 
long distances are generally pursuing the courses of the old 
trails. The stages of change have been about as follows : 
the Indian's narrow foot-paths, 'cleared road', corduroy 
road, dirt road, gravel pike, cement highway; although a 
few went through the stage of 'planking.' ' 

In the closing paragraph of his paper the author says: 
"The trails which they made were involved in their decline 
and our rise. The native tribes had thus prepared helps for 
their own subjugation when the subduers arrived. They 
had covered the entire country, like a prodigious spider- 
web, with a network of trails through the forests and moun- 
tain passes and across the plains, connecting village with 
village, running to hunting grounds and bodies of water 
whence many derived the large part of their food supplies. 
Along these foot paths, with or without resistance, the In- 
dian himself frequently acting as guide, the white intruders 
pushed their way into the new country. The streams which 
served them so well became tracks for the conqueror also, 
when the Indians' tool, the canoe, had been borrowed. Had 
it not been for these threads in the wilderness labyrinth, 
in Michigan as much or more than elsewhere, white occu- 
pancy would have been prevented or slowed down for many 
years. It was by the Red Man's own methods of communi- 
cation that he was compelled "slowly and sadly to climb the 
distant mountains and to read his doom in the setting sun." 



During the past summer the writer was given the oppor- 
tunity of visiting under the guidance of Mr. George F. Will, 
well-known archeologist, and Mr. Russell Reid, curator of 
the State Historical Museum of North Dakota, a consider- 
able number of the old Mandan and other Indian village 
sites located along the Missouri River near Bismarck. 

Among these sites was the one which Mr. Will has de- 
scribed as the Huff Mandan site and which is located on 
the steep bank of the Missouri near the settlement called 
Huff.* This site was visited and surveyed by Mr. Will and 
Dr. H. J. Spinden in 1919. This is Mr. Will's description 
of it, which in his report is accompanied by a map : 

'This site proved perhaps the most interesting of any 
visited, especially because it is in the best-preserved con- 
dition of any of the ancient sites, never having been plowed 
or materially disturbed. Some of the other nearby sites 
may have been presented as interesting and unusual fea- 
tures, but they are now so nearly obliterated that it is im- 
possible to tell. The map made showed many features 
which differentiated this site from any of the others, the 
most prominent feature being its almost perfectly rectang- 
ular shape. The rectangle lying along the high bluff over- 
looking the river is well outlined by a wall and ditch, still 
of considerable depth, with a number of regularly placed 
bastions. The river side is protected only by the very pre- 
cipitous bank. An area of about twelve acres is enclosed 
within the wall, making this perhaps the largest enclosed 
site we have found. Most of this site is owned by the North 
Dakota Historical Society. 

"A coulee cuts into the bluff a short distance beyond both 
the north and south ends of the site. A bastion occurs at 
each corner as well as those at regular intervals along the 
three sides. Within the wall the ground is now compara- 
tively level, although the house rings are easily distinguish- 
able. Apparently the site has drifted in with sand and dust, 
as very little trace of occupancy can be found without dig- 
ging well down beneath the present sod. The house rinj 

* Anthro. Papers, The Am. Mus. of Nat. Hist., B. XXII, pt. VI. 

Huff Mandan Village Site. 121 

are spaced much further apart than usual and seem to be 
laid out more or less in lines or rows with linear areas that 
might pass for streets. Pottery found here seems to re- 
semble strongly that from Fort Rice, and the Schermer 
and Glencoe sites, although it was much more difficult to 
find in quantities since none of the area had been plowed. 
In connection with the unusual features of this site, it is 
interesting to recall its traditional importance. Supposedly 
this is the site of the first village built by the culture-hero 
chief, Good Furred Robe, when the Mandan reached this 
vicinity. One Mandan tale relates that the site was laid 
out with straight lines, the houses more or less in rows, to 
imitate the laying out of a field of corn, all as directed by 
the chief. A number of the oldest stories are also connected 
with this and the Eagle's Nose sites." 

Within this enclosure are 104 hut rings and a number of 
refuse heaps. This Huff site was of particular interest to 
the writer because of a general resemblance which it bears 
to the prehistoric stockade protected enclosure known as 
Aztalan and located on the bank of the Crawfish River near 
Lake Mills in Wisconsin. Both the Huff enclosure and that 
at Aztalan are U-shaped earthworks with the open side 
resting on a river bank. The river-front of the Aztalan 
earthwork was protected by a double line of upright tim- 
bers. The Huff site may have been similarly protected al- 
though there was not the same necessity here for such pro- 
tection since the Missouri River banks are here high and 
very precipitous. Future exploration of the site will deter- 
mine this. A prominent feature of the protecting earthen 
walls of both enclosures are the bastions or curved enlarge- 
ments which project from the walls. Dr. Lapham's survey 
of the Aztalan enclosure, made in 1850, shows eight of 
these projections along the north wall of the earthwork, 
sixteen along its west wall, and eight along its southern 
wall. The Huff site is a smaller enclosure than that at 
Aztalan. Its greatest length, measured from the river bank 
to near the railroad tracks is only about 700 feet, and its 
greatest width 600 feet. This enclosure has four bastions 
along its north wall, three along its west wall, and four 
along its south wall. 

Another North Dakota enclosure, the Schermer Site, also 


described and figured by Mr. Will, also possesses these en- 
largements along its walls. 'This site is one of those in 
which bastions play a part in the fortifications. A wall and 
ditch seem to have surrounded the whole site except along 
the bench edge and the wall projects at intervals into well 
made bastions." The Molander and Greenshield sites, and 
perhaps others, also have walls with bastion projections. 

These interesting resemblances of the Huff and Aztalan 
enclosures may be merely accidental but they offer food for 
serious thought. 



The Astor Fur Company prospected for copper and silver 
all along the south shore of Lake Superior in the early days 
of Wisconsin history. In about the year 1820 they seem to 
have paid particular attention to this exploration work. 
The Indians had been getting copper from the Brule, in 
Douglas County, in extreme northwestern Wisconsin early 
in the eighteenth century and carrying it as far east as 
Montreal. The traders there ascertained its source from 
the Indians and an expedition was organized to prospect for 
the mineral along this rushing stream. This the Jesuit 
Relations mention. 

In the early seventies another period of copper prospect- 
ing developed in the Lake Superior country. Gen. George 
B. Sargent, father of William C. Sargent, now of Duluth, 
headed a party of Eastern men in the copper exploration 
of the South Range. Associated with them was the noted 
geologist, James G. Percival. A promising location for cop- 
per was found on the Brule River, about nine miles up- 
stream from its mouth, and where the river crosses the 
"Range." Here there is a belt of amygdaloid, carrying na- 
tive copper. The rock formation is the same as that of the 
famous Calumet and Hecla of the northern Michigan dis- 
trict. The mine appears on a map as the Percival Loca- 
tion. Considerable prospecting was done, and much good 
copper was found, but the market price of the metal de- 
clined and for the lack of ready funds, the project was dis- 

Brule River Copper Sources. 123 

In 1890 another Boston company prospected these same 
lands, and for practically the same reasons exploration was 
discontinued. Native copper can be picked up around the 
old shafts, and it can be seen in the Brule River at about 
the contact of the sandstone and the trap rocks. If the 
price of copper metal ever goes back to where this copper 
can be mined profitably, there is no doubt but that paying 
mines could be located on this South Range, which is really 
the western extension of the Michigan copper belt. All of 
this territory is now interspersed with farms and summer 
homes. Many of the summer homes are very beautiful and 
are owned by people of extensive means, the owners being 
from all parts of the United States. 

Benjamin G. Armstrong mentions the possession of na- 
tive silver by Indians of the Lake Superior region in the 
forties, some or all of which must have come from localities 
or Indian workings along the Brule River. 



In a monograph published by the University of Califor- 
nia, Julian H. Steward, describes the known "Petroglyphs 
of California and Adjoining States", the adjoining states 
being Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Lower California.* The 
author explains in his introduction that the nucleus of his 
material "is the accumulation of many years at the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology of the University of California and 
is largely the contributions of private individuals." This 
data has been greatly added to by other contributions and 
extended correspondence. 

In Part II of his admirable contribution to our knowledge 
of American Indian pictography the author presents a gen- 
eral consideration of his subject. This we take the liberty 
of quoting in part for the information of our own co-work- 
ers and for such other interested persons to whom this 
monograph may not be accessible, or readily accessible. 

"The practice of making petroglyphs and pictographs is, 
or has been, world-wide. There is not a continent which 
does not have abundant examples of petrography. In 


America there are countless sites outside our area. They 
have been found in all parts of the United States, in Can- 
ada, and in Mexico, and groups are described from all of 
the regions of South America. Most of these groups are 
petroglyphs but this is to be expected in view of the greater 
perishability of pictographs." 

"As a rule, all examples of petrography are extremely 
crude. From the point of view of art and execution they 
are vastly inferior to ceramic, textile or other decorative 
arts. It is only in such regions as Central America, where 
stone sculpturing reached a high perfection, that they are 
really good. Here, however, stone sculpturing was a spe- 
cialty and the elaborate, nicely finished carvings can hardly 
be designated as 'petroglyphs'." 

Mr. Steward presents a discussion of petroglyphs and 

"It is probably unfair to put too much emphasis on petro- 
glyphs as products of art. In the first place, the difficulties 
of marking rough rock surfaces with sharp boulders pre- 
clude any high degree of finish. In the second place, the 
kind of figures represented and the localities in which the 
groups are placed show clearly that artistic merit was sec- 
ondary in the mind of the creator. Elaborate figures con- 
sisting of circles, wavy lines, rake designs, and a multitude 
of other indescribable geometric elements with human, ani- 
mal, and possibly plant representations worked in as parts 
of the designs; total lack of symmetry and not infrequent 
superimposition all with a general absence of care in exe- 
cution, can scarcely be regarded as attempts to give aes- 
thetic pleasure. The usual remoteness of these groups from 
habitation sites is a further indication that they were gen- 
erally not intended for the scrutiny of the community at 

"The technique of making petroglyphs is usually simple. 
A comparatively smooth and even rock surface, usually 
vertical, is chosen and the characters are formed by peck- 
ing with a hammerstone. Small boulders showing unmis- 
takable evidence of such use are frequently found in asso- 
ciation with petroglyphs. Sometimes rubbing is also em- 
ployed. Most figures show clear evidence of hasty or care- 
less execution. Straight lines are seldom straight, wavy 

IVtroylyphs and Viet o.^ra phs. 125 

and zigzag lines are uneven, circles are rarely true, and the 
few attempts at symmetrical figures fall far short of true 
balance. Anyone who has attempted to make a petroglyph, 
however, knows that it is a laborious task, and that consid- 
erable pains are rewarded by very unpleasing results. 

"Petroglyphs are with few exceptions simple linear fig- 
ures. Geometric designs while often complicated in their 
combination of elements are generally simple in detail. 
They are seldom more than body, arms, legs, and head ; and 
while the general impression is good, details and nicety of 
finish are lacking. For this reason few quadrupeds can be 
identified. Mountain sheep are characteristically repre- 
sented by a crescent-shaped or roughly oval body of solid 
pecking with four "pins" of legs, and a shapeless head. 
Ears are usually omitted but the long, recurving horns of 
the ram are clearly represented. Deer (or elk) may usu- 
ally be distinguished by their antlers. But to venture a 
guess concerning the identity of other quadrupeds is ex- 
tremely hazardous. Humans are likewise crudely done." 


Of these he writes : "Pictographs as a rule are superior 
in form to petroglyphs. Lines are straighter, symmetry 
greater, and general execution is superior. We have no evi- 
dence of the method employed in making them, but assume 
that some kind of a simple brush was used. 

'The colors comprise red, black, white, yellow and orange. 
lue and green have been reported from Modoc county, 
California, but are rare. Red is by far the most common 
color in all areas. Black and white are next in importance 
in Modoc county, the Santa Barabara-Tulare county re- 
gions, and north eastern Arizona. We cannot definitely 
state the ingredients used since few analyses have been 
made of the pigments. Red, however, is probably often 
haematite or ocher and possibly cinnabar ; black is charcoal 
or some manganese compound; white may be lime; yellow 
is probably ocher. Many mortars containing traces of pig- 
ment show that the paint was probably mixed with grease 
and ground in these." 



In order to ascertain the relationships of the petrographs 
of the California and adjoining regions the author has 
analyzed the component designs, which make up the bulk 
of the petrographs, into fifty elements. Of these design 
elements those which are found to be generally distributed 
include concentric circles, wavy or zigzag lines, human fig- 
ures, the sun disk, quadrupeds, mountain sheep, hands, 
human or bear tracks, spirals, snakes, stars, and dots. By 
means of a series of maps he shows the frequency and dis- 
tribution of each of these within the entire area. 

Other elements are found to occur in certain parts of the 
entire area, thus connected circles and netting, circle chains, 
bisected circles, connected dots, circular and rectangular 
gridirons, sheep's horns, cross-hatchings, angular meanders, 
bird tracks, rain symbols, outlined crosses and concentric 
diamonds are found in petroglyphs in the Great Basin and 
Lower California; parallel zigzags in southwestern Cali- 
fornia; lizards, spoked wheels, two-edged saws, ladders, 
herringbones and rake designs in California, and dotted 
lines, cogged wheels, human figures, pelts, many-legged in- 
sects, centipedes and others in the Santa Barbara and Tu- 
lare regions. In Utah and Arizona representations of liz- 
ards, birds and Jtachina-like figures .are found. Of scat- 
tered distribution in southern California and Arizona are 
designs representing mazes, the horned toad, horned hu- 
mans and men on horseback. 

In discussing the meanings and purpose of petroglyphs 
and pictographs the author says: "The meaning and pur- 
pose of petroglyphs and pictographs can only be ascertained 
through careful study of the art and symbolism of present 
Indian groups and a comparison of these with pictographic 
elements." He points out that "many attempts have been 
made by various authors to deal with this vexing problem. 
Some explanations are guesses which fall within the bounds 
of probability. Others are theories of extreme absurdity 
and have not the least iota of truth." "Innumerable at- 
tempts have been made to ascertain the meanings from 
Indians living at present in the regions where they occur. 
These have invariably met with failure. The Indians dis- 

Potrog'lyphs and 1 Mcto.^ra plis. 127 

claim all knowledge of their meaning or origin. This can 
hardly be due to reticence for intelligent Indians have them- 
selves made efforts to ascertain something about the in- 
scriptions with no success. 

"We know that petrography was done by Indians. And, 
as pointed out, even the oldest petroglyphs probably do not 
date back more than a few thousand years at the most. 
Most of the groups are probably made by the ancestors of 
present day tribes living at or near the regions of the 

"Since design elements and style are grouped in limited 
areas, the primitive artist must have made the inscriptions 
with something definite in mind. He must have followed a 
pattern of petrography which was in vogue in his area. He 
executed, not random drawings, but figures similar to those 
made in other parts of the same area. The elements of de- 
sign, then, must have had some definite significance which 
was the same over wide areas. 

"We can probably never know precisely why many of the 
petroglyphs and pictographs were made. But we can guess 
that many of them were made for some religious or cere- 
monial purpose. 

Attention is called to a custom of certain Pacific Coast 
tribes in which boys and girls made pictographs during 
their puberty ceremonies. These represented animals and 
objects seen by them in dreams. Other petroglyphs prob- 
ably had to do with the hunt, or with the magical increase 
of game. Other realistic figures "were possibly clan sym- 
bols, individual guardian spirits, or shamans powers." 

Some petroglyphs are "perhaps of Basjket Maker culture 
which dates back to 1500 to 2000 B. C. Some are evidently 
Cliff Dweller or early Pueblo culture and some others of 
Apache or Navajo origin." 

"Underlying the petrography of the areas discussed in 
this paper there was undoubtedly an older and more wide- 
spread development of this art. In widely separated parts 
of both North and South America are found innumerable 
groups of both petroglyphs and pictographs. The wide- 
spread petroglyphs are frequently strikingly similar to 
those in our areas. The most common designs are curvi- 
linear and many are indistinguishable from those in Area 


Ao (Great Basin). Human representations, sun disks, con- 
centric circles, and wavy lines are found everywhere. Ani- 
mal representations are also widespread, and vary only 
with the local species. Hand prints, bear tracks, and bird 
tracks occur throughout the United States. 

"The relation of our area to other areas can be deter- 
mined only by a study of those areas. It may be that many 
of the geometric figures, particularly the curvilinear, are 
the natural result of crude conventionalization of symbolism 
and hence in separated areas represent many cases of inde- 
pendent origin with totally different purpose and signifi- 


"The Indians believe that thunder is the voice of an im- 
mense invisible bird that comes at times to warn them that 
the Great Spirit is displeased with something they have 
done, and that it always comes when the country is already 
storm-vexed, as the time is then opportune to add its voice 
to the naturally saddened feelings of the people, thereby 
making its presence more effective. The lightning they be- 
lieved to be flashes from the eyes of this enormous bird, 
and when the storm is fierce and the flashes vivid it is taken 
as a warning that their bad deeds are many and that their 
retribution must be great. When one is killed by the fluid 
they believe it is a judgment sent by the Great Spirit 
through the agency of this mysterious bird. 

"They call this bird Che-ne-me-ke. When they see dis- 
tant flashes of lightning and do not hear the voice, as they 
believe, of this great bird, they know it is at a distance, but 
still believe it is teaching a lesson to distant people and will 
soon be with them. But should a storm pass by without th< 
voice and the flashes coming near they they are happ: 
again, for they feel relieved, believing that the bird is not 
angry with them. They firmly believe this bird to be ai 
agency of the Almighty, which is kept moving about to kee] 
an eye on the wrong doings of the people. When a tree is 
stricken and set on fire, the lesson which it wishes to impart 


Thunderbird Lr^vml of tin- Post. 129 

has been given and the rain is sent to prevent the fire from 
destroying the country. 

"There is a point of land in this part of the country that 
the Indians call Pa-qua-a-wong meaning a forest destroyed 
by the great thunder bird. I have visited this place. It is 
now almost a barren. The timber which was once upon it 
having been destroyed by lightning the Indians believed 
that the storm bird destroyed this forest to show its wrath, 
that they might profit by the lesson. A hunting party of 
Indians was once caught on this barren in a thunder storm, 
and took refuge under the trunk of a fallen tree, which had 
been burnt sufficiently on the under side to give them shel- 
ter. One of the party, in his hurry to get out of the rain, 
left his gun standing against the log. The lightning struck 
it, running down the barrel and twisting it into many 
shapes, and destroyed it, and the owner of this gun was 
thereafter pointed out by the whole band as the person upon 
whom the storm bird desired to bestow its frowns. (Ben- 
jamin Armstrong, Early Life Among the Indians.) 

Pa-qua-a-wong was the Chippewa Indian name for the 
locality on the Chippewa River, in Sawyer County, known 
as The Post, and where an Indian trading post and Indian 
settlement was for many years located. 

It is interesting to note how, even among the Christian 
Indians of our Wisconsin reservations, this superstitious 
belief in the thunderbird, or a flock of these storm birds, 
persists. Last year a prominent Potawatomi was asked 
whether he had noticed a thunderstorm which passed dur- 
ing the night. He replied that he had, and that he greatly 
regretted that he had had no Indian tobacco at hand to offer 
to the thunderer. 

Some spherical stones obtained from a Winnebago Indian 
were said to be thunderbird eggs or arrows, and were be- 
lieved by him to be a protection against lightning strokes. 
Similar thunder stones were collected among the pagan 



Winneboujou, the blacksmith, was an all-powerful mani- 
tou. His forge was near the Eau Claire Lakes, in northern 
Wisconsin. He used the highest flat-topped granite peak 
for his anvil. Here he shaped the mis-wa-bik, or native 
copper of the Brule River region, into various useful weap- 
ons and implements for the Chippewa Indians. He was es- 
pecially skillful at shaping the strong copper spear points 
and fishhooks required for the catching of the giant sen-e- 
sug-ge-go, or speckled trout, which abounded in the clear 
spring waters at the Lake Superior mouth of the Brule. 

Much of Winneboujou's forging was done by moonlight 
and the ringing blows of his pe-wabik (iron) hammer were 
heard by the Indians even as far down the shore of Lake 
Superior as the Sault Rapids. These booming noises yet 
echo down the Brule Valley and the Lake region, especially 
on clear, moonlight nights. The glow of his forge fire often 
lit up the entire sky. 

The sound of the smith's great hammer was considered 
"good medicine" by the Chippewa, and was held in great 
awe by the visiting Sioux. An Indian, hearing the noise 
became possessed with industry and strength. 

Winneboujou's summer home was on the Brule near its 
source because it was necessary for him to keep an eye on 
Ah-mik, the Beaver, a rival manitou, who might, if not 
watched, slip across the o-ne-gum (portage) to the St. Croix 
River, and then, by the way of the Mississippi River, reach 
the Gulf. (Chippewa Myth) 

Archeological Notes. 131 



October 20, 1929. President Huron H. Smith conducted the meet- 
ing. There were sixty-five members and visitors in attendance. Mr. 
John G. Gregory delivered an address on "The Milwaukee Indian 
Villages". The speaker described in a very interesting way the sev- 
eral Potawatomi Indian villages located in an early day in the east, 
south and west sides of the city. These he stated it was proposed to 
finally mark with tablets for the information of present and future 
residents of the city. His address was discussed by the Messrs. West, 
Brown, Schoewe and other members present. 

Mr. W. C. McKern presented a report on recent archeological in- 
vestigations and publications in other states. Secretary Charles E. 
Brown reported on the meeting of the Executive Board, held earlier 
in the evening. 

Mr. William H. Spohn, Madison, had been elected a life member 
of the Society. Annual members elected were Mrs. Rudolph Kuehne, 
Sheboygan; Albert H. Griffith, Fisk; Harvey W. Radke, West Bend; 
L. 0. Winterhalter, Maywood, Illinois, and W. C. Congdon, Logans- 
port, Indiana. W. S. Dunsmoor, a junior member, became an annual 
member. Charles Lapham, Milwaukee, a former annual member, was 
elected an honorary member. The deaths were announced of Mr. 
Arthur C. Neville, Green Bay; Mr. Rudolph Kuehne, Sheboygan, and 
Mr. John M. Wulfiing, St. Louis, charter members of the Society. 

It had been decided to unveil the marker on the Fourth and W. Wis- 
consin Avenue Potawatomi village site on the morning of October 29. 
This tablet, presented by Mr. Walter Schroeder, has been placed at 
the entrance of Hotel Schroeder. Mr. Gregory had been selected to 
give the unveiling address. 

Tablets had been erected during the summer on a group of mounds 
located in Forest Hill cemetery at Madison, and on the site of the 
Grignon-Porlier fur-trading post at Butte des Morts. A movement 
was progressing to preserve the old U. S. Indian Agency House at 
Portage. Mr. C. E. Broughton had caused the erection of a tablet on 
an Indian village site at Adell, Sheboygan County. A field meeting 
of members of the Society had been held at Mr. Robert J. Kieck- 
hefer's Pistaka farm preserve at Brookfield Corners, Waukesha 
County, on Saturday, June 15. 

Exhibits of archaeological specimens were made by C. E. Brown 
and C. G. Schoewe. 

November 17, 1929. This meeting was held at the log cabin of Mr. 
Robert J. Kieckhefer at Pishtaka Farm, at Brookfield. There were 
forty members and several guests in attendance. Mr. John G. Greg- 
ory, the speaker of the occasion, gave a talk on the "Early Indian 
Inhabitants of Milwaukee County" describing the chiefs and redmen 
which the earliest settlers found occupying the land. His account was 
very interesting and contained much information not recorded in 
county histories. Mr. Vetal Winn made a preliminary report on the 
condition of some Indian mounds located in Milwaukee and at West 
Allis. Mr. Arthur P. Kannenberg reported that he had undertaken 
a study of the Indian earthenware vessels of the state, the Oshkosh 
Museum agreeing to pay the expenses. The report to be published 
by the Society. 

President Smith informed the members that the meeting was prac- 
tically a house warming of Mr. Kieckhefer's fine log cabin retreat. 


Mr. Kieckhefer, being called upon spoke briefly expressing his 
pleasure at the number and enthusiasm of those in attendance. At 
the meeting of the Executive Board, held before the opening of the 
regular meeting, Mr. Kieckhefer was unanimously elected a member 
of the Board. 

Mr. T. M. N. Lewis and Mr. Milton K. Hulburt were elected mem- 
bers of the standing committee on Survey, Research and Record in 
recognition of their recent activities in survey and exploration work. 

Exhibits of specimens were made by Mr. Paul Joers and Mr. Ru- 
dolph Boettger. 

December 23, 1929. Meeting held in the trustee room of the Mil- 
waukee Museum. There were thirty members present. President 
Smith occupied the chair. Mr. Ira Edwards gave an illustrated lec- 
ture on "The Making of Maps," being an account of the methods 
employed by the U. S. engineers in making coast surveys. 

At the meeting of the Executive Board at which directors Smith, 
West, Brown, Kieckhefer, McKern and Koerner were present, Mr. 
W. H. Pugh of Racine was elected a life member and Mr. Arthur C. 
Soergel of Elgin, Illinois, an annual member of the Society. Mr. 
Smith announced the names of various members who were to be in- 
vited to engage in the study of various classes of Indian implements 
occurring in the state. Secretary Brown proposed that the site of the 
next early Milwaukee Indian village to be marked be that of the so- 
called Lime Ridge village located in an early day at 21st and Cly- 
bourne Streets, Milwaukee. This matter was referred to the special 
committee of which Messrs. West, Gregory and Brown are the mem- 

January 20, 1930. Meeting held at the Milwaukee Museum. Pres- 
ident Smith opened the meeting. There were sixty-three members 
and visitors present. Mr. George A. West gave an illustrated lecture 
on "The Ancient Cave Dwellings of France", describing particularly 
those near Toulouse visited by him during the early part of the past 
year. Mr. Joseph Ringeisen exhibited an exceptionally fine collection 
of nine stone adzes and adze-celts. 

At the Executive Board meeting held at the City Club Mr. McKern, 
chairman of the special committee consisting of the Messrs. Gilman, 
Dr. Kastner, Drs. Notz and Thome, appointed to consider plans for 
the entertainment of the Central Section, A. A. A., presented a tenta- 
tive report of his committee. Mr. George Flaskerd of Minneapolis 
was elected an annual member of the Society. Dr. Barrett stated 
that the Milwaukee Museum welcomed the cooperation of the Society 
in entertaining the Central Section. 

The Michigan State Archeological Society held its winter meeting 
at the University Museum at Ann Arbor, on Friday, January 24. 
Papers of interest to the members were presented by Dr. W. B. Hins- 
dale, Edward J. Stevens, Harry L. Spooner, Melvin R. Gilmore, Fred 
Dustin and Dana P. Smith. A visit was made to the exhibition rooms 
of the museum. 

Other Items 

Mr. Alonzo Pond has returned to Algiers to continue his hunt for 
remains of Aurignacian man in that country. Mr. George R. Fox has 
been conducting archeological researches in the Bahamas and else- 
where. Mr. Theodore T. Brown has succeeded the late Mr. Arthur 
C. Neville as superintendent of the Neville Public Museum at Green 
Bay. This is the seventy-fifth anniversary year of the State Histori- 
cal Museum of Wisconsin. Dr. Louise P. Kellogg has been selected 

ArclK'olog-ical Notes. 133 

to edit a new edition of "Wau-Bun". Col. Fred T. Best is the chair- 
man of the committee appointed to prepare for its publication. 

An announcement has been received of the publication of our late 
friend Mr. Harry Ellsworth Cole's book, "Stagecoach and Tavern 
Tales of the Old Northwest." The Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleve- 
land, are its publishers. "The Old Northwest was settled in the days 
before railroads, when every pioneer provided his own transportation 
and every cabin offered hospitality. Soon stagecoaches began to ply 
over the first primitive roads and certain frontiersmen adopted the 
profession of innkeepers others of bandits. In these early taverns 
and along these first roads occurred many amusing and tragic inci- 
dents, rich with the flavor of pioneer life and racy with the humor of 
the quaint personalities of the time/' 

tl, 1930 


. 3 








Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Charles G. Schoewe 


R. J. Kieckhefer Dr. A. L. Kastner 

W. W. Oilman Mrs. Theo. Koerner 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. C. McKern 

A. P. Kannenberg 


Dr. S. A. Barrett A. T. Newman Vetal Winn 

H. H. Smith E. F. Richter Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz L. R. Whitney T. L. Miller 

Geo. A. West 


G. M. Thorne 
National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. A. L. Kastner, J. P. Schumacher, W. F. 
Bauchle, Geo. F. Overton, M. F. Hulburt, T. M. N. Lewis, Dr. E. 
J. W. Notz, 0. L. Hollister, Dr. F. G. Logan, T. T. Brown, Dr. B. T. 
Best, S W. Faville, Col. R. S. Owen, G. L. Pasco. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Frank Weston, 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, Dr. Orrin Thompson, Mrs. F. R. Melcher, 
Col. Howard Greene, Rev. O. W. Smith, M. G. Troxell, H. W. Cor- 
nell, W. P. Morgan, Dr. E. G. Bruder, A. H. Griffith. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS L. R. Whitney, Col. Marshall Cousins, 
Mrs. Arthur C. Neville, Geo. A. West, W. M. Babcock, R. N. Buck- 
staff, Prof. J. B. MacIIarg, Dr. P. B. Jenkins, Rev. F. S. Dayton, 
A. P. Kannenberg, Mrs. May L. Bauchle, B. M. Palmer. 

MEMBERSHIP Louis Pierron, Paul Joers, A. R. Rogers, Arthur 
Gerth, Dr. W. H. Brown, Rud. Boettger, A. P. Cloos, Dr. H. W. 
Kuhm, Mrs. Anna F. Johnson, K. Freckman, Geo. Wright, Mrs. 
Hans A. Olson, Carl Baur, C. G. Weyl. 

D. S. Rowland. 

PUBLICITY J. G. Gregory, A. O. Barton, E. R. Mclntyre, R. K. Coe. 
BIOGRAPHY H. H. Smith, G. M. Thome, C. E. Brown. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeolog-ical Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Muesum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thome, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Mil- 


Vol. 9, No. 3, New Series 


Barbed Stone Axes, Charles E. Brown 139 

The Kohler Museum 143 

The Largest Copper Knives, Theo. T. Brown 145 

Dr. Louise Phelps Kellogg 147 

The Bear Dance of the Ouray Utes, Albert B. Reagan 148 

A Fluted Handled Celt 150 

Fraudulent Indian Implements 151 

The Central Section Meeting 152 

State Archeological Survey, 1920 154 

Gerard Fowke 157 

Hopewell and Cahokia Cultures in Wisconsin, W. C. McKern 160 

Archeological Notes 162 


Rudolph Kuehne Frontispiece 

Michigan Barbed Axes Facing Page 140 


Wisconsin Archeologist 

I'ublisluMl Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeoloftical Society 

Vol. 1> MADISON, WIS,, APRIL, 130 No. 3 

New Series 

Charles E. Brown 

The stone axes designated by Michigan archeologists as 
"barbed" axes are distinguished from other forms of 
grooved and notched axes in having a poll or head which is 
conical or "peaked" in outline and in having more or less 
prominent projections or "barbs" both above and below 
the handle groove. A few specimens have a poll with a 
flattened or rounded top (not "peaked") Some of these 
singular axes are merely deeply notched at the edges (they 
possess no groove) while others are encircled by a well 
fashioned groove. This groove varies in depth in differ- 
ent specimens, being rather shallow in some and of fair 
depth in others. 

Some of these axes have a quite prominent ridge or ele- 
vation above and below the handle groove. These ridges 
separate the poll and the axe blade from the groove and 
undoubtedly helped greatly to hold the wooden handle more 
firmly in place. The blades of these axes are generally 
broad, narrowing gradually toward the curved or nearly 
straight cutting edge. Some possess blades which narrow 
rapidly toward the bit and are thus somewhat triangular 
in outline. The surfaces of the blades of some are flattened 
but most are elliptical in section. The character of the 
blades of some of these axes indicates that they were oc- 
casionally or frequently re-sharpened by grinding. 

The largest and best collection of these barbed axes is 
that of Mr. M. E. Hathaway of St. Johns, Michigan. But 
few of the specimens in his collection are polished. They 
are as a rule well made and smoothly finished. The smal- 
lest specimen in his collection measures 5% inches in length 
and 3% inches in width at its widest part, below the handle 
groove. It is a pretty well polished axe. Its weight is 


17 ounces. The largest axe, a rather remarkable specimen, 
is 10 inches long, and is 5 inches in width at its widest 
part, just below the handle groove. Its weight is three 
pounds and ten ounces. Some of Mr. Hathaway's most in- 
teresting and best specimens the writer has had the pleas- 
ure of examining, this through his kindness. 

These barbed axes are made from a variety of rocks, 
among them being granite, syenite, porphyry, greenstone 
and diorite. Quite a few of the specimens show marks of 
use on their polls and blades. 


The number of these axes which have been found in 
Michigan is small when compared to the very large number 
of stone axes which have been recovered in that state. 
Mr. Hathaway has sixty specimens in his own collection 
at St. Johns. His collection was begun in the year 
1890. Seventy other specimens are in the hands of other 
collectors, original finders and museums in southern Mich- 
igan. It is estimated that not less than 160 specimens 
have been found to date. All, so far as known, have been 
recovered from fields and Indian camp or village sites. 
None are reported from mounds or graves. No cache or 
hoard of two or more has been reported. Mr. Hathaway 
has never seen a typical barbed axe from any other state. 

The specimens in the Hathaway collection were collected 
from the following closely grouped southern Michigan 
counties : 














___ 5 













The area of distribution of barbed axes in southern 
Michigan is rather restricted. It may be roughly outlined 
as extending from near Bay City at the head of Saginaw 
Bay of Lake Huron westward through Midland County and 
into Mecosta County. From Mecosta County, its now 
known western limit passes southward into Moncalm, Ionia 
and Eaton counties. From Eaton County it continues 
eastward into Ingham County, and then northward through 


Hathaway Collection 

Plate 1 

Barbed Stone Axes. 141 

Shiawassee County to Saginaw County. Clinton County 
lies near the center of the area of distribution described. 
Mr. Hathaway believes that the manufacture of these axes 
centered in Clinton County. Most of his own specimens 
were collected within a triangle located between St. Johns, 
Pompeii and Pewano in Clinton County. Eaton and Ing- 
ham counties adjoin Clinton County on the south. Isabella 
County was the known farthest northern range of 
the barbed axe, but two specimens have since been obtained 
by Mr. Hathaway from Wexford and Missaukee counties, 
two tiers of counties farther north. 

Mr. C. V. Fuller of Grand Ledge, Michigan, a well known 
archeologist, who has been an ardent collector of Indian 
implements for sixty years, says of these barbed axes in a 
letter bearing the date of March 2, 1930:' "Of the stone 
axes classed under the head of barbed forms I have col- 
lected some fifteen specimens all told during the past fifty 
years and I have seen eight or ten more in the hands of 
finders. My opinion is that they were put to the same uses 
that the less elaborate forms were. My specimens were all 
found in the counties of Eaton, Clinton, Ionia and Gratiot. 
These counties adjoin each other. More of them have 
been found in Clinton County than in any other, so far as 
I have been able to learn. Most of Mr. Hathaway's speci- 
mens were found there. They are not found to any ex- 
tent south of the Eaton County line. I have seen two speci- 
mens that were said to have come from Ohio. There is a 
collection numbering two hundred axes in the Pioneer Mu- 
seum at Lansing, Michigan, which were collected in the 
southern part of the state and there is not one barbed axe 
in the lot. Yes, they show use and many appear to have 
been re-sharpened. I have seen several that have been 
broken and then used for some other purpose such as for a 
maul or hammer stone. I have seen others with one or 
more of the barbs broken off and also with the poll broken. 
The fractures showed age, as if broken in use. 

"There are several collections in this part of the state in 
which there are one or more barbed axes, all local finds. 
Several of these barbed axes that have come under my ob- 
servation have knobs or barbs on the flat side of the blade." 

My own attention was first drawn to these interesting 


axes about thirty years ago when engaged in a study of 
some of the heavier stone cutting implements of the Middle 
West states. The first specimens of which I then obtained 
a knowledge were in the collections of Rev. James Savage 
of Detroit and of Mr. Fuller. Prof. Warren K. Moorehead 
has figured three of the Savage specimens in his book "Pre- 
historic Implements", published in 1900. Two of these he 
also illustrates in his other book, "The Stone Age in North 
America", (Vol. 1, Fig. 275). These, he states, were found 
in Washtenaw and Jackson counties in southeastern Michi- 
gan. These counties lie south of Ingham County elsewhere 
mentioned. A double-bitted barbed axe, also in the Savage 
collection, comes from Lenawee County, south of these coun- 
ties, in the southeastern corner of the state. (See Moore- 
head's Fig. 274.) 

Some stone axes, single specimens, which approach the 
barbed axes in form but lack the prominent barbs of these 
implements have been found in Maine and Connecticut and 
in the Miami Valley in Ohio. (See Moorehead's Figs. 249, 
254, 258, 260, and 265) A few Wisconsin axes also bear a 
general resemblance to them. 

It appears to be evident that the barbed axe is a local 
type largely confined in its distribution to a more or less 
limited area in southern Michigan where it was probably 
Developed, manufactured and used by some prehistoric In- 
dian people. We may hazard a belief that it is an Algonkin 
artifact. It is not a Hopewell or Cahokia culture type. 

To a recent issue of "Indian Notes", the quarterly publi- 
cation of the Museum of the American Indian, New York 
City, Marshall H. Saville has contributed a paper in which 
he illustrates and describes some of the very interesting 
stone ceremonial axes of western Mexico. 1 He describes 
four distinct types of these figurine axes from as many dis- 
tinct areas, each probably the product of a different pre- 
historic axe cult. Briefly described these are: 1. axes 
"with animal heads and more or less sickle-shape cutting 
edges", 2. axes with animal heads and ordinary curved cut- 
ting edges, 3. axes carved in human form, and 4. axes with 
a face worked on one side of the poll. He also mentions 
several other distinct Mexican ceremonial axe forms occur- 

1 V. 5, No. 3, July 1928. 

The Kohler Museum. 143 

ring in other culture areas. He concludes his paper with 
the following information : "The writer knows of but two 
other culture areas in ancient America where unusual axe 
forms are encountered : these are the Antilles and Ecuador. 
In the Antilles especially are many one-utilitarian axes in 
a bewildering variety of bizarre shapes. In Ecuador, how- 
ever, the axes seem to have been utilitarian, while many of 
the Antillean examples must have been purely ceremonial, 
revealing a cult of the axe in the West Indies. Into this 
category the monolithic axes treated in a former paper 
would be included." 

There is reason to believe that the rather abundant 
fluted stone axes of southern Wisconsin, the long-bladed 
adze-form axes not so common in the same general region, 
the ridged-blade axes, also apparently a Wisconsin prod- 
uct; the pitted blade axes of northern Illinois; the Keokuk 
type axes of eastern Iowa, the Missouri axes having a 
groove extending over the poll to the handle groove; the 
barbed axes of southern Michigan, and the twist-grooved 
long-bladed actinolite axes of the Pueblo region are all the 
products of prehistoric Indian axe cults. They are utili- 
tarian implements but probably also ceremonial in charac- 
ter. The knobbed gouges of Ontario and the bevelled-edge 
celts of New York may be the distinctive implements of 
other prehistoric cutting implement cults. 


The Rudolph Kuehne collection one of Wisconsin's rich- 
est and most valuable private archeological collections has 
been acquired by the Kohler family of Kohler, Wisconsin. 
It will form the nucleus of a future public museum at 

The donors, Governor and Mrs. Walter J. Kohler, Her- 
bert V. Kohler and the Misses Evangeline Kohleri Marie 
C. Kohler and Lillie B. Kohler, purchased the collection 
from Mrs. Emma Kuehne, widow of Rudolph Kuehne, the 
well-known pioneer jeweler-archeologist of Sheboygan. 
Included with the purchase is a natural history collection 

About 70 of the Keokuk type axes have been found to date in 
Iowa. C. R. Keyes. 


of largely local material and Mr. Kuehne's library of scien- 
tific magazines and books. 

"Only the indefatigable industry and painstaking care of 
a watchmaker such as Rudolph Kuehne, could have made 
possible so fine a collection of Indian artifacts," Governor 
Kohler asserted, in commenting upon the first step in the 
direction of the establishment of a future public museum 
at Kohler. The Governor had been a life long friend of 
Mr. Kuehne and because of his great personal interest in 
him encouraged the generous deed which preserves this 
valuable collection of archeological and other specimens to 
the people of Kohler and of Sheboygan County, within 
whose boundaries it was almost entirely collected by its 
former owner. 

Mr. Kuehne, a member of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society who died on March 11, 1929, began assembling his 
collection some thirty-five years ago, when conditions for 
gathering specimens were favorable. He lived near several 
former Indian village sites on the banks of the Black River 
south of Sheboygan and he was among the first to appre- 
ciate fully the opportunity there offered to engage in a 
study of the life and customs of their former inhabitants. 

For many years he continued to visit regularly these ab- 
original sites and to place in his collection his numerous 
finds of stone, copper and pottery and other artifacts. He 
also visited frequently a similar site at old New Amsterdam, 
on the Lake Michigan shore near Cedar Grove. He also 
made collections in other parts of Sheboygan County. 

Besides a fine group of pottery vessels, some of them 
found entire and others restored with great care, the 
Kuehne collection contains a very considerable number of 
native copper implements and ornaments, and some fine 
fluted stone axes. One of the latter is without a doubt the 
finest specimen of its class as yet found in the state. It 
was collected near Cedar Grove. 

Among the copper implements in the collection are 555 
fishhooks, 88 spearpoints, 24 knives, 17 perforators, awls, 
needles, arrowpoints, axes, chisels, harpoon points, a spud, 
scraper, crescents, bangles, earrings, beads and other speci- 
mens. The collection of flint implements is very large and 
includes specimens of a wide range of form and purpose. 

The Largest Copper Knives. 145 

Stone ceremonials and ornaments include 23 gorgets, 10 
pendants, 6 banner stones, 2 boat stones, a tube and a cone. 
There are a number of pottery and stone pipes. There are 
bone awls, needles, harpoons, flakers and other bone imple- 

In the 'collection of earthenware are 5 large vessels, 8 
medium size pots, 4 small pots, a miniature vessel, and 12 
other vessels were in progress of restoration at the time of 
their owners death. The restoration of others remains to 
be undertaken. There are besides no less than a thousand 
potsherds nearly all showing ornamentation. 

Milwaukee archeologists and collectors especially fre- 
quently visited Mr. Kuehne at his Black River summer 
home during his life time and always spent considerable 
time with him on the sites which were his constant study. 
All are pleased that his valuable collection has been pre- 
served in his home county through the interest and genero- 
sity of his friends, the members of the Kohler family. 
When installed in a proper museum building at Kohler it 
will become a monument to his interest in Wisconsin 
archeological history and of permanent educational benefit 
to the general public. 


The largest socketted native copper knife which has 
come to our attention is in the collection of Mr. M. E. Hatha- 
way of St. Johns, Michigan. This fine copper artifact we 
have recently had the opportunity of examining. It was 
found, its owner states, by John Sheridan in Section 20, 
Fulton Township, Gratiot County, in central Michigan. 

The long slightly curved blade of this knife is 11 inches 
in length and its socketted tang or handle 2% inches in 
length, making its total length 13% inches. The handle 
is about one inch in width at its end and 1% inches in width 
where it unites with the blade of the knife. The widest 
part of the blade (one-half inch beyond the socket) is about 
1% inches. From this point it curves gradually to the 
point or tip of the blade. At a distance of 5 inches be- 
yond the socket the width of the blade is one inch. The 
back of the blade of this knife has a slight median ridge, 


an uncommon feature in copper knives. The color of this 
fine knife is a very dark green, almost black. 

We may wonder to what particular use so large a knife 
may have been put by its aboriginal owner. Possessing 
a socket it may once have had a wooden handle or have 
been fastened to the end of a wooden shaft. If employed 
as a weapon it was a formidable one. The socket does not 
have a rivet hole. 

A large socketted copper knife in the H. P. Hamilton col- 
lection in the State Historical Museum at Madison has a 
length of 11% inches. It was found in Section 24, Pitts- 
ville Township, Brown County, Wisconsin. One of the 
largest known copper knives of any type was in the collec- 
tion of the late James G. Picketts, a former member of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society. This specimen measured 
171/2 inches in length. It is probably with the other cop- 
per specimens of this collection in the Oshkosh Public Mu- 
seum. It had a pointed tang. It weighed 11 ounces.* Mr. 
Geo. A. West has described a curved-back copper knife 
found in Fond du Lac County which is 12*4 inches long.** 
This is in the Milwaukee Museum. There are in the Logan 
Museum at Beloit and in the State Historical Museum six 
other large straight and curved copper knives which have 
lengths of 9, 9%, 9%, 10-13/16, 10% and 12 inches. The 
latter, a straight knife, is in the Hamilton collection pre- 
viously mentioned and was found on Plum Island, Door 
County. A curved knife in the same collection, described 
as possibly a sword or sickle, measures about 20 inches 
from tip to tip. This remarkable specimen was found at 
Oconto, Oconto County. 

We may look for the future finding of other large copper 
knives in both Wisconsin and Michigan. 

* The Native Copper Implements of Wisconsin, Wis. Archeologist, 
v. 3, no. 2. 

** Copper Its Mining and Use. Bull. Milw. Pub. Mus., v. 10, no. 1. 

Dr. Louise Phelps Kellogg. 147 


At the recent Chattanooga, Tennessee, meeting of the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Association ; Dr. Louise Phelps 
Kellogg, for years a leading member of the staff of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, received the great 
honor of being elected president of the Association, she be- 
ing also the first woman to hold that office. Dr. Kellogg is 
recognized from coast to coast as one of the leading investi- 
gators and writers in the field of American history. She 
is the leading authority in her own special field, early Wis- 
consin and Old Northwest history. She is the author of 
many papers, reports and books on these interesting sub- 
jects. She has spoken on them also before various organi- 
zations in nearly every part of Wisconsin and in adjoining 
and other states. In recognition of her scholarship she 
was in 1927 honored by the University of Wisconsin, her 
Alma Mater, with the degree of Doctor of Letters. 

Dr. Kellogg has been for years an honored and greatly 
beloved member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. 
She has long been a member of some of its active commit- 
tees, she has spoken or read papers at many of its meetings 
held at Milwaukee, Madison and in other cities, has par- 
ticipated in all of its field meetings and pilgrimages, and 
taken an active and helpful interest in all of its surveys and 
explorations, its Indian landmarks preservation work, its 
museum's organization movement, and in all of the other 
important and valuable work which this state society has 
in the past thirty years of its existence undertaken, or- 
ganized and carried on for the educational benefit of the 
public, and which from Wisconsin have long been adopted 
and are now being carried on in other states. 

Always willing and never too busy to lend a helping 
hand and wise counsel we are proud of Louise Phelps Kel- 
logg and of what she has done for her native state. We 
are greatly pleased that through this great honor now con- 
ferred upon her another well-won eagle feather has been 
added to the chaplet of one of Wisconsin's most distin- 
guished daughters. 


Albert B. Reagan, Ph. D. 

The notched oak drumsticks are again being rasped 
over the tub-drums in northern Ute land, in the Uintah 
Basin, about Ouray, Utah. It is the beginning preparation 
for the annual "Bear Dance," so-called because the Utes 
assert that the bear originated the ceremony in the long 
ago. It is always held at about the time the bear comes 
from his hibernation in the early spring. It was formerly 
in the nature of a courting dance, but sociability and gen- 
eral good feeling appear now to be its chief characteristics, 
a ceremony in which the whites join with the Utes and all 
have an enjoyable time. 

Preparatory to the dance a level plot of ground of about 
100 yards in diameter is inclosed by a six-foot "fence" of 
upright poles, between which brush is woven horizontally. 
The door is on the east side of the inclosure, while a large 
drawing of a bear dancing with a woman is hoisted on the 
west side. Under this within the inclosure the musicians 
are seated on zinc sheets over a hollow space (cave) in the 
ground which is said to be connected with the bear and 
through which the rasping of the drumsticks over the tub- 
edge (or some other upturned hollow thing that will act 
as a reinforcer of sound) they produce a sound "like the 
sound made by the bear." And the song sung is a glis- 
sando on downward progressions which also gives an imi- 
tation sound like that made by the bear. 

When dancing the men gather on the north side of the 
inclosure, within it, and squat on the ground against the 
fence, and the women squat on the south side likewise. 
Then when all is ready the musicians begin to sing, and as 
soon as the song "has warmed up to a sufficient pitch," 
they begin to keep time by rubbing an angled stick side- 
wise over the notched sticks which are placed slantingly on 
the tub-bottoms (or the notched sticks are themselves rub- 
bed over the edge of the tub-bottoms), producing a rein- 
forced, ear-grating sound. 

After the first song on the final day, after a week 
of preparation and rehearsing, a speech prayer service is 

The Bear Dance. 149 

conducted by the chief of ceremonies. The women then 
choose their male partners by approaching and waving 
their hands toward the one of their respective choice, all 
being togged out in their best finery. Preparatory to the 
dance the men and women then line up facing each other 
in column abreast, the women in one column, the men in 
the other. The members of each column hold hands, one 
column taking two or more steps forward and the other a 
like number backward to the time of the music, then vice 

Thus is the dance kept up till the final "set," which is to 
be an endurance test. In this last act some of the partici- 
pants hideously paint themselves, even as though blood was 
dripping from their jaws, suggesting the ferocity of the 
bear. At this juncture a man and a woman chase each 
other around the inclosure, and if anyone laughs at them it 
is the custom to appear ferocious, running toward the per- 
son and pretending to scratch him. The dancing here also 
changes. The line of women approaching the line of men 
attempts to push it backwards, often pushing it across the 
inclosure against the fence. At other times it is changed 
to a single couple's partner dance in which the partners 
hold each other in a position similar to that taken in our 
waltzes; the step, however, is the same as before. If a 
dancer falls from exhaustion or because of a mistep in this 
act, a medicine man or the leader of the dances "restores 
the dancer." Taking one of the notched drumsticks as a 
wand, he collects the evil spirits on it, then sends them to 
the four winds : he lays the stick first on the fallen dancer's 
feet, then across his hips, then across his breast, then across 
his back, and lastly on his head. He then holds the notched 
stick toward the sky and passes the rubbing stick (or rub- 
bing bone) upward over it as" though he were brushing 
something from the drumstick into the air, some two or 
more of these treatments being necessary before the man 
rises and resumes dancing. Unless this is done it is be- 
lieved some misfortune will befall him. Thus is the dance 
kept up till all the participants quit of exhaustion. 

After the close of the endurance fete, the chief <of cere- 
monies takes a cup and as he dances he holds it heavenward 
as a thank offering to his gods and as a prayer for rain. 


A feast is then set out to all, after which they return to 
their respective homes, believing that the gods will bless 
them and give them a bountiful crop. 


In studying the fluted stone implements of Wisconsin we 
have seen in addition to the quite numerous grooved stone 
axes which are thus ornamented, several fluted celts and 
one or two fluted stone hammers. Recently Dr. A. Gerend 
has brought to our attention the first handled fluted stone 
celt or spud which we have ever seen. This unique imple- 
ment was found on the bank of the Little Eau Pleine River, 
in Wood County, Wisconsin. This implement is 6% inches 
in length. Its rectangular blade is 3 inches in length and 
about 2% inches wide. The handle or lower part of the 
implement is about 3% inches long. It is narrower than 
the blade being about 2 inches wide where it connects with 
the former and 114 inches wide at its rounded end. A shal- 
low groove separates the blade from the handle. 

On the blade of this implement there are three narrow 
vertical flutes which extend from the rounded cutting edge 
of the implement to a transverse flute or shallow groove 
extending across the base of the blade above the handle 
groove. Of the narrow vertical flutes or grooves one ex- 
tends down the middle of the blade and one is located on 
each side of it, at the edge of the blade. All of these flutes 
are quite distinct though very shallow. 

The implement is made of a hard close-grained rock. 
Its upper surface is convex and its lower surface flat. The 
presence of a groove indicates that it may have been bound 
to a wooden handle and used as an adze, in which case it 
might well be classified as an adze-celt. 

A few handled celts of this general form have been found 
in Wisconsin none of these, however, are ornamented with 

Fraudulent Indian Implements. 151 


Last year the Wisconsin Archeological Society appointed 
a special committee to assist local archeologists and col- 
lectors in detecting fake Indian implements and in appre- 
hending and punishing such offenders. The committee 
consists of the members Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., Edward F. 
Richter and George A. West, all being residents of Milwau- 
kee. All are old members of the state society and expe- 
rienced in the judging of fraudulent implements. Collec- 
tors and others desiring the assistance of the committee are 
requested to communicate with Mr. Ringeisen at his office 
at 606 Third Street, Milwaukee. Return postage or ex- 
press must be paid by persons submitting specimens. On 
their receipt the chairman will call a meeting of his com- 
mittee and will thereafter render without charge a report 
to the collector or person submitting the specimen or speci- 
mens. A copy of this report will also be placed in the So- 
ciety's files for future reference. 

For many years the state society has been very active 
in exposing makers of and dealers in spurious Indian im- 
plements. Through its efforts members of the notorious 
Robinette family of Flag Pond and other places in Virginia, 
the once very troublesome makers of inscribed tablets and 
fake coppers and ceremonial objects in Michigan, the re- 
cent Kentucky manufactury of pipes, discoidals, and cere- 
monials and ornaments, a collector-dealer at Clarksville, 
Tennessee and other makers and venders of fake artifacts 
were exposed. In 1911 the Society caused to be enacted 
a state law making the manufacture and sale of fraudulent 
antiquities of any class within the state an offense punish- 
able by fine or imprisonment or both. This law other states 
have copied. 

The committee has the power to cause the arrest and 
punishment of offenders. Its appointment and the serv- 
ices which it will render to persons interested in archeolo- 
gical studies should be appreciated by the public. 



The Central Section, American Anthropological Society, 
held its ninth annual meeting at the Milwaukee Public Mu- 
seum on Friday and Saturday, May 9 and 10, 1930, the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society and Museum acting as 
hosts to the enthusiastic gathering of archeologists, eth- 
nologists and historians from the states of Ohio, Indiana, 
Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Kentucky, 
Alabama and Wisconsin, who attended the sessions. 

At the opening session, held in the trustee room of the 
Museum, Mr. Geo. A. West, president of the board of trus- 
tees, and a past president of the Wisconsin society, deliv- 
ered an address of welcome to which Dr. Ralph Linton, 
president of the Section, responded. The program of this 
session included interesting papers by Dr. Wm. M. Mc- 
Govern of Northwestern University, Willoughby M. Bab- 
cock of the Minnesota Historical Museum, and by Dr. Ber- 
thold Laufer and Henry Field of the Field Museum of 
Natural History. At the afternoon session papers were 
read by Dr. A. T. Olmstead, of the University of Illinois, 
Dr. M. J. Herskovitz of Northwestern University, and Mr. 
Henry Field. Dr. Fay-Cooper Cole, chairman of the Divi- 
sion of Anthropology and Psychology, National Research 
Council, Washington, D. C., presented a tentative plan for 
the anthropological section of the Chicago World's Fair. 

On the evening of that day the visiting anthropologists 
and their ladies were entertained by the Milwaukee mem- 
bers of the Wisconsin Archeological Society at a dinner held 
in the banquet room at the Hotel Schroeder, about one hun- 
dred persons being present. President Charles G. Schoewe 
presided. After the dinner Dr. S. A. Barrett, chairman of 
the Society's committee, in an interesting address, in which 
he fully explained its history, awarded the Lapham Medal 
to the Messrs. Dr. Ralph Linton, Dr. Carl E. Guthe, Mr. 
Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., and Mr. W. C. Kern. All of the 
recipients were pleasantly and agreeably surprised at re- 
ceiving this honor. Dr. Guthe, chairman of the Commit- 
tee on State Archaeological Surveys, delivered an address, 
in which he presented a very interesting report of the 

The fVntral Section Meeting. i:.: 1 , 

progress now being made in archeological survey and ex- 
ploration in many states. It was shown that seventy-five 
organizations and institutions located in thirty-four states 
were now engaged in archeological investigations. This 
report was received with great enthusiasm. 

At the session held at the Milwaukee Museum on Satur- 
day morning papers were presented by Charles R. Keyes 
of Iowa, F. M. Setzler of Indiana, W. S. Webb of Kentucky 
University, Peter Brannon of Alabama, and A. K. Fisher 
and W. C. McKern of Milwaukee. Discussions followed 
each paper. Dr. Cole and Mr. Shetrone pointed out the 
desirability of revising the names being given by local ar- 
cheologists to the Indian culture areas now being created 
in different states. Some of these were being named after 
obscure and little known regions. Some would probably 
prove to be sub-cultures. 

At the business meeting Mr. H. C. Shetrone, director of 
the Ohio State Museum, was elected president of the Cen- 
tral Section, and George R. Fox, director of the Chamber- 
lain Memorial Museum, Three Oaks, Michigan, was re- 
elected its secretary-treasurer. The Secretary's report 
showed the Section to have about 107 members. 

In the afternoon the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
took the visiting and local members on a pilgrimage to the 
Dewey Mound Group at Vernon Center, Waukesha County. 
President Schoewe was in personal charge of this interest- 
ing feature of the two day's meeting. In the evening a 
meeting of the Committee on State Archeological Surveys 
of the National Research Council was held at the Hotel 
'Schroeder in which the Messrs. Dr. Carl E. Guthe, Dr. Fay- 
Cooper Cole, H. C. Shetrone, C. R. Keyes, C. E. Brown and 
Peter Brannon, participated. 

Among the Milwaukee and state members of the Wiscon- 
sin Archeological Society who attended the sessions and 
dinner were Charles G. Schoewe, Geo. A. West, Dr. A. L. 
Kastner, Dr. S. A. Barrett, W. W. Gilman, Dr. P. B. Jen- 
kins, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, L. R. Whitney, Dr. W. H. Brown, 
C. R. Keyes, W. M. Babcock, Mrs. Theo. Koerner, Mrs. 
Vina S. Adams, G. R. Fox, T. T. Brown, R. N. Buckstaff, 
Jos. Ringeisen, Jr., Chas. E. Brown, L. R. Cooper, Dr. R. 
Linton, W. C. McKern, Dr. G. L. Collie, N. E. Carter, Edw. 


\Y I S( '( )XS I X A K< 'H E( >L( >< '. I ST. 

Richter, A. K. Fisher, T. L. Miller, H. H. Smith, J. G. 
Gregory, and E. G. Wolff. 

The Central Section was organized at a meeting held in 
Milwaukee in 1911. It has since then held meetings in 
the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. Mr. 
Babcock delivered an invitation to the Section to hold its 
1931 session at St. Paul. Mr. Fox invited the members to 
meet at Three Oaks, Michigan. 


The State Survey was organized in 1911 the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society receiving an appropriation from the 
state legislature for that purpose in that year. For two 
years thereafter it was thus possible to organize and to pay 
the expenses of field parties which were dispatched to va- 
rious parts of the state to conduct field work. Since that 
time it has been necessary to further the work of the survey 
almost entirely through the interest and activity of mem- 
bers who have also very generously defrayed their own 

The field work undertaken by the Society begins in April 
or May and continues until about the middle of November. 
Those who contribute to this department of the Society's 
program give to this work parts of their summer vacations 
and such other time as they can spare from their occupa- 
tions and homes during the spring, summer and autumn 
months. To all members and others who may desire to 
engage in such work for the state the Society furnishes 
printed or written instructions and printed blanks for the 
making of their reports. These reports are turned in to 
the secretary's office, or, if not, are called for at the end 
of the year. Each year a considerable number of non- 
members also contribute reports or information to the State 
records. The Society also receives some welcome assist- 
ance each year from persons engaged in the surveys of va- 
rious state and University departments. The State His- 
torical Museum places its own records at the Society's dis- 
posal. From the manuscripts of the State Historical So- 
ciety valuable archeological and historical data is frequently 

State Archeological Survey, 1929. 155 

The deaths of recent years of such active and enthusiastic 
field workers of the Wisconsin Archeological Society as the 
late Harry E. Cole, Dr. Louis Falge and P. V. Lawson, and 
the removal from the state of such devoted former assist- 
ants as G. R. Fox, C. E. Buell, Dr. A. Gerend, Robt. H. 
Becker and Geo. H. Squier, and the inactivity through ad- 
vancing years of such men as H. L. Skavlem has noticeably 
retarded the Society's survey work. The former assistance 
given by Dr. G. L. Collie and Alonzo Pond has not been avail- 
able because of the transfer of the major activities of the 
Logan Museum of Beloit College to foreign fields. The So- 
ciety has found it necessary to continually recruit and train 
new volunteer workers. 

Only a limited number of the Society's 300 active mem- 
bers are actively interested in, or in a position to devote 
even a part of their time to conducting even a small amount 
of field work. Other members not participating in explora- 
tion work are serving well in other departments of the So- 
ciety's work such as the organization and management of 
Wisconsin museums (every one of the larger and many of 
the smaller of which are under the direction of a member 
of the Wisconsin Archeological Society), in the preserva- 
tion and marking of the Indian landmarks of the state; in 
keeping the general public informed of the Society's plans 
and activities, in giving public lectures on our own and 
allied subjects, and giving courses in anthropology and In- 
dian history at some of our educational institutions. 

Of twenty-five members of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society who engaged in field work in the state during the 
year 1929 fifteen have turned in reports of researches or in- 
formation otherwise obtained to the secretary. The most 
active of these field workers were the Messrs. Milton F. 
Hulburt of Reedsburg; T. M. N. Lewis, Watertown; J. P. 
Schumacher and Theodore T. Brown, Green Bay, and Ar- 
thur P. Kannenberg, Oshkosh. Contributions were also 
made by Geo. F. Overton, Butte des Morts ; Franklin Thom- 
linson, Plum City; Rev. Francis S. Dayton, New London; 
Carl F. Richter, Oconto; Don S. Rowland, Madison; S. W. 
Faville, Lake Mills; C. G. Weyl, Fountain City; W. F. Yahr, 
Fredonia, and Dr. H. W. Kuhm, Milwaukee. The follow- 
ing non-members also contributed to the Society's files : 


W. H. Ferber, A. G. Hall, Carl Marty, J. V. Satterlee, 
Felix M. Keesing, J. A. Bardon, C. A. Achtenberg, H. G. 
Dyer, Donald Hansen, E. T. Mariner, W. H. Reiter, A. A. 
Griebling, Dell Priest, Fred Zuehlsdorf, S. G. Bradt, B. M. 
Apger, J. M. Hamel, H. L. Hoard, W. W. Bartlett, and C. S. 

These reports cover certain Indian earthworks, occupa- 
tion sites and other features in the counties of Ashland, 
Adams, Bayfield, Barren, Buffalo, Columbia, Chippewa, 
Crawford, Dodge, Dane, Door, Douglas, Forest, Fond du 
Lac, Green, Grant, Jefferson, Kenosha, Kewaunee, Lincoln, 
Langlade, Milwaukee, Monroe, Oconto, Oneida, Ozaukee, 
Outagamie, Pierce, Sauk, Sheboygan, Shawano, Vernon, 
Waukesha, Waupaca, Waushara, Washington and Winne- 
bago, 37 counties. These are records new to the state 
records. They include 50 Indian mounds in seven differ- 
ent counties and in eight different groups, one enclosure, 
75 village and camp sites, eight workshop sites, one lead 
smelter, copper sources, one quartzite working, four cook- 
ing and other pits, three cemeteries, two single graves, one 
spirit stone, two stationary rock mortars, two plots of gar- 
den beds, one trading post site, four caches of flint and 
heavier stone implements, one pictograph, four spirit 
springs, one sugar bush, one rock shelter, and about 50 
trails and river fords. A total of 210 new records for the 
state. When the reports of several other members have 
been received this number will be considerably augmented. 
In addition to these new records a very considerable 
amount of information concerning archeological evidences 
previously reported from various counties has been received 
and filed. 

Mr. Milton F. Hulbert has done especially noteworthy 
work in Sauk County. He has prepared an excellent map 
of the trails, village sites, mounds and other features of that 
county, locating a considerable number of these not pre- 
viously recorded. Mr. Lewis has excavated mounds in 
both Jefferson and Sauk Counties. Mr. Theodore T. Brown 
has mapped the known trails of the state for the State His- 
torical Museum. 

Gerard Fowke. 157 


It is desirable that during- the year 1930 as many of the 
members of the Society as possible engage in research work 
in Wisconsin. The necessary printed blanks and instruc- 
tions for such investigations may be obtained from Secre- 
tary Charles E. Brown and all reports and information 
should be filed with him. The new handbook for archeolo- 
gical field work prepared by the Committee on State Archeo- 
logical Surveys, of the National Research Council will then 
be ready for distribution. 

The ever increasing demand of the general public, state 
schools, and tourist and summer resorters for information 
concerning the prehistory and recent Indian history of dif- 
ferent section of our state makes it more important than 
ever that the surveys and explorations of the Society should 
continue with all possible momentum. Members who file 
reports or information with the institutions with which 
they are identified are requested to also favor the Wiscon- 
sin Archeological Society with copies of these. Thus the 
Society's records will always be complete and duplication of 
work be prevented. Promises of cooperation in survey 
and exploration work during the year have already been 
received from various members and other interested per- 
sons. Others are requested to communicate with Secretary 
Brown at Madison. 


A recent issue of the Ohio Archeological and Historical 
Quarterly* contains a biography of the late widely known 
American archeologist, Gerard Fowke. The account there 
given of his ancestry and early life is very interesting. For 
many years Mr. Fowke was one of the leading archeological 
field investigators in the United States. The character of 
his exploration and survey work was such as to earn the 
praise of such former leading anthropologists as Dr. William 
H. Holmes, Dr. Cyrus Thomas, Dr. W. J. McGee, Dr. William 
C. Mills and others. 

* V. XXXVIII, No. 2. 



Vol. 9, No. 3 

Mr. Fowke's interest in archeological investigation ap- 
pears to have been begun in the seventies, when he was 
teaching school in Ohio, "his vacations being spent along 
the Ohio River and in the mountains of Tennessee." The 
list of his archeological and geological achievements in the 
years from 1881 to 1928 is far too long to be presented in 
this brief article. In those years he conducted surveys 
and explorations of mounds and other Indian remains in 
the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, 
Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Michigan, New York, Wisconsin, Minnesota and other 
states. He also conducted investigations in Japan and Si- 
beria, British Columbia, Mexico and Guatemala and the 
Hawaiian Islands. In 1881, he made an examination of 
the country along the lower Wabash and Arkansas rivers, 
and along the Missouri between Kansas City and Omaha. 

Among his notable undertakings were extensive re- 
searches carried on in the aboriginal flint quarries at Flint 
Ridge, Ohio (1884-85) ; in the flint deposits in Union 
County, Illinois (1886) ; a reconnaissance along the west- 
ern shore of Lake Huron, the northern end of Lake Michi- 
gan and the southern shore of Lake Superior, and down the 
Mississippi River to St. Louis (1887). 

In 1891, he was engaged in an examination of the James 
River Valley. He excavated a large communal burial 
mound in Orange County, "Virginia, (1891) and located shell 
mounds along the Tennessee River (1893). 

In 1901 he published his "Archeological History of Ohio," 
a book which probably did more to advance the scientific 
standing of American archeology than any other similar 
book of its time. In 1903, he explored 200 caves, also ab- 
original flint and hematite quarries in Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri and other states. In 1904 he was engaged in arrang- 
ing the archeological exhibits of the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position at St. Louis. At that time the writer made the 
personal acquaintance of Mr. Fowke and was so fortunate 
as to be able to accompany him and the well known patrons 
of Missouri archeology, Mr. David I. Bushnell, Sr., Judge 
Douglas, Pierre Choteau, Dr. P. D. Peterson, J. M. Wulfing 
and Dr. Henry M. Whelpley, on several visits to the Ca- 

Gerard Fowke. 

hokia Mound region, the flint quarries at Crescent, Mis- 
souri, and other sites of archeological interest. 

In 1905, Mr. Fowke excavated mounds at Montezuma and 
East St. Louis, Illinois. In 1906 and 1907, he examined 
numerous mounds along the Missouri River. In 1912, he 
excavated mounds in Guatemala. He examined numerous 
caves, village sites and burial places in the Ozark region 
in the years 1918 and 1919. In 1920 he was engaged in 
archeological researches in the Hawaiian Islands, and in 
1926 in investigations in Ohio, Kentucky, Louisiana and 
New Mexico. His widespread investigations were con- 
ducted at different times under the auspices of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology, the American Museum of Natural 
History, Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, Ohio Archeo- 
logical and Historical Society, Missouri Historical Society, 
and the St. Louis Branch of the Archeological Institute. 

"Aside from the scientific interest attached to his work, 
he had little inclination for indoor life and was continually 
making pedestrian tours into regions remote from ordinary 
lines of travel, in the effort to observe and study natural 
features. It is a moderate estimate to say that he walked 
a hundred thousand miles in open country, traversing por- 
tions of nearly every state between Canada and the Gulf of 
Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Plains; and 
he probably knew more from actual observation about the 
eastern half of the United States than did any one else. 

"Compelled before the age of fifteen to depend entirely 
upon his own efforts for a living, too restless to remain 
long in one place, Fowke had but little opportunity to pro- 
cure an education. But from boyhood he was an omni- 
vorous reader of everything he could comprehend, possessed 
a tenacious memory, was a close and accurate observer, and 
thus managed to pick up considerable information on va- 
rious subjects. However, his desultory reading and ramb- 
ling life made his knowledge more satisfactory, mentally, 
than profitable, financially. He could never adapt him- 
self and never wanted to do so to the restraints which 
were essential to success in any line of business or profes- 
sional life. It was equally irksome to him to follow the 
plans or instructions of those who held erroneous ideas in 
regard to conditions as they existed, or to the proper meth- 


ods of securing the best results. Had he been more com- 
plaisant and diplomatic, less contumacious and determined, 
his field of research would have been wider but his life 
would have been less satisfying." 

A little anecdote which Mr. Fowke once told the writer 
about himself illustrates one of his characteristics. He 
was visiting a collector in his office in the lower Wisconsin 
River valley, who had in his cabinet a number of Indian 
copper implements. These the owner was convinced were 
"tempered," and despite all of the arguments to the con- 
trary which his visitor advanced his belief was not to be 
shaken. Finally, despairing of being able to enlighten this 
stubborn collector, Gerard Fowke drew from his pocket 
the large and heavy pruning knife which he nearly always 
carried and with a sharp blow cut deeply into the copper 
implement which he held in his hand. Then amid the vio- 
lent exclamations of the owner he made his escape by the of- 
fice door. 

The bibliography of Gerard Fowke's reports, papers and 
articles on archeological and geological investigations, as 
given in the Ohio Quarterly, is a long one, including 59 
items. Various manuscripts await publication. 


W. C. McKern 

In a recent issue of the Wisconsin Archeologist*, Profes- 
sor W. K. Moorehead is quoted** in regard to the distribu- 
tion and possible place of origin of the Hopewell and Caho- 
kia cultures. He suggests that Iowa may eventually be 
shown to be the center of Hopewell development, and that 
diffusion may have carried the culture north into Wiscon- 
sin and east as far as Ohio from this center. On the sub- 
ject of the Cahokia culture, he is content with the mere 
statement of its southern origin, an opinion to which every 
student at all acquainted with the relevant data will prob- 
ably subscribe. 

* V. 9, no. 2, 106-08. 

** Report of St. Louis Conference on Midwestern Archeology. 

Hopewell and Cahokia Cultures. 161 

I note with personal satisfaction that Professor Moore- 
head tentatively accepts the local interpretation of a west- 
ern Wisconsin culture as Hopewellian in basic type. His 
full acceptance of this classification could not be expected 
until he has had opportunity to examine specimens and 
data. It is confidently . anticipated that Professor Moore- 
head's opinion will concur with that of the other leading 
archeologists of the Middle West, who have examined the 
evidence upon which the Hopewell classification is based 
ind who, without exception and without reservation, have 
conceded the accuracy of our interpretation. 

Professor Moorehead's statements, as quoted in the 
irticle, refrain from any direct reference to our classifica- 
tion of the dominant culture at the Aztalan site as Cahokia. 
I am fully aware, however, that he is skeptical regarding 
the occurrence of Cahokia culture so far north of its pre- 
sly conceived northern boundaries, and is withholding 
judgment until he may carefully examine the specimens and 
other data collected at the well-known Wisconsin site. Un- 
til that opportunity is afforded him, he could not be expected 
to correctly pronounce judgment. As stated regarding our 
[opewell data, those Middle Western archeologists who 
lave examined the Aztalan materials, and who are convers- 
ant with Cahokia culture data, have agreed unreservedly 
with the local interpretation. 

The question of trade specimens does not apply to the 
culture assignment problems of either of these two Wis- 
consin cultures. It is not the occasional occurrence of a 
specimen of Hopewell or Cahokia type that has influenced 
our classifications. Iroquois specimens are not infrequently 
found in the province, and yet I never subscribed to the un- 
warranted conclusion that an ethnic group with Iroquois 
culture, as such, inhabited primitive Wisconsin. With re- 
gard to the local variants of Hopewell and Cahokia cultures, 
the data governing classification can not logically be ex- 
)lained on the basis of trade specimens. Both Cyrus 
'homas and the Milwaukee Public Museum investigators 
found entire groups of mounds producing conclusive evi- 
dence that they were erected by representatives of an eth- 
nic group with a pure culture strikingly foreign to all 

162 WISCONSIN AROHKOLOdlST. Vol. 9, No. 3 

other known local groups and possessing a dominant com- 
plex of specific Hopewell traits. 

It is admitted that a much richer variant of the culture 
is found in Ohio, and it is suggested that the Ohio form 
represents a highly specialized local development of a simp- 
ler, widely distributed basic culture, of which the Wiscon- 
sin form is another, less specialized development. The 
suggestion that the center of this basic culture may have 
been in Iowa, offered by Professor Moorehead, is most in- 
teresting and should contribute materially to a wide sup- 
port, by all interested students, of investigations contem- 
plated and in operation in Iowa and adjacent states, includ- 
ing Wisconsin. 

As in the case of the Hopewell sites, Aztalan was at one 
time inhabited by an ethnic group possessing a pure, for- 
eign culture ; but this culture was dominated by a complex 
of specific Cahokia traits. These not only include a highly 
developed type of pottery which is utterly distinct from and 
superior to other woodland wares, and possesses characteris- 
tics easily recognizable, but such elements as truncated pyra- 
midal mounds, stone and pottery ear-spools, disc-shaped shell 
beads, type agricultural implements of chipped stone, per- 
forated shell implements, a distinct type arrowpoint, and 
many of lesser importance. These do not occur sporadic- 
ally but are typical of the site, as has long been recognized 
by local students. 

The specifically interested student need not await publi- 
cations covering these finds precedent to determining the 
accuracy or fallacy of our deductions; after all, publica- 
tions are designed to serve those who can not see the actual 
subject matter, which should be examined first-hand where 
possible. If evidence is needed, it is available, on request, 
to anyone sufficiently concerned to visit the Milwaukee Pub- 
lic Museum. 

Anlirological Notes. 163 



On February 17, 1930 a meeting of the 'Society was held at the 
Milwaukee Museum at which fifty members and visitors were pres- 
ent. President Smith occupied the chair. Secretary Brown reported 
on the business conducted by the Executive Board at its meeting held 
earlier in the evening. At this meeting Mr. Bernard M. Palmer of 
Janesville was elected a life member and Mr. Emil J. Schaefer of 
Milwaukee an annual member. President Smith announced the ar- 
rangements which were being made by several committees appointed 
by the directors for the Central Section, A. A. A. meeting. Mr. 
Charles G. Schoewe spoke of the plans for the proposed pilgrimage 
to the Dewey Mounds. Mr. W. C. McKern gave a lecture on "Ex- 
plorations in Southwestern Wisconsin" which he illustrated with lan- 
tern slides. He presented an account of the recent excavations of 
mounds and burial places conducted by the Milwaukee Museum in 
La Crosse, Vernon, Trempealeau and Crawford counties. He de- 
scribed and illustrated some of the characteristic artifacts of the 
Wisconsin Siouan and Hopewell cultures. Among the Siouan arti- 
facts were disk pipes, arrowshaft grinders, short triangular flint 
arrowpoints, large elligtical flint knives, "snub-nosed" scrapers, and 
pottery vessels having scalloped rims and loop handles. 

Mr. Ringeisen exhibited a fine 9 inch flint spearpoint found at 
Spooner, Wisconsin. 

Secretary Brown announced that the annual joint meeting of the 
'Society and of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences would be held at 
the University of Wisconsin at Madison, on April 10 and 11. Mem- 
bers were urged to attend this meeting. Titles of papers to be pre- 
sented were to be handed to the Society. 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society held its annual meeting at 
the Milwaukee Public Museum on Monday evening, March 17, 1930. 
President Smith conducted the meeting. There were sixty-five mem- 
bers and visitors in attendance. Secretary Brown presented his an- 
nual report giving an account of the meetings held during the past 
year and of the various activities such as archeological field work, 
mound preservation projects, museum organization, publication, etc., 
in which the Society and its various members had been engaged. 
Treasurer G. M. Thorne presented a report on the membership and 
finances. Both reports were adopted. 

A nominating committee consisting of the Messrs. Ringeisen, Kas- 
tner and Barrett brought in its report. There being no other nomi- 
nations these nominees were regularly elected. President, Charles 
G. Schoewe, vice-presidents, Robert J. Kieckhefer, W. W. Gilman, 
Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Dr. A. L. Kastner, Mrs. Theodore Koerner, 
W. C. McKern, A. P. Kannenberg; directors, Dr. S. A. Barrett, H. H. 
Smith, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, A. T. Newman, E. F. Richter, L. R. Whit- 
ney, Vetal Winn, Dr. M. W. Kuhm, T. L. Miller, G. A. West. Charles 
E. Brown was elected secretary and G. M. Thorne, treasurer. 

Mr. G. A. West delivered an illustrated address, "An Archeologist 
in Britany", in which he described the interesting ancient stone and 
other monuments of that part of France. Mr. Smith exhibited a 
copy of the Society's Lapham Medal which was to be awarded to 
several of the archeologists attending the Central Section meeting. 
Secretary Brown announced the election of N. A. Enting, Milwau- 


kee and E. F. Rintelman, Mukwonago, annual members. Mrs. H. A. 
Main had been elected an honorary member. President-elect Schoewe 
spoke briefly of the history and activities of the Society. Mr. E. J. 
Schaefer showed a film of the 1928 celebration at Lake Geneva. 

At the close of the meeting .Mr. Arthur Gerth exhibited a number 
of fine flint and quartzite implements and Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., 
an unusually fine fluted stone axe. 

The annual Joint Meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, 
the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, and the Mid- 
west Museums Conference was held in the auditorium of the Biology 
building, University of Wisconsin, at Madison, on April 11 and 12, 
1930. The meeting was very well attended. Thirteen of the thirty- 
six papers in the program were offered by the Wisconsin Archeolo- 
gical Society. These were presented by Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, Dr. 
Albert B. Reagan, Mrs. May L. Bauchle, Milton F. Hulburt, E. R. 
Mclntyre, George Overton, Will F. Bauchle, Theodore T. Brown, John 
G. Gregory, M. E. Hathaway, George R. Fox, Rev. Paul B. Jenkins 
and John B. MacHarg. 

The annual dinner was held on the evening of the first day of the 
meeting in the Old Madison room of the University Memorial Union 
building. Following the dinner Dr. S. A. Barrett gave an illustrated 
address on "Tamest Africa". 

The Midwest Museums Conference held a meeting of its own during 
the Joint Meeting at which the business of the Conference was dis- 
cussed by Mr. Babcock, Mr. Buckstaff, Mr. Brown and Dr. Barrett. 
Mr. Willoughby M. Babcock was elected president of the organiza- 
tion, Mr. Ralph N. Buckstaff, vice-president and treasurer, and Mrs. 
May L. Bauchle, secretary. T. E. B. Pope, Theodore T. Brown. Mrs. 
Ruth M. Shuttleworth, Rev. F. S. Dayton, E. K. Putnam and A. C. 
Burrill were elected members of the board of directors. 

President Charles G. Schoewe conducted the meeting of the Wis- 
consin Archeological Society held at Milwaukee on Monday evening, 
April 21, 1930. The meeting was very well attended seventy-five 
members and visitors being present, Among these were a number 
of Oneida and Winnebago Indians. Secretary Brown announced the 
election to membership of Mr. Herbert E. Kraft, Milwaukee; Rich- 
ard Adams, Reedsburg, and Mrs. Vina S. Adams, Battle Creek, Michi- 
gan, annual members. The death of Dr. Frederick C. Rogers, Oco- 
nomowoc, a charter member and former officer of the Society, was 
announced. The President's appointments of members of standing 
committees were read. These are printed on the beginning pages of 
this issue of the Wisconsin Archeologist. All members of the Society 
were urged to attend the meeting of the Central Section, American An- 
thropological Association, to be held in Milwaukee on May 9 mid 10. 
Special invitations to attend were to be sent to all. 

The program consisted of an illustrated talk by Huron H. Smith 
on "Among the Oneida Indians", this being an account of his ethno- 
botanical investigations among these Wisconsin tribesmen during the 
summer of the past year. Mr. Emil J. Schaefer exhibited two very 
interesting Winnebago films prepared by himself, these bearing the 
titles, "The Winnebago Powwow at Pittsville", and "The Winnebago 
Harvest Dance at Kilbourn". 

At the close of the meeting Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., exhibited 
some interesting stone implements found near Port Washington, and 
Mr. Paul Joers a pipe and flint points and an Indian pin and bone 

A brief account of the meeting of the Central Section, American 
Anthropological Association, which was held at Milwaukee on Friday 

Archeological Notes. 165 

and Saturday, May 9 and 10, is printed elsewhere in this issue. It 
was a fine meeting and those members of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society who were able to attend were given the opportunity of meet- 
ing brother archeologists from other Midwest, Southern and Western 
states. For the birth of this now very active interstate organization 
the Wisconsin Archeological Society is to the largest part responsible, 
two of its members, Dr. Barrett and Mr. Brown, proposing the plan, 
and the organization meeting being held in Milwaukee, nine years 
ago. Both men have since served as presidents of the Association 
and have always been very active in its councils. 

By invitation of the Wisconsin Society of Friends of Our Native 
Landscape a Regional and Rural Planning Conference was held at 
the State Capitol building at Madison on March 27-28. Among the 
other organizations and state departments participating in this gath- 
ering by means of their officers or other representatives were the 
Wisconsin Federation of Womens Clubs, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, State Historical Society, Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety, the State Highway Commission, the State Conservation Com- 
mission, State Department of Agriculture, State Land Office, 'State 
Horticultural Society and several departments of the University of 

The purpose of the conference was to coordinate the work of all 
organizations in the state whose functions have a bearing on the 
benefication of its lands, parks and highways, and the preservation 
of its historic and scenic landmarks. 


A movement is on foot to make a historical museum of the first 
capitol building at Leslie. "At present there is nothing aside from 
the old structure resurrected some years ago to hold the interest of 
thousands of visitors who come here each summer." It is pointed 
out that in the cities in the vicinity there are scattered about many 
pieces of old furniture and other furnishings and specimens which 
would be available for converting the interior of the old building 
into a shrine of unusual interest. An association is being formed in 
three southwestern Wisconsin counties to undertake this very desir- 
able work. 

We are not fully informed at this time as to what further progress 
has been made in the effort of the history and landmarks committee 
of the Wisconsin Federation of Women's Clubs to acquire for the 
state and permanently preserve the old U. S. Indian Agency House 
at Portage. In this undertaking a number of state societies and or- 
ganizations have manifested an enthusiastic interest. Mrs. C. E. 
Buell of Madison, chairman of the committee, has done some excellent 
work for the project by having a state committee consisting of promi- 
nent men and women residents of Portage, Madison and Milwaukee 
appointed to undertake the preservation of the Agency House. We 
await the successful carrying out of their plans. 

The department of anthropology of the University of Chicago has 
undertaken the making of a "pictorial survey" of the Indian arti- 
facts of the Middle West states. Mr. F. M. Setzler of Chicago is en- 
gaged in this work which proposes to gather photographs and notes 
such as may be available to all American archeologists and enable 
the University to undertake researches tending to the unifaction of 
all information bearing on Indian cultures of this area. The Wis- 
consin Archeological Society has not yet formally invited to co- 
operate in this undertaking. Mr. Setzler has been engaged in ex- 
amining the collections and records of the Milwaukee museum. 


At Janesville a movement has been started by the local Associa- 
tion of Commerce in response to the suggestions of the Wsconsin 
Archeological Society to mark with metal tablets a number of places 
of Indian historical interest in the city. These include the site of the 
Round Rock village and Rock Ford and the old Indian village sites 
and camp grounds in Riverside Park; on Goose Island and in "Black 
Hawk" Park. 

We trust that this will inspire our friends at Beloit to erect similar 
monuments on the early sites of Turtle village and Standing Post 
village and perhaps permanently preserve and mark some of the 
Indian mounds still remaining along State Highway 51 near the city. 
Rock County should endeavor to secure and preserve as a county 
historical park the site of the historic Catfish village and Indian Hill 
mound group at the mouth of the Yahara River near Fulton and 
Indian Ford. At the latter town a marker should be placed to mark 
the location of the early Indian ford of the Rock. All residents of 
Rock County should take an active interest in bringing about these 
now very desirable public undertakings. All of these sites are 
described in a recent Rock River report of this Society. 

The Hudson Women's Club are marking a group of three mounds 
located on a bluff on the lake shore. This property a Mr. Birkenoe 
has presented to the city of Hudson for a park. 


Bulletin 86 of the Bureau of American Ethnology is a monograph 
on "Chippewa Customs" by Frances Densmore. All members of the 
'Society should secure a copy for their libraries. The material pre- 
sented was collected at White Earth, Red Lake, Cass Lake, Leech 
Lake, and Mille Lac Reservations in Minnesota, and the Lac Court 
Oreilles Reservation in Wisconsin, and the Manitou Rapids Reserve 
in Ontario, Canada. 

The Committee on State Archeological Surveys, National Research 
Council has issued a "Guide Leaflet for Amateur Archeologists," the 
intention of which is to encourage systematic study of our fast van- 
ishing Indian remains. Copies of this leaflet may be obtained through 
the Madison office of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. 

For distribution at this year's Summer Session of the University 
of Wisconsin there have been printed by the State Historical Museum 
two leaflets, "Indian Star Lore" and "The Birds of the Campus". 
The latter is of interest to persons interested in folklore because of 
chapters which it contains on "Bird Beliefs of the Pioneers" and 
"Indian Bird Lore." 

A recent issue of the Green Bay History Bulletin is devoted to an 
article on "Green Bay Plays Important Part in Early Newspaper 
History", by Abigail B. Robinson. 

Mr. Charles E. Brown has published "Wigwam Tales", a booklet 
collection of about fifty selected Indian short stories for the fireside 
and camp fire. These stories are chosen from the best myths and 
legends of many American Indian tribes. They are particularly 
dedicated to the use of storytellers at boys and girls summer camps. 
Cost 50 cents. Address 2011 Chadbourne Avenue, Madison. The 
author has previously printed similar booklets of "Paul Bunyan 
Tales" and "Cowboy Tales". 


Julp, 1930 


Jto. 4 





Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

(ffltecontfm glrcfjeologtcal 
^fliltoaukee, Mi* 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Charles G. Schoewe 


R. J. Kieckhefer Dr. A. L. Kastner 

W. W. Oilman Mrs. Theo. Koerner 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. C. McKern 
A. P. Kannenberg 

Dr. S. A. Barrett 

H. H. Smith 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz 


A. T. Newman 
E. F. Richter 
L. R. Whitney 

Geo. A. West 

Vetal Winn 

Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

T. L. Miller 


G. M. Thome 
National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. A. L. Kastner, J. P. Schumacher, W. F. 
Bauchle, Geo. F. Overton, M. F. Hulburt, T. M. N. Lewis, Dr. E. 
J. W. Notz, O. L. Hollister, Dr. F. G. Logan, T. T. Brown, Dr. B. T. 
Best, S W. Faville, Col. R. S. Owen, G. L. Pasco. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Frank Weston, 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, Dr. Orrin Thompson, Mrs. F. R. Melcher, 
Col. Howard Greene, Rev. O. W. Smith, M. G. Troxell, H. W. Cor- 
nell, W. P. Morgan, Dr. E. G. Bruder, A. H. Griffith. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS L. R. Whitney, Col. Marshall Cousins, 
Mrs. Arthur C. Neville, Geo. A. West, W. M. Babcock, R. N. Buck- 
staff, Prof. J. B. MacHarg, Dr. P. B. Jenkins, Rev. F. S. Dayton, 
A. P. Kannenberg, Mrs. May L. Bauchle, B. M. Palmer. 

MEMBERSHIP Louis Pierron, Paul Joers, A. R. Rogers, Arthur 
Gerth, Dr. W. H. Brown, Rud. Boettger, A. P. Cloos, Dr. H. W. 
Kuhm, Mrs. Anna F. Johnson, K. Freckman, Geo. Wright, Mrs. 
Hans A. Olson, Carl Baur, C. G. Weyl. 

D. S. Rowland. 

PUBLICITY J. G. Gregory, A. 0. Barton, E. R. Mclntyre, R. K. Coe. 
BIOGRAPHY H. H. Smith, G. M. Thome, C. E. Brown. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles . E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Muesum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Mil- 


Vol. 9, No. 4, New Series 


Pottery Smoothers, Charles E. Brown 171 

Archbishop Messmer 174 

Oliver Lemere 175 

Indian Implement Manufacture by Halvor L. Skavlem 177 

Some Village and Camp Sites in Northern Michigan, C. E. Brown 

and M. F. Hulburt 180 

Plant Games and Toys of Chippewa Children, T. T. Brown 185 

The Battle of Kings Mountain Anniversary Celebration, Ray 

Jacobs 187 

Ancient Cities of Northeastern Arizona, Albert B. Reagan 188 


Pottery Smoother, State Historical Museum 

Pottery Smoother, State Historical Museum 

Cije Wisconsin 8rcf)eolosi8t 

Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeological Society 

Vol. MADISO1V, WIS., JUL.Y, 1930 No. 4 

New Series 


Charles E. Brown 

It appears desirable that some attention should be paid by 
archeologists and collectors of Indian stone implements to a 
class of artifacts, which, although seemingly not particu- 
larly numerous in Wisconsin are represented by one or a 
small number of specimens in nearly all of the larger pub- 
lic and private collections in the state. These have long 
been designated by collectors as "spindles" or "pottery 
slicks." The first name is not particularly significant, be- 
ing probably applied to them because of the shape of some. 
The second name, which is in more general use, indicates a 
belief in their use as smoothing tools. Professor Moore- 
head appears to have favored this latter theory. In his book, 
"The Stone Age in North America", he presents a plate in 
which four of these interesting implements are shown.* Be- 
neath this plate is the printed text, "Stones used in smooth- 
ing pottery, kneading clay, etc." Doubtless Mr. Moorehead 
possessed very good reasons for this belief. Unfortunately 
for the student he does not give these in this volume. 
These "pottery smoothers" may be described as oval or el- 
lipical in form, and oval, elliptical or somewhat rectangular 
or square in section. Some have rather sharply pointed 
extremities, others have slightly rounded ends. They ap- 
pear to range in length from about 3 to 8% inches and from 
less than an inch to l 1 /^ inches in diameter or width at their 
middles. A typical specimen is shown in the frontispiece 
of this issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist. 

It may be desirable to briefly describe a few of the 
specimens of this class of implements which are within 
reach at this time. An example in the collections of the 

* Fig. 689, p. 293. 


Neville Public Museum at Green Bay was found on an In- 
dian village site at The Cove at Sturgeon Bay, in Door 
county, Wisconsin. This rather fine specimen is made of 
limestone. It is elliptical in form, both extremities being 
pointed. Its length is about 7% inches and it 3 diameter 
at its middle about 1% inches. Mr. John P. Schumacher 
collected this implement. In the Schumacher and Ducha- 
teau collections in this very active Wisconsin museum 
there are at least half a dozen other implements of this 
class all of which come from village sites in the Green Bay 
region. Descriptions of these may be furnished in a fu- 
ture article. 

In the Henry P. Hamilton collection in the State His- 
torical Museum there are three very good specimens, one 
of these (A5638) being the largest specimen of which there 
is a present record. This imp^ment was obtained from a 
village site in Gibson Township, Manitowoc County. It will 
be noticed (sea Frontispiece) that in this specimen one part 
tapers more acutely to a point than does the other. Its 
length is 8% inches and its greatest width 1% inches. Its 
upper and lower surfaces are flattened and its sidss rounded, 
giving an oval section. It is made of schist and its weight 
is 7 ounces. 

A second specimen (A5640) is also elliptical in form with 
pointed extremities. It was obtained from the extensive 
village sites at Two Rivers, from which so very many of 
this noted collector's choicest artifacts of many classes were 
collected in past years. Its length is 5% inches and its 
greater diameter 1% inches. Like the foregoing specimen 
its upper and lower surfaces are flattened for their en- 
tire length and its sides rounded. These surfaces show the 
effects of weathering some of the otherwise smoothed lime- 
stone of which it is fashioned being scaled or worn off. It 
weighs 8 ounces, being heavier though of smaller size than 
the other specimen. 

A third example (A5639) was also originally elliptical in 
form, a small piece of one end being broken off but again 
rounded by use or otherwise. 

All of its surfaces are flattened for their entire length, 
giving a rectangular section. It is made of limestone and 
its weight is 3 ounces. Its length is 4% inches and its 

Pottery Smoothers. 173 

greatest width 15/16 of an inch. It was also collected from 
the Two Rivers sites. 

A fourth specimen, preserved in the collections of the 
State Museum (A1982), comes from a village site at Big 
Suamico, in Brown County. This specimen, also ellipical in 
form, is made of a harder stone than "any of the others, prob- 
ably diorite. Its upper and lower surfaces are flattened and 
its sides slightly rounded. Its length is 4 inches and its 
greatest width % of an inch. One extremity is injured as 
in the foregoing specimen. Its weight is 3 ounces. 

Another small specimen was collected by J. A. H. John- 
son near Chetek, in Barron County. It was oval in form 
and section with rounded ends. This specimen was made of 
white quartz. Its length was 4 inches and its greatest di- 
ameter l 1 /^ inches. Its weight cannot be given as it has 
for some years been in other hands in a neighboring state. 

These descriptions will illustrate the character of this 
class of interesting prehistoric Indian artifacts. Whether 
or not they were employed as tools by our aboriginal potters 
in the smoothing of the surfaces of their earthen vessels 
during their manufacture remains to be determined. Fa- 
voring this theory are their generally flattened surfaces, 
their light weight and nature of the stone of which some 
or most specimens are made, and the absence on their sur- 
faces of any marks showing rough usage. 

The pointed ends of some would be useful in ornamenting 
a green vessel with indentations and trailed decorations. 
No one will perhaps deny that they would not prove to be 
very convenient tools for the aboriginal potter. The finding 
of all or most of these Wisconsin specimens on well known 
village sites, on which large quantities of earthenware ves- 
sels were evidently manufactured, may lend further support 
to this at present rather accepted theory of their use. 

Similar stone implements have been found in Illinois, In- 
diana and no doubt in other states. We shall be pleased to 
have our co-workers in Wisconsin and archeologists and 
collectors in other states correspond with us concerning sim- 
ilar specimens in their collections, and to the end that some 
time a more complete monograph on this subject may be 



Archbishop Sebastian G. Messmer, head of the Milwau- 
kee Catholic archdiocese, died while on a visit to his former 
home at Goldach, Switzerland, on Sunday, August 3. He 
was eighty-three years of age at the time of his death, 
and is said to have been in point of years the oldest Cath- 
olic archbishop in the United States. Before going to 
Goldach the Archbishop visited Rome, where he had an 
audience with the pope. He also attended the Passion Play 
at Ober-Ammergau. 

Archbiship Messmer was for nearly thirty years a mem- 
ber of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, being one of its 
oldest members. During past years Secretary Brown ex- 
changed occasional letters with him in matters of interest 
to the Society in whose activities in preserving antiquities, 
conducting researches and organizing and assisting Wis- 
consin museums he manifested a deep interest. When 
asked to contribute to any need of the Society he always 
willingly did so. When the Salzmann Museum was or- 
ganized at St. Francis Seminary by the late Fathers Drexel 
and Metzdorf, and other former St. Francis members of the 
Society, he contributed towards the purchase of specimens 
and collections and lent other assistance, At least one 
member of the Archbishops household was then also a mem- 
ber of the Society. Through his kindly assistance the 
membership of other priests of the Catholic Church was se- 

IA the death of this prince of the Church the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society mourns the loss of another devoted 
friend. The fine portrait of him printed in a recent issue 
of the Milwaukee Journal shows what a fine kindly gentle- 
man the Archbishop was. His friends outside of his own 
church were very numerous. Archbishop Messmer was 
also for many years an officer and devoted member of the 
Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Oliver Lemere. 175 


Oliver Lemere, whose home for several years past was at 
Madison, died at Starved Rock State Park, in Illinois, on 
Friday, August 1, after a very short illness. He had gone 
to the Park but a short time before with the plan of there 
contributing to the recreation of summer visitors. 

Lemere was a member of the Wisconsin Winnebago tribe 
and a descendant of the famous Indian daughter of Chief 
Four Legs of the early Doty Island village, Hopokoekau, 
"Glory of the Morning". His boyhood home was on the 
Winnebago Reservation in Nebraska. His great grand- 
father, Oliver Armel, a Frenchman, had an Indian trading 
post at Madison, within a short distance of the present cap- 
itol building, when the first white settlers arrived there in 
1837. Angel Decora, the noted Indian girl artist, was his 
cousin and grew to girlhood as a member of his father's 
family. Between them there always existed a strong fam- 
ily attachment. 

Lemere received his education at the former Indian 
school at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He was a man of excep- 
tional intelligence and fine manners and presence. His 
first appearance in Madison was in about the year 1914 
when he spent a summer in the city as assistant to Dr. Paul 
Radin, then engaged in his Winnebago researches for the 
American Bureau of Ethnology. In the succeeding years 
he made frequent visits to the city making the acquaintance 
of many of its leading citizens. 

Being exceptionally well informed on the ethnology, tra- 
ditions and history of his people Lemere was during these 
years able to give much valuable assistance to both the 
Wisconsin Historical Society and the Wisconsin Archeologi- 
cal Society. Of the latter he was at the time of his death 
an always very helpful member. None of its Indian mem- 
bers has ever stood higher in its councils than Oliver 
Lemere. To many of its members he was very well known. 
He was highly regarded by a host of other friends in Wis- 

During these years Lemere supported himself by giving 
lectures in the city schools of Chicago, and before service 


clubs, historical societies, Boy Scouts and Y. M. C. A. or- 
ganizations and other bodies in Wisconsin and elsewhere. 
He frequently appeared in the programs of the Friends of 
Our Native Landscape and the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society. One summer he was engaged in giving a course in 
woodcraft at Culver Military Academy, and in another he 
was employed as a guide at the Wisconsin Dells. Governor 
Fred R. Zimmerman during his administration appointed 
him to a temporary position as a guide at the state capitol. 
He also acted as Indian custodian for a time of the Frost's 
Woods wild life sanctuary at Madison. 

Lemere was not only a lecturer and entertainer, he was 
also skilled in the arts of the Indian silversmith and wood- 
carver. In the State Historical Museum and in other mu- 
seums are specimens of his silver work and other valuable 
ethnological material obtained through him. 

In 1928 in collaboration with Mr. Harold B. Shinn of 
Chicago he published a book, "Winnebago Stories", and 
which has had a good sale. Some years previous to this he 
assisted the late Dr. N. J. Jipson of Chicago in the prepara- 
tion of a dictionary of the Winnebago language. The Wis- 
consin Archaeological Society has at different times printed 
folktales obtained through him. A large number of other 
Winnebago myths and legends collected by him for Dr. 
Radin await publication by the American Bureau of Eth- 

He was at one time an officer of the once very active 
Society of American Indians. He stood high in the regards 
of both the educated and other Indians of his own and other 

Oliver Lemere leaves behind a fine family of eight boys 
and girls. One of his sons, Francis Lemere, now connected 
with the Wisconsin Dells Indian pageant, is a vocalist of 
more than local note. 

In closing these brief notes of the useful life of a dear 
friend we can only express the wish that his fine, gentle 
spirit may rest in eternal peace in the spirit world of his 
Winnebago warrior forefathers. 

Indian Implement Manufacture. 177 


The extraordinary achievements of Mr. Halvor L. Skav- 
lem of Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin, in the manufacture by 
Indian methods of chipped flint and pecked and ground stone 
implements are recounted in a fine monograph prepared by 
Alonzo W. Pond and recently published by the Logan Mu- 
seum of Beloit College. In the preface of this bulletin, 
"Primitive Methods of Working Stone Based on Experi- 
ments of Halvor L. Skavlem,"* the author says: 

"In September, 1912, Mr. Halvor L. Skavlem was walk- 
ing through the cornfield back of his summer home at Lake 
Koshkonong looking for arrowheads, axes and other relics 
of Indian handiwork as he had done many times a day for 
several years. On this particular occasion he found a 
broken celt and asked himself, "If I were an Indian how 
would I sharpen this broken celt?" Nearby he found a 
piece of chert and began to answer his own question by 
striking the celt with it. The details of this experiment are 
told later in this paper. It is sufficient here to note that he 
sharpened the celt with it and continued his experiments 
with most satisfying results. Arrowheads were his next 
problem and his success in shaping them was equal'y 

"It was the good fortune of the writer to call on Mr. 
Skavlem three or four days after these first attempts at the 
primitive manufacture of stone implements. The writer 
was at that time a student in high school but he had the 
pleasure of following Mr. Skavlem's work close 1 y from the 
first series of experiments to the present time. It is in 
fact due to Mr. Skavlem's enthusiasm and teaching that the 
writer has followed the study of archeology in America, 
Europe, Africa and Asia for the past seventeen years. As 
no one else has had the opportunity to be as closely con- 
nected with Mr. Skavlem's work as has the writer, it is 
natural that he was asked by Dr. Frank G. Logan and Dr. 
George L. Collie of Logan Museum to prepare this manu- 

* Bulletin, V. 2, No. 1. 


script on Mr. Skavlem's experiments. "Mr. Skavlem is now 
eighty-four years old and is still making arrowheads with 
the same skill and rapidity he showed fifteen and more 
years ago. The writer appreciates the confidence Mr. 
Skavlem has manifested in allowing him to prepare this 
paper and he has submitted all parts of it for the experi- 
menter's approval." 

Mr. Pond presents his well-written descriptions of Mr. 
Skavlem's notable experiments in six chapters bearing the 
titles : "Observations in Primitive Stone- Working", "Mak- 
ing Flaked Implements", "Flint Fracture by Man and Na- 
ture", "Making Pecked and Ground Implements", The Skav- 
lem Axe and Tree Cutting" and "Relation of Material to 
Types, Classes and Techniques". Several pages at the end 
are devoted to conclusions and a number of others to a 
very complete and useful bibliography. The monograph is 
finely illustrated with sixty-four plates showing all of the 
stages of Mr. Skavlem's experiments and of their interesting 

As copies of Mr. Pond's monograph can be purchased 
through the Logan Museum by members of the Wisconsin 
Archeological Society and others desiring to possess copies, 
and as other copies of it may also now undoubtedly be ob- 
tained from all of our leading Wisconsin and other libraries 
it is unnecessary that much more be written about the very 
helpful character of this bulletin and the verv use- 
ful information contained in its well printed near-y 150 
pages. We may, however, print something concerning the 
subject of the monograph himself. "Halvor L. Skavlem 
belonged to a pioneer Norwegian family of Southern Wis- 
consin. In his boyhood the Indians lingered in his neigh- 
borhood. Their artifacts and other evidences of their 
former occupancy were then numerous. Naturally of an in- 
quisitive mind, young Skavlem began to ask himse'f how 7 
they made these stone utensils. In his later life, after a 
long study of the matter, he began making Indian tools as 
he believed they were made originally. He became very 
skilful and adept in the fashioning of stone." 

"Since September, 1912, when Mr. Skavlem first started 
making arrowheads and axes with the tools of primitive 
man his summer home on the site of Kaw-ray-kaw-saw- 

Indian Implement Manufacture. 179 

kaw's (White Crow) village at Carcajou Point on the shores 
of Lake Koshkonong, Wisconsin, has been a gathering place 
for hundreds of visitors eager to see how the Indian made 
his weapons. These visitors have come from all parts of 
the United States and Canada and many of them have 
written articles for publication about the "charming old 
arrowmaker of Lake Koshkonong." One of the most in- 
teresting of these articles is "The Arrow-Maker" by Charles 
D. Stewart, which appeared in the Atlantic Monthly for 
June, 1923." 

Mr. Skavlem, as well as Alonzo W. Pond, Dr. Frank G. 
Logan and Dr. George L Collie have been active members 
of the Wisconsin Archeological Society for many years. In 
the passing years many members of this Society have sat 
on the hospitable porch of the Skavlem home at Carcajou 
Point. Here in a number of boxes he kept his flint and 
stone-working tools consisting of stone breaking and flaking 
hand-hammers, stone and flint pecking hammers, bone and 
antler flakers and sandstone grinders and other tools re- 
quired for his experiments. Here also was a supply of flint 
and other stone, raw material obtained from neighboring 
stone heaps or sent to him by friends from aboriginal stone 
quarries and other sources. Here, on request, he was always 
willing to demonstrate and explain every step in the aborigi- 
nal manufacture of an arrowpoint or an axe. Many dis- 
tinguished American archeologists and ethnologists have 
been among his visitors. Several years ago a group of 
members of the Central Section, American Anthropological 
Society, then meeting at Beloit, made a special pilgrimage 
to his Janesville residence to observe his experiments. 
Numerous photographs and several movie films of him at 
work have been made and numerous newspaper articles and 
several magazine articles written about him and his work. 
He has never commercialized the results of his experiments, 
no one has ever been able to purchase even an arrowpoint 
from him. In Eastern and Western museums are specimens 
or series of specimens of his manufacture all of which he 
has freely donated as contributions to archeological. science. 

Mr. Skavlem is in addition to his extensive archeological 

* Pond, pp. 7, 12-13. 


knowledge, a naturalist of distinction. He has often been 
referred to as the "John Burroughs of Lake Koshkonong." 
His knowledge of the flora and fauna of his home region 
is profound. His valuable collection of native plants is in 
the herbarium of the University of Wisconsin and a large 
collection of 'mounted birds and skins in his Janesville home. 
His library is large and valuable. He is the author of sev- 
eral survey reports published by the Wisconsin Archeologi- 
cal Society. He was an active member of the old Wiscon- 
sin Natural History Society and is one of the oldest living 
members of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences and of the 
State Historical Society. No Wisconsin scientist of the 
present day has a larger circle of friends who respect him 
for his scientific knowledge and contributions in various 
fields of scientific research and investigation than Halvor 
L. Skavlem of Lake Koshkonong. To many a now success- 
ful investigator like AlonzoW.Pond, he has been the boyhood 
or young manhood inspiration. 


C. E. Brown and M. F. Hulburt 

During the early part of the month of August, with Mr. 
Theodore T. Brown, superintendent of the Neville Public 
Museum, Green Bay, we made an excursion into the 
northern Michigan peninsula (Hiawatha Land) the purpose 
of which was that of a camping and sightseeing tour rather 
than of an archeological expedition. However, in the course 
of our travels some archeological sites were encountered. 
From these small collections were made and some field notes 
and photographs taken. 

The first of these sites visited was located on the Green 
Bay shore of Lake Michigan several miles north of the vil- 
lage of Cedar River, in Menominee County. This village 
site is on the west side of Highway 35, opposite the Menom- 
inee County Park. The part of it lying east of the road, 
between the highway and the bay shore is overgrown with 
brush and trees and therefore not in condition for exami- 
nation. On the west side of the highway about 450 feet 

Northern Michigan Village and Camp Site's 1 . 181 

of this site is exposed in a series of shallow sand blows 
paralleling the road in a pasture. Here we found clusters 
of hearthstones in six different places, each doubtless mark- 
ing the former location of an Indian wigwam. None of 
these clusters of burned and broken stones had been much 
scattered by the wind or other causes and all were on or 
very close to their original sites. Digging in the vicinity of 
several of these exposed small areas of burned and ashy 
soil and bits of charcoal no doubt marking the original sites 
of household fireplaces. On these wigwam sites were 
places where flint nodules had been broken and worked, the 
chips, flakes and spalls of this material being scattered over 
the surface of the soil. The flint worked here was of a 
bluish white color and of a white and dark bluish (nearly 
black) color. A few white quartz flakes and fragments 
were also found. Near these places were also pieces of 
broken bones of the deer, bear and other animals. The 
specimens recovered from this site in the course of an hour's 
search of its surface were a small triangular point nicely 
fashioned of white flint, blanks and rejects of the kinds of 
flint above mentioned, a scraper, nearly square in form made 
of bluish-white flint a stemflake scraper with a rounded 
blade, two pebble hammerstones showing signs of use, a 
small conical muller or grinding stone, pieces of a broken 
unfinished celt, the canine tooth of a bear, unperforated, 
and a notched pebble net weight. This site is one of the 
farthest north that these sinkers have been reported on 
this side of Lake Michigan to date, Manistique is the other. 
Pottery fragments were mostly found in small areas near 
the hearth sites where small and medium-sized vessels had 
broken and disintegrated. These sherds were of two kinds, 
one tempered with crushed shell and the other with crushed 
stone. Some of this earthernware was made of a reddish 
clay, and some of it of a dark-colored clay surfaced on 
both sides with reddish clay. Several rim-pieces have 
straight, up-turned rims ornamented on top and on the sides 
with small indentations. One shows twisted-cord impres- 
sions. Deer Creek flows into Green Bay a short distance 
north of this site. Doubtless the site itself will be later 
found to extend quite to the mouth of the creek. Because 
of its location near this county park this village site is un- 


doubtedly much hunted over for arrowpoints by visitors to 
this park. Many were in the vicinity on the Sunday after- 
noon when we arrived here. Mr. John P. Schumacher, the 
Green Bay archeologist, has in past years also collected some 
specimens here. A short distance north of the creek there 
is a place on the east side of the highway on which is a 
sign bearing the legend "Old Indian Garden." 

White Fish River Village Site, another Indian village site 
which we visited, is situated on the east bank of the White 
Fish River on a farm owned by G. M. Berquist in Delta 
County. This site is located a short distance northeast of 
the highway bridge crossing the river. It is a sandy field 
ten or more acres in extent, elevated from 10 to 30 feet 
above the flat land along the river bank and from 150 to 
to 200 feet distant from the stream. Some large stumps 
indicate that this site was covered with pine trees. A short 
distance beyond the northern limits of this village site 
there is a fine spring which the early aboriginal occupants 
of this place must have appreciated. 

From this site we collected ten flint scrapers, square, 
circular and snub-nosed in form, a stemmed spearpoint made 
of white flint, a notched spearpoint made of grey flint, one 
stemmed and two notched arrowpoints made of grey flint, 
broken flint blanks, a notched white quartz arrowpoint, a 
small piece of native copper, probably part of an implement, 
and a pebble hammerstone. 

Flint chips and fragments and animal bones and burned 
stones are scattered over small areas in different parts of 
this site in such a manner as to indicate the former location 
here of at least four or five Indian habitations. A portion 
of this field is grass-grown and the site may extend over 
this land also. 

The stone worked here by the Indian arrowmakers we 
found to be a greyish-white flint (the most common), a 
white flint, white quartz, flesh-colored quartzite, brown 
chalcedony, and a grey silica. 

No potsherds were found near any of the wigwam sites 
but fragments of a single medium-sized vessel were found 
in the sandy bank at the edge of the site. This vessel was 
made of dark colored clay surfaced on both sides with red 
clay and tempered with crushed white quartz. It is orna- 

Northern Michigan Village and Camp Sites. 183 

mented with roulette markings, its lower surface marked 
by treatment with a cord-wound paddle. 

The White Fish River is about 250 feet wide opposite 
this site. It is a fine, clear stream. To the north is a large 
tamarack swamp. It flows southward to the head of Little 
Bay De Noc. Mr. Schumacher has also collected from this 
village site. 

Manistique Camp Site. At Manistique we found a camp 
and workshop site near the bank of the Manistique River in 
a small plot of sandy ground directly in the rear of Sell- 
man's fish dock. The backyards of several city lots adjoin 
this site. The flint used in arrow manufacture on this site 
is of a lustreless light-grey color. Chips and flakes of it 
were very numerous and among these were found a broken 
pebble hammerstone and a single small triangular flint ar- 

On the opposite bank of the river, between it and the 
Lake Michigan shore are extensive sand dunes some of these 
being partly covered with vegetation and pine and other 
trees. We spent several hours in searching the sandy areas 
on and at the bases of these picturesque dunes for Indian 
sites' which we felt must be there, but with no result. 

In the public library at Manistique there is a small col- 
lection of largely local archeological material. There are in 
this collection about one hundred flnt arrow and spear- 
points, blanks, a curved knife, several scrapers (bunts), a 
hoe blade, a notched pebble sinker and two grooved stone 
axes. The points are largely made of grey chert. The 
largest spearpoint, a stemmed point made of grey flint, is 
about 61/2 inches long and its blade about 3 inches wide. 
A pebble pipe comes from the Dehtin farm at Indian Lake. 
There formerly was a single copper spearpoint in this col- 

In the museum of old Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island 
there is an archeological collection consisting of flint points, 
celts, axes, a gouge, gorgets, bannerstones, and a pipe. 

Densmore's Beach Site. At this Lake Michigan shore 
resort at St. Ignace there are evidences of a village or camp 
site. This we could not examine as most of the site was 
under sod. Some flint chips were found on the tourist 
camp ground of the resort. Mr. G. E. Densmore, son of the 


proprietor, has a small collection of local material in which 
are a slate gorget, a small hemisphere, an unfinished gorget, 
three celts, three unfinished celts, a small rectangular cat- 
linite pipe, two iron trade axes and about forty flint arrow 
and spearpoints and blanks. 

Some copper beads are reported to have been found in a 
"mound" with a burial on the adjoining Miller summer resi- 
dence site. 

Sault Ste Marie. Mr. F. R. Vigeant who is the pro- 
prietor of the large and fine curio store in this city has a 
small collection of Indian implements on exhibition in a case 
in his establishment. In this collection are a grooved stone 
axe, six stone celts of ordinary forms, a small rectangular 
stone chisel and a considerable number of flint arrow and 
spearpoints. Most of his specimens are from Chippewa 
County. Mr. Vigeant, who is very well informed, says 
that Indian implements are not particularly common in the 
surrounding region. 

We examined a considerable number of likely looking 
sandy areas in the region from Munising to Keweenaw 
Point but were unable to find traces of former Indian habi- 
tation at any of these. At Ontonagon there is a large sandy 
area which stretches from the north limits of the city to 
the tourist park. An examination made of this region lo- 
cated only a single camp site where hearthstones were in 
evidence and where white quartz had been chipped. As we 
were somewhat limited as to time we were unable to call on 
any of a considerable number of archeologist and collector 
friends who reside in the fine cities and villages of this fair 
country of crystal lakes, innumerable inviting streams, pine 
and hardwood forests, and iron and copper mines. Some 
day we shall adventure there again. 

Plant Games and Toys of Chippewa Children. 185 


Theodore T. Brown 

Frances Densmore in her recent report on Chippewa In- 
dian customs describes some interesting flower games and 
toys of the children of this tribe.* Some of these we take 
the liberty of quoting for the interest of our members and 

'The leaves of the pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.) 
formed a favorite plaything. The native name for the 
plant means "frogs leggings". If the older people were 
gathering berries the children filled the pitcher-shaped 
leaves with berries or sand and used them in various forms 
of childish play. 

"The gathering and stringing of certain red berries 
formed an interesting pastime. The fresh red berries were 
pierced with a sharp instrument and strung on nettle-fibre 
twine. After they were dry the husks were removed by 
rubbing with the hands. No other berries and no beads were 
combined with them and four or five strands were usually 
worn around the neck. 

"Little snowshoes" were made of the needles of the Nor- 
way pine. In making a little snowshoe the point of the 
pine needle is bent over and inserted in the socket of the 
needle at its base, forming a loop which somewhat resembles 
the frame of a snowshoe. Many of these are interlaced and 
worn in a necklace. 

"Large flat lichens were cut from trees and etched in pat- 
terns resembling those on woven-yarn bags. These were 
used by little girls in their play, being placed on the walls 
in imitation of the yarn bags in the wigwams. 

"In more recent times bright-colored autumn leaves were 
used by the children to represent letters, and the children 
"played post office", receiving these "letters" and pretend- 
ing to read them. 

"Leaves were selected with distinct markings which they 
read as words. 

* Bull. 86, Bur. of Am. Ethno. 


"The little girls made miniature mats from rushes and 
were encouraged to take the bark from small birch-bark 
trees and make rolls similar to those used for wigwam cov- 
ers ; they also made little birchbark utensils similar to those 
made by their mothers. 

"Ducks were made of bulrush roots and were floated on 
little pools of water. 

"Dolls The simplest form of representing a human being 
was by means of a large tuft of needles of the Norway pine. 
This tuft was cut squarely across the end and about halfway 
up a part of the needles were cut across, suggesting the 
length of the arms, or perhaps a shawl hanging from the 
shoulders. A bit of wood was left at the top of the tuft 
suggesting the head. These little figurines were placed up- 
right on a piece of zinc or in a large tin pan which was 
gently agitated. This motion caused the figurines to 
tremble in a manner suggesting an Indian dance and even 
to move back and forth, according to the skill of the per- 
son manipulating the tin on which they were placed. Dolls 
were also made of green basswood leaves and of bright 
autumn leaves with little splinters of wood. 

"Figures of men and women were made from a portion of 
the root of bullrushes that is below the water. This was 
partially dried and made into figures by tying it with bass- 
wood fiber, after which the figures were thoroughly dried 
and could be handled without breaking. 

"A step higher in development were the figures of men 
and women cut from the inner bark of the slippery elm." 

Dolls were also made of grass, willow bark and birch- 

Miss Densmore's list of the plant games and toys of Chip- 
pewa Indian children is by no means complete. These chil- 
dren play other games and have devised other toys with 
seeds, wild fruits, leaves, stems, bark and flowers which 
remain to be described. 

The Battle of Kings Mountain Anniversary Celebration. 187 


Ray Jacobs 

"That the Sesqui-Centennial Celebration of the Battle of 
Kings Mountain to be staged on the battleground on Octo- 
ber 7, 1930, will eclipse in every particular all previous cele- 
brations of the anniversary of the conflict, is conceded. 
The nations chief executive, President Herbert Hoover, has 
accepted an invitation to be the guest of honor and the 
principal speaker. Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, 
the noted antartic explorer, Sir Ronald Lindsay, British 
Ambassador to the United States and many other notables 
have been invited to attend. The governors of North and 
South Carolina, Virginia, Georgia and Tennessee are all 
closely identified with the coming celebration, representing 
as they do, the states which furnished the soldiers who here 
defeated the British. The governors of the other original 
thirteen states have also been invited and are expected to 
be in attendance." * 

In this battle, designated as "the turning point of the 
American Revolution", the companies of American moun- 
taineer riflemen, "the Back Water men", from the states 
before mentioned, surrounded and destroyed on the crest of 
Kings Mountain, in York County, South Carolina, a British 
force under one of General Cornwallis' most able lieuten- 
ants, Colonel Patrick Ferguson, sent to subdue and capture 
the patriot commands. 

"In one hour on the afternoon of October 7, 1780, the 
whole course of America's history had been changed. A 
volunteer army, untrained and undisciplined had completely 
defeated Colonel Ferguson's well-drilled militia and his 
trusted guard of British regulars. Not a man of the enemy 
had escaped; those who were not killed or wounded were 
prisoners. According to the official report of Colonel 
Campbell and his associate officers, Ferguson's losses were 
206 killed (Ferguson himself was killed), 128 wounded and 
600 taken prisoners. The American losses were 28 killed 

* The Battle of Kings Mountain, Helen Deane Chandler, 1930. 


and 62 wounded."* The opposing armies were nearly equal 
in strength. 

The destruction of Ferguson's expedition was a sad blow 
to Cornwallis. "He had hoped to step with ease from one 
Carolina to the other, and from those to the conquest of 
Virginia; and he had no choice but to retreat." This re- 
treat lead to his surrender to Washington at Yorktown. 

The Battle of Kings Mountain is of particular interest to 
citizens of Wisconsin because the manuscript records of 
that fight, some eighteen bound volumes, are in the pos- 
session of the Wisconsin Historical Society. "Dr. Lyman 
C. Draper, secretary of the Society in its early days, spent a 
life time, commencing at the age of 15, studying this famous 
battle. The result of his studies, research and visits to the 
battlefield and its environs was an exhaustive history of the 
Battle of Kings Mountain, published originally by Peter G. 
Thomson, of Cincinnati, in 1881. Unfortunately the Thom- 
son plant was burned shortly after the book was printed 
and all but about two hundred copies were destroyed along 
with the copy, proofs and plates. Hence for years it was 
impossible to secure a copy of Draper's except at collectors 
prices which made it prohibitive from the standpoint of the 
average student. Recently, however, a reprint, an exact 
duplicate of the original edition in every respect, including 
the illuminated binding, has been issued by Dauber & Pine 
Bookshops, Inc., New York City." 

Albert B. Reagan 

Many people have read with interest the unearthing of 
the ruins of Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and especially 
that of Pueblo Bonito by the National Geographical Society. 
The Mesa Verde ruins in Colorado and those in the Gila and 
Salt river valleys of southern Arizona have also been of in- 
terest. On the mesas and in the valleys and canyons of 
northeastern Arizona there are prehistoric communities 
with equal mysterious interest. 

Some men of science say these towns and small-house 
ruins, which are as numerous over the whole region as farm 

Ancient Cities of Northeastern Arizona. 189 

houses dot central Iowa today, were built in the Stone Age. 
Others say they existed 4,000 years ago. 

The whole area is an aggregation of ruins. Their builders 
had a high degree of engineering skill. Huge trees were 
transported to the villages from forests often sixty miles 
away and great masses of stone, in places, were brought 
from far off quarries. Irrigation canals, dams and reser- 
voirs, probably some of the oldest known to the civilized 
world, are also found here and there in this region. And 
think of the enormous labor of constructing such works 
with stone implements and of carrying the excavated earth 
away in wicker baskets! Furthermore, to render the clay 
bed of the canal impervious, it was first puddled and then 
by means of burning brush and wood, it was burned to a 
terra cotta consistency. Moreover, the course of the canals 
now may be traced, centuries after they have been filled 
with sand and vegetation, by means of small black pebbles 
placed along the inner banks by the inhabitants, in the 
belief, held by the Zunis now, that they assist the motion 
of the currents, due to a mistaken idea of cause and effect, 
suggested by the sight of stones rolling in running brooks. 

They grew great quantities of corn, some tobacco and 
cotton, and they also raised beans as well as two or three 
varieties of squash. They had also domesticated the turkey 
and had developed the art of basketry and pottery to per- 
fection. Indeed, in places in the region one may walk for 
miles and find the sandy surface more or less mixed with 
pieces of broken pottery. The paint is still on them, and 
is not in the least faded, though they have been exposed 
for centuries. 

The towns often consisted of a central citidel or "temple" 
building, sometimes in circular shape, surrounded with clus- 
ters of dwellings, sometimes contained within the walled in- 
closures, which, in turn, were surrounded by thatched huts. In 
each city was also (one or more) other large public edifices, 
usually oval in form, twenty to fifty feet in diameter, and 
conjectured to have been a place of worship. Stones and 
adobe were used as the building material; and the main 
earth walls and the walls of the outer buildings were often 
formed within a framework of timber and wattled cane and 
brush. Thus their architecture, like their pottery, were 


obtained from original basket types. The small-house 
groups were similarly made, usually of a single tier of 
masonry-built rooms, oriented in an east and west line, ac- 
companied by frailer constructed inclosures, each of which 
was the camp, refuse-dump site. 

The relics taken from the exhumed buildings and tombs 
include pottery, stone implements, turquoise and other 
stones held in esteem, shells and shell ornaments, and human 
and animal remains. A few fragments of cotton cloth have 
also been preserved from decay, and considerable yucca- 
leaf woven work and several specimens of basketry. 

The stone axes and other implements are particularly nice 
in detail and finish. Some of the implements show a degree 
of ingenuity not found among any tribe in the region nowa- 
days. Many articles of personal adornment show that the 
mysterious race was entering that transition period which 
borders on the metalic and stone age. Many of these arti- 
cles are shells and a few metals. Skillfully inlaid articles 
were made by these people by first coating a shell, or other 
article with a black cement, obtained from the gum de- 
posited by insects on greasewood twigs, and other gums, 
and then imbedding mosaic fragments of turquoise and 
shells in the matrix thus formed. After the surface had 
been rubbed down, smooth it made an ornament of merit. 
The same gum from greasewood was made a lacquering for 
preserving the color of basketry. 

Many rock inscriptions have been found on the rocks 
throughout this region. They are purely of a religious 
significance, showing characteristic attitudes of the people 
at certain festivals, and apparently disclosing nothing of a 
narrative or historic nature. They give no idea of the 
ordinary manner of dress or of the textile fabric employed, 
but show the festive gown to have been a long robe, richly 

Apparently, religion was the main purpose of life among 
these people. Each action appears to have been vested with 
a significance of its own, even the location of the public 
structures being determined by certain mythological indi- 
cations. They worshipped the sun, and had lodge rooms. 
Sacrificial stones have been dug up in some spots, but the 
nature of the sacrifice has not been determined. Like all 

Ancient Cities of Northeastern Arizona. 191 

nature worshippers, these people endowed each object with 
its spirit counterpart, and either buried or burned the indi- 
vidual's belongings beside his body, that they might ac- 
company him on his spirit journey. Likewise, the burial 
urns were "killed" by cracking or perforating their sides 
in order that the soul might escape. 

The ruins divide themselves into three major groups, the 
Fort Apache-Montezuma group, the Black-Mesa-Segi Can- 
yon series, and the Canyon de Chelly group. 

The first group includes the ruins in the White Mountain 
Apache country, in the vicinity of the Roosevelt Dam and 
in the canyons that descend southward from the Mongollon 
Range to Salt river, among whose hundreds of ruins are the 
famed Fort Apache Cave, and Montezuma's Castle and the 
equally wonderful Montezuma's Well and ruins. In the sec- 
ond group are the renowned ruins of Snake House, Betata- 
kin, and Keetseel in Segi Canyon, besides hundreds of 
smaller ones. And the Canyon de Chelly group in the 
chiseled in, thousand-foot deep, narrow De Chelly canyon 
and its sister Del Muerto Canyon, comprise hundreds of 
ruins (some estimates put them at more than a thousand), 
among which is the famed White House. 

The Fort Apache Cliff Cave 

This cave consists of a series of chambers, halls and 
rooms, running back northward many feet beneath the 
mesa cap, eighty-five feet above the valley floor, north of 
the river. Moreover, to reach the entrance one must climb 
a notched-tree-ladder, a hazardous thing to do unless one is 
used to climbing such ladders. Furthermore, as the cave 
is tortuous, those who enter it carry a roll of binding twine, 
many candles, and also flashlights. The twine is tied at the 
entrance and let line the passages traversed so that on the 
return it can be followed back to the entrance. To make 
the return more safe the lit candles are also placed at reg- 
ular distances and in conspicuous or dangerous places along 
the passages. 

This cave seems to have been used by the ancients as a 
burial place, and when first visited the floors of several of 
the rooms were covered with human skeletons. In one of 
the rooms they were found to have been placed in a circle on 


the cold damp floor of stone, as if they might have gath- 
ered there for mutual protection during some catastrophe, 
all perishing there; and a short distance apart from them 
also lay the frame of their medicine man, leaning against 
the wall opposite the entrance to the room, his chin resting 
on his breastbone, apparently just as he had died. 

Many museums and private parties have secured fine col- 
lections from this cave. 

Montezuma's Castle and Montezuma's Well and Its Ruins 

Beaver creek, a branch of the Rio Verde in Arizona, pos- 
sesses a limpid stream of rippling water, a boon to that arid 
region. This life-giving stream is arched over and fully 
shaded by cotton woods, aspens, juniper, walnut, ash, and 
sycamore trees, making the place a virtual paradise. On 
the right bank of this stream above the line of green, three 
miles from old Camp Verde, there is perched the wonderful 
Montezuma's Castle, known, also, as Casa Montezuma. 

It is an awe-inspiring prehistoric cliff-dwelling, standing 
against the cliff, under an overtowering arch. It is con- 
structed in a natural recess in the side of a limestone cliff. 
Its base is three hundred and forty-eight feet from the edge 
of the stream and about forty feet above it. It is five 
stories high, exceeding twenty-eight feet in height. .The 
outer walls lean slightly toward the cliff, and are strongly 
but symmetrically curved inward. Some of the rooms are 
smoothly plastered and smoke-blackened ; the plaster bears 
finger-marks and impressions of the thumb and hand. The 
rooms are ceiled with willows laid horizontally across 
rafters of black alder and ash. Upon this is a thick layer 
of reeds placed transversely and the whole plastered on top 
with mortar, forming the floor of the room above. The 
roofs are made in the same manner. The buildings show 
evidence of long occupancy in prehistoric times. Its origin 
is unknown. 

Montezuma's Well is equally as interesting and more awe- 
inspiring than the castle. It is situated in the summit of a 
low mesa on Beaver creek, about nine miles north of Camp 
Verde. It is a large depression, in the form of a well or 
tank. Within the depression, the upper part of the "bowl," 
are well preserved remains of several cliff-dwellings. The 

Ancient Cities of Northeastern Arizona. 193 

bowl is full of water to a certain level and never changes. 
However, it gets disturbed at certain intervals, like the 
ancient pool of Bethsaida. This mysterious and interesting 
phenomenon has given rise to many folk-lore stories about 
this well and its bubbling waters. 

White House 

This ruin is overhung and blocked-in by large rocks in 
Canyon de Chelly in the northeastern part of northeastern 
Arizona. It is a double village, one part being at the foot 
of the canyon wall, the other upon a shelf in the wall above 
this one. The upper one is fifty feet above the floor of the 
canyon and can be reached only by ladders. Both are built 
of small, thin sandstone, laid in mud mortar. The front 
of the upper village measures one hundred and forty-six 
feet; the depth, forty-seven feet, and the height eighteen 
feet. The rooms are small, and the windows less than a 
foot square. A circular native "church" still shows. The 
whole ruin is whitewashed with gypsum, from which it gets 
its name "White House." 

Kinna Zinde 

This is a well preserved ancient house, situated on a 
promontory, overlooking the flats to the northward, about 
thirty miles north of the station of Chambers on the 
Santa Fe Railway, in Arizona. Though in the open, it is 
still in a good state of preservation, its stone walls rising 
high above the foundation. It is constructed in the shape 
of a somewhat modified circular tower. Flooring indicative 
of two stories is visible, and the poles of an old ladder by 
which there was formerly communication from one story 
to another are still in place, the poles being notched for the 
insertion of rungs. This ruin was, no doubt, a lookout- 
summer home for the people who farmed the adjacent 
valley fields. 

Snake House 

This is a cliff-house on the Arizona side, near Oljeto, 
Utah, the home of a forgotten people. Who these people 
were no one knows. Why they departed their village and 
where they went we know less. The ruin is along the 


southeast face of a cliff and in two massive caves, one at 
each end of the ruin. The east cave is about one hundred 
feet deep back into the cliff, and probably twenty feet 
wide. It seems to have been a large council hall. It is 
smoked from end to end and has much pottery debris on its 
floors. No sign of Brooms now remains. The cave at the 
west side (end) is forty feet wide at the entrance, runs 
back forty feet, and then has two sets of additional rooms 
running back into the cliff from it. The north room is 
walled in now and was used as a bin. Part of the wall that 
inclosed the south room also shows. Parts of walls also 
show in the main cave room. In addition, it is inclosed 
(shut in) by an outer wall. Along the wall between the 
two caves are the remains of an open village that was prob- 
ably twenty-five feet wide. Many of the rooms are still 
intact with roofs still on them. Some are flat roofed. 
Some are built in half -beehive style against the wall. All 
are small and all have very small doors. Above the west 
end of the outer village is a large drawing of a huge snake 
forty feet in length in zig-zag, with twenty-one joints. Its 
head is two-thirds as big as a plate and in that shape. The 
whole drawing is white. Several other snake drawings also 
show on the walls. The snake clan of a tribe, probably 
the snake clan of the Hopis, evidently lived here. The ruin 
receives its name from the snake drawings on its walls. 

Batatakin and Keetseel 

These are sister ruins in Segi Canyon. They are sim- 
ilarly constructed, also containing about the same number 
of rooms, originally. 

As we proceed up the canyon there suddenly looms up 
before us the ghost city of Keetseel, as Betatakin had 
previously flung itself upon our view. It is placed on a 
shelf against the canyon walls above the tree tops, under a 
marvelous, overtowering arch of stone. There are one 
hundred fifty-four rooms in it, but no one is walking its 
streets and alleys. A huge log, thirty-five feet in length, 
spans a gap. The village walls are of rock; the mortar, 
adobe clay. The roofs are flat and made of adobe cement. 
There are no chimneys, but a porthole in the roof acted 
as a smoke escape. If windows, they are all very small an 

Ancient Cities of Northeastern Arizona. 195 

never had any glass in them. None of them are large 
enough for one to stick his head through. The doors are 
all so small one would have to get on his knees to crawl 
through them. Many house rooms have no doors at all ex- 
cept a square hole in the flat roof. Several of the buildings 
are two or more stories high. Ladders have to be used to 
get to this village from the valley. Also, only by ladders 
can the doors on the roofs be reached. 

Untroubled through the ages this village has sat there 
serene, watching the coming and going of suns and the ever 
changing years. It is a dead city. Who lived there can 
not be conjectured. What happened to them or where they 
went we know less. Their laughter, their crying, and their 
wailings are no more. They left no records but rock pic- 
tures and the peculiar paintings on their pottery. These 
we can not read. Mute, the village, its pottery, and its 
rock pictures welcome us in dead silence. In awe we gaze 
upon this city. Untroubled it sits before us waiting the 
slow disintegration of time. 





. 10 

September, 1930 


J?o. I 






Accepted for mailing- at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

(Wtecorartn Srcfjeologtcal g>odet|> 

#ltltoauUee, Kite. 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Charles G. Schoewe 


R. J. Kieckhefer Dr. A. L. Kastner 

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Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. C. McKern 
A. P. Kannenberg 


Dr. S. A. Barrett A. T. Newman Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

H. H. Smith E. F. Richter T. L. Miller 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz L. R. Whitney Geo. A. West 


G. M. Thorne 
National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. A. L. Kastner, J. P. Schumacher, W. F. 
Bauchle, Geo. F. Overton, M. F. Hulburt, T. M. N. Lewis, Dr. E. 
J. W. Notz, 0. L. Hollister, Dr. F. G. Logan, T. T. Brown, Dr. B. T. 
Best, S W. Faville, Col. R. S. Owen, G. L. Pasco. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Frank Weston, 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, Dr. Orrin Thompson, Mrs. F. R. Melcher, 
Col. Howard Greene, Rev. O. W. Smith, M. G. Troxell, H. W. Cor- 
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MEMBERSHIP Louis Pierron, Paul Joers, A. R. Rogers, Arthur 
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D. S. Howland. 

PUBLICITY J. G. Gregory, A. O. Barton, E. R. Mclntyre, R. K. Coe. 
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Vol. 10, No. 1, New Series 


Pine, Beaver and North Lakes, Charles E. Brown 7 


Waubaunsee, Potawatomi Indian Frontispiece 

Map of Pine, Beaver and North Lakes 9 


Potawatomi Chief 

Lewis Portfolio, 1835 

Ctje Wisconsin 3lrtt)eologt0t 

Publish tMl Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeological Society 

Vol. 10 MADISON, WIS., SEPTEMBER, 1930 No. 1 

New Series 


Charles E. Brown 


Three Wisconsin lakes unsurpassed for scenic beauty, in 
the midst of a woodland and prairie region as attractive 
as the lakes themselves, lie either wholly or partly within 
the boundaries of the recently incorporated Village of 
Chenequa, in Waukesha County. These are Chenequa or 
Pine Lake, the largest of the three, Beaver Lake, and North 
Lake. The Chenequa group of lakes are in the midst of 
the famous Kettle Moraine region of Wisconsin, so called 
because of the "deep hollows or kettles which pit much of 
its surface, these kettles or pot-holes being due to the melt- 
ing during the glacial period of buried ice blocks, or to the 
building of morainic ridges which enclose undrained de- 

The Chenequa Lakes are among the larger of the thirty- 
six large and small old Indian lakes which are the aquatic- 
jewels of the Waukesha County country-side, in southeast- 
ern Wisconsin. Waukesha County, has been for many years 
famous in America for its beautiful lakes and health-giving 
springs. The Chenequa Lakes are in the fore-front of 
these lakes. Near them are other lakes of great charm 
and interest. Immediately to the west of them is the Ocon- 
omowoc Group of lakes, Okauchee, Oconomowoc and La- 
Belle. To the south are the shimmering lakes of the Na- 
shota Group Nagawicka, the Nashotas and the Nemahbins, 
and beyond these are the smaller Genesee lakes. Silver and 
Golden lakes lie a short distance northwest and southwest 
of the latter. Pewaukee, the largest of the Waukesha lakes, 

The Physical Geography of Wisconsin, Lawrence Martin. 


(Chenequa Lakes) 

Map Index 

The names and numbers correspond with those shown on the map. 

1. Trail Village Site 

2. Chenequa Springs 

3. Niedecken Point Site 

4. Swallow Point 

East Shore 

5. The Island 

6. Anchor Point Site 

7. Randall-Koehring Point Site 

8. Gibson Site 

9. Brumder Site 
10. West Bay Site. 

West Shore 

11. Vogel Bay Site 

12. Dorner Point Site 

13. Interlachen Site 


14. Chenequa Country Club Site 


15. Mud Lake Site 16. North Lake Site 



lies a few miles to the southeast, and Keesus a short dis- 
tance to the northeast. The Muskego lakes are in the 
southeastern corner of the county, and the Mukwonago 
lakes at its southern boundary. 

The Government survey of Pine Lake was made by Mullet 
and Brink, during the months of July and August, 1835. 
The general description of Merton township given by them 
is as follows: "This township is rolling, poor second rate 
land, timber white oak, black oak, ironwood, lynn (bass- 
wood) hazel, thorn, prickly ash, grape-vine. Soil-sand and 
gravel. In the east part of the township there can be some 
good selections made. In the west part the land is rather 
broken and poor therefore of little consequence." Garrett 
Vliet ran the subdivision lines later in the same year. Wil- 
liam R. Williams, Deputy U. S. surveyor, made a survey of 
the island in the lake on May 18, 1852, giving its area as 
1 1/100 acres. 

The following description of Pine, Beaver and North 
lakes is quoted from that given by Messrs. E. A. Birge and 
Chauncey Juday in "The Inland Lakes of Wisconsin".* 

"This lake district lies in and adjacent to a sag or break 
in the large kettle moraine that has already been mentioned. 
The existence of the gap or sag is emphasized by the fact 
that two parallel streams flow through or across the course 
of the moraine ridge. North of Beaver and North lakes 
the line of the moraine is marked by a distinct ridge several 
kilometers wide, whose trend is east of north. It rises more 
than 30 m. above the adjacent country and fully 60 m. above 
the level of the Oconomowoc-Waukesha lake district. "Pine 
Lake. The basin of Pine Lake consists of a large pit with 
an elongated north-south axis. Some of the pits, which 
are so characteristic of the surrounding land, are connected 
with the main one, thus forming bays which contribute to 
the irregularity of the coast line. The regularity of the 
basin is broken by an island situated toward the east side 
and a little north of the center of the lake. Its area is 
about 0.8 ha. (^ a.). 

"The water level seems to be falling gradually which is 
due apparently to a general sinking of the level of the 

* Bull. XXVII, Wis. Geol. & Nat. Hist. Surv., 1914. 

I'iiic, Ueavrr and North Lakes. 11 

ground water in the vicinity. The level of the water is gen- 
erally below the point of overflowing and it is only in ex- 
ceptionally wet seasons that there is any overflow. The 
lowering of the lake level protects the bases of the cliffs 
from the action of the waves. In seasons with an average 
amount of precipitation the water level is half a meter or 
more below the bases of the present cliffs and the water's 
edge so that a band of beach covered with gravel and cob- 
blestones is found between the bases of the cliffs and the 
water's edge. When the lake stood at a higher level, the 
waves actively cut the cliffs ; some of the headlands on the 
west side, for example, have been worn back several meters. 

"Another evidence of the activity of waves and currents 
is shown in some shoals which lie about 200 m. (655 ft.) 
off shore at Pine Lake. They are covered with boulders and 
appear to be remnants of higher elevations which were cut 
down by the removal of all of the finer morainal material. 

"The amount of material used for beach structures is 
small in comparison with the quantity removed from the 
cliffs. This is due to the shape of the basin occupied by the 
water. The sides are so steep that a large amount of ma- 
terial has been used in constructing the marginal shelf. In 
spite of the large amount used for this purpose, enough has 
been worn from the cliffs to build bars- entirely across some 
small bays, and others are now in the process of being 
spanned by bars or spits. 

"Also, the point of land on the east side toward the south- 
ern end of the lake has a long, submerged spit extending 
southward from it, and the island about the middle of the 
east side, has a similar structure at its north end. 

"Where the shores have a comparatively gentle slope the 
beach is subject to modification by the action of ice and long 
stretches of ice-ramparts are found in such localities. 

The water of the lake is derived chiefly from springs and 
from seepage from Beaver Lake. When the water rises 
high enough it overflows into North Lake; but sometimes 
there is no overflow for a considerable period of time. The 
lake also loses some of its water by seepage toward the north 
and west." 

The length of Pine lake is slightly over 2 1/4 miles, its 
greatest width slightly over one mile, Its maximum depth 


is about 90 feet. Its area is nearly 700 acres. Its elevation 
above sea level is given as 315 feet. 

Beaver Lake. "The lake is fed chiefly by springs and 
during dry seasons there is no stream overflow. But dur- 
ing seasons of abundant rainfall the overflowing waters 
make a stream of considerable size. Apparently the outlet 
stream has cut down its channel about a meter so that the 
level of the lake is now lower than it was originally. 

"The basin of this lake consists of two large pits which 
are nearly equal in area. A little above the present water 
level, there are several arms extending out from the main 
depression which give the basin a scalloped appearance. If 
the water were one or two meters higher, these arms would 
form bays and thus make the coast line very irregular. At 
present the immediate shores are about equally divided be- 
tween steep, kame slopes and the low flat or gently sloping 
arms. At the heads of the latter, however, there are steep 
cliffs. Considerable cliff cutting has been done in the past, 
but at present, the cliffs are protected by ice ridges at their 
bases. The waves in summer are unable to remove all the 
terraces formed by the ice in winter so that wave action is 
limited to the shore drift. This working over of the shore 
drift keeps a belt of clean cobble stones just under the edge 
of the water. 

"Fronting nearly all the low shores are fairly high ridges 
which have the graceful curves of bars. The irregular ar- 
rangement of material in some of the ridges indicates that 
they were built largely or wholly by the ice." 

The greatest length of this lake is slightly over one mile, 
its greatest width not quite three-fourths of a mile. 
North Lake. "The basins occupied by North lake represent 
two pits formed, apparently, by two separate blocks of ice. 
The two basins are unequal in size, the west one being much 
smaller than the east one, and they are separated by a nar- 
row ridge whose average height above the water is about 
half a meter, at ordinary levels. This ridge is pierced at 
only one point and that is where the stream flows from the 
east into the west basin. 

"More than half the shore of North lake has a steep slope, 
rising abruptly to a height of 10 m. or 12 m. (33 ft. to 40 
ft,) . This applies particularly to the eastern basin where the 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 13 

shores are high along the east, south and southwest portions. 
The north end is bordered by an extensive swamp. Most of 
the immediate shore of the west basin is low, but a short 
distance back from the lake except at the north end, it rises 
to nearly or quite the height found along the east basin. 

"Practically all of the steep shores of the lake are being 
eroded, but this action is not progressing vigorously owing 
to the small size of the basins and to the fact that the water 
now stands at a slightly lower level than formerly. Ice- 
push terraces are a prominent feature of the beaches and 
they also aid in protecting the cliffs from cutting. Through 
the action of vegetation in summer and ice in the winter, 
the swamp at the north end of the east basin is gradually 
encroaching upon the lake. At one point the old shore line 
lies many meters behind the present one, with swamp be- 
tween them. Marl is a conspicuous constituent of the 
beaches of the west basin. It is white in color and appears 
in the form of gravel passing into sand. On the southwest 
side of this basin there is a terrace several scores of meters 
in width which is composed of successive ridges of this 

"The two most prominent ice ridges at present are situ- 
ated respectively at the northeast corner of the east basin 
and at the outlet, i. e. at the northwest corner of the west basin. 

"North lake receives the waters of two branches of the 
Oconomowoc river and of Mason creek. These streams 
drain extensive tamarack swamps situated north of the lake 
and their waters have the usual brownish color which is 
characteristic of peat stained water. The waters of the 
lake possess this same color. There are some strong springs 
toward the south end of the east basin which doubtless rep- 
resent chiefly the seepage from Beaver and Pine lakes. The 
west basin possesses no springs and the only water received 
by it is the overflow from the east basin. The Oconomowoc 
river leaves the west side near the north end." 

The length of North lake (east basin) is one and one-third 
miles, its greatest width three-fourths of a mile. Its eleva- 
tion above sea level is given as 309 feet. 

A small body of water, Mud lake, lies midway between 
the south end of North and the north end of Pine lake, a 
creek connecting it with the two lakes. 



The Mascouten or Prairie Potawatomi, who formerly in- 
habited Waukesha County and other southeastern Wiscon- 
sin counties, are a division of the Potawatomi tribe, the 
other division being the Forest Potawatomi, whose place of 
residence is the forests of northern Wisconsin, Michigan 
and southern Ontario. The Prairie Potawatomi are the In- 
dians referred to in the writings of the Jesuit fathers as 
"The Fire Nation" and "Maskoutench." These Indians are 
reported to possess some traditions which place their origi- 
nal home with other Algonkian tribes on the Atlantic sea- 
board, probably in New England. In some of their legends 
they mention the Delaware Indians as their neighbors and 

Later they were locrted in Central New York. In 1641 
they were on the shores of Lake Huron. From this sta- 
tion they moved into Michigan, the Mascouten occupying 
southern Michigan. At the close of the seventeenth century 
they were in Indiana and northern Illinois and had gone 
around the lower end of Lake Michigan as far as the Mil- 
waukee river, or beyond. They appear in Wisconsin his- 
torical records as early as 1670, when one of their villages 
located near the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin 
rivers was visited by Father Allouez and in 1673 by Father 

"In the middle of the eighteenth century they entered into 
a confederacy with the Kickapoos and Sacs and Foxes, with 
the avowed purpose of exterminating the surviving rem- 
nants of the old Illinois tribes. This done, they divided the 
conquered domain. This domain up to the year 1790 was 
grazed by great herds of the American bison or buffalo. 
Their squaws cultivated some corn but the savage bands 
lived mostly on the spoils of the chase. Their hunting trails 
extended from grove to grove and from lake to river. 

"The Potawatomi hastened their downfall by accepting 
the leadership and guidance of the British agents at Maiden, 
Canada, who only espoused their cause in order to reap the 
profits of the fur trade. These agents supplied their savage 

Skinner, Bull. Milw. Pub. Mus. 6-1. 

J'ino, Beavei' and North L<nl's. 15 

minions with rum and rifles, encouraged the Indian raids on 
the white settlements for the purpose of plunder and rapine 
and were instrumental in inducing the Potawatomi to join 
the hopeless confederacy of Tecumseh and the Prophet, who 
vainly sought to unite the scattered bands and stem the tide 
of white immigration. With the death of Tecumseh at the 
battle of the Thames and the termination of the British in- 
fluence in the west, the Potawatomi soon surrendered what 
little domain was left to them, ceded all their lands away 
by treaty, and in 1838, were removed beyond the Missis- 
sippi river." * 

The Wisconsin Potawatomi at a treaty held at Chicago 
on September 26 and 27, 1833, ceded all their lands to the 
United States. They were permitted to remain for three 
years before removing to a reservation provided for them 
on the -Missouri river in Iowa. In 1846 they ceded these 
lands for a reservation in Kansas. Some of the Wisconsin 
Potawatomi did not go to Iowa and roving bands of these 
camped in Waukesha County for quite a number of years 
afterwards. Some other Potawatomi returned to the state. 

At the present time several hundred Potawatomi are liv- 
ing on small homesteads provided for them in Forest Coun- 
ty, and a small group near Arpin in Wood County. Some 
of these are descendants of southern Wisconsin Prairie 

Further information concerning the history of this very 
interesting Wisconsin tribe may be obtained from "The 
Potawatomi" and "Lake Geneva and Lake Como", two pub- 
lications issued by the Wisconsin Archeological Society ; the 
Wisconsin Historical Collections, three bulletins published 
by the Milwaukee Public Museum, and The Handbook of 
American Indians. 


The lodges of the Waukesha County Potawatomi were 
round in form, about ten feet in height and from 12 to 20 
feet in diameter, the wooden framework being covered with 
matting, bark or skins. Mats made of reeds sometimes lay 
on the floors. In the center of the lodge was the fireplace, 

* Elmore Barce, The Land of the Potawatomi. 


a cavity scooped in the ground and lined with stones. In 
an early day they probably covered their lodges with buffalo 
hides. The occupation of a new lodge was a matter of con- 
siderable ceremony, including a feast given by the owner. 

The men were all good hunters and fishermen and general- 
ly kept their families well supplied with meat and fish. 
They had interesting customs connected with the hunting 
of the deer and bear, and with the trapping of the muskrat 
and beaver. Fish were speared, shot with the bow and ar- 
row, caught with fishlines and seines, and trapped with fish- 
traps built with boulders across streams. Pewaukee lake 
was a particularly noted fishing ground. Fish were split, 
smoked and sun-dried for later or winter use. They were 
stored for use during the winter season in shallow pits or 
caches dug in the ground and lined with leaves or bark. 

There were corn fields near all of their more permanent 
villages, those at Waukesha and Mukwonago being particu- 
larly extensive. According to Solomon Juneau the Indians 
at the latter village produced as much as 5,000 bushels in a 
single year. Corn was planted in large hills, the same hills 
being used year after year. The Indians also grew at their 
planting grounds beans, pumpkins, gourds and tobacco. A 
favorite dish of the natives was tassimanomin, made by 
boiling together corn, wild rice and fish, and seasoning it 
with herbs and berries. Maple sugar took the place of salt 
in their cooking. 

Before their contact with white men the Potawatomi made 
pottery vessels of several shapes and sizes, mixing the clay 
with crushed stone and baking them in a hot fire. Frag- 
ments of some of these and a few unbroken vessels have 
been obtained from their former village sites. They also 
made and used wooden bowls, mortars, spoons and ladles. 

They used dugout canoes which they hewed out of bass- 
wood and other logs. Some'of these have been recovered 
from the bottoms of southern Wisconsin lakes and streams. 
They made woven bags of wild hemp, nettle, basswood, cedar 
and other fibres. These the Wisconsin and Kansas Pota- 
watomi still continue to make. The weapons of the Indians 
were the wooden war club, the spear and the bow and ar- 
row. They were fond of sports. At Mukwonago and Mil- 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 17 

waukee a favorite sport was pony racing, these races being 
often of a wild and exciting character. 

The Waukesha County Potawatomi * "buried" some of 
their dead above ground, the corpse being wrapped in a 
blanket and seated on the ground. With it were placed a 
pipe, tobacco and food. The burial was then surrounded 
with an enclosure of branches to protect it from wild ani- 
mals and birds. Sometimes the corpse was tied to a tree 
trunk, or placed in the limbs of a tree. Other burials were 
made in shallow graves and covered with logs or stones. 
These several types of burial may have been those of differ- 
ent tribal clans. Well-known burial places were at Wau- 
kesha, Mukwonago, Pewaukee and Big Muskego, and small- 
er cemeteries elsewhere in the county. 

Alanson Skinner has recovered in recent years much in- 
formation concerning the social life, material culture, 
mythology and folklore of the Prairie Potawatomi of Wis- 
consin and Kansas.* 

In 'The Potawatomi" the late Publius V; Larson has re- 
corded the history of both divisions of this once numerous 


Old settlers of the Town of Merton and of adjoining Wau- 
kesha townships, some of whom were interviewed on this 
subject years ago, all stated that Indians were still quite 
numerous in the region of the Chenequa lakes in the late 
thirties and early forties and continued to camp or pass 
through the lake country for many years afterwards. 

John H. Hall, one of these stalwart pioneers, who settled 
in Merton township in 1842, stated that at this time : "This 
land was accessible by Indian trails. Indians of the Pota- 
watomi and Menomonie tribes were numerous, and all kinds 
of game was plentiful." 

"Mrs. Abner Dayton, daughter of James and Barbara Gib 
son Rea, came to Merton township with her parents in 1843 
Mrs. Dayton well-remembered the Indians having a camp 

* Bulls., Milw. Pub. Mus. 1924_27. 

* Wis. Archeologist, 19_2, 1920. 


near her home." Other old settlers, now dead, had similar 
stories to relate about the Indians who were always friend- 
ly and to whom they occasionally gave food, clothing and 

Mr. Christ. Schwartz (N. C. Schwartz), a resident of 
Chenequa, states that in his boyhood, in about the year 1869 
and later, groups of Potawatomi from Pewaukee lake came 
to Pine lake to spear and trap muskrats. There were some- 
times as many as fifty Indians, men, women and children, 
in these groups. They erected their lodges in the sheltered 
hollow on the south shore of Beaver lake, south of the high 
knoll upon which the Interlaken hotel buildings now stand. 
This hollow is situated between the highway, which follows 
the old Indian trail, and the lake shore. These lodges were 
built of poles leaning together in the form of a cone and the 
wooden framework was covered with skins, cloth and blan- 
kets. Such lodges were quickly erected and as quickly taken 
down again when necessary. There were at times ten or a 
dozen such dwellings in the hollow. They but seldom re- 
mained here for more than a week or two, then moving on 
to North lake or Okauchee lake. 

The nearby muskrat hunting ground of the Indians was 
in Tuley's (Wilson's) bay of Pine lake in a reedy marsh 
extending from opposite the Chenequa hotel property south- 
ward across the bay to the wooded Niedecken point. Their 
muskrat spears were long pointed and barbed iron rods in- 
serted in or bound to a stout wooden handle. They speared 
the rats through their houses, seeming to know just where 
they were. Muskrats were prepared for eating by skin- 
ning and roasting them in the fire, or by cooking the meat 
in kettles. Some of the meat -was cut into strips and dried. 
These Indians had no ponies. They had a number of dogs. 
The last Indians to camp at this end of Pine lake on the 
Beaver lake shore came in the year 1881. 

Mr. Charles Rudberg, whose father, John 0. Rudberg, 
settled on the northeast shore of Pine lake in 1842, says that 
the Indians came from Pewaukee lake over the trail now 
followed in a general way by the highway on the east side 
of Pine lake and running between Pine and Beaver lakes. 
In his father's time they passed over this trail, going and 
coming, in numbers in both the spring and the autumn. He 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 19 

does not remember that they had any guns. They used the 
bow and arrow in hunting. 

The Indians at some time or other camped on nearly 
every sheltered point and bay on the shores of Pine and also 
upon the shores of Beaver and North lakes of the Chenequa 
lake group. Mud lake was a muskrat hunting and trapping 
ground. They were chiefly Prairie Potawatomi (Mashko- 
tens) with occasionally a few Menomini or Chippewa among 
them. These Potawatomi appear to have chiefly come from 
the Indian villages at Pewaukee and Waukesha, 6 1/2 and 
10 miles distant by trail, or from the nearby smaller village 
site at the head of Nagawicka lake. Some were from Pike 
lake at Hartford. Others came from even greater distances. 
Family or larger groups of Menomini came to or through 
the region from their villages at Menomonee Falls fourteen 
or more miles to the northeast or from the "Wild Marsh" 
camp south of it. Some Indians were always moving over 
the trail toward Milwaukee or westward to the Four Lakes. 
Groups of Winnebago Indians also occasionally passed over 
the Chenequa trails on their way to the Rock river and Lake 

Among the Potawatomi chiefs who visited the Chenequa 
region was Kewaskum (Kiwaskum, "goes-back-on-his- 
tracks") who had a village at Pike lake, Monches of the 
Oconomowoc river village, and Leatherstrap of the Wau- 
esha village. 

So far as the early settlers noted there was but little dif- 
ference in the dress of the families or groups of Potowa- 
tomi. Some of the men were attired in buckskin shirts, 
long leggings and moccasins. Some wore shirts, trousers 
and other cloth garments obtained from the settlers or from 
stores or trading posts. Their headgear was often a piece 
of colored cloth or a handkerchief bound around the head. 
Some wore a strip of fur in place of a hat, a piece of otter- 
skin ornamented with a single feather or bits of ribbon. 
Some had trade blankets. In summer some of the men wore 
only a breech cloth. The women wore cloth waists and 
skirts and buckskin moccasins. Some wore buckskin gar- 
ments, often with fringes. Silver brooches and bead neck- 
laces were their common ornaments. Some of the women 
carried on their backs babies strapped to cradleboards. 


Most bore bundles of spare clothing or camp equipment. 
Some carried kettles. Some had a few ponies and these 
were often heavily laden. Some of the hunters carried 
guns, these being flint-locks, and of a poor quality. 

John Shawano, Nawquakeshik (Noon Day), great-grand- 
son of Waika or Wakusha, at present living in Forest Coun- 
ty, states that the Chenequa lakes were a part of the hunt- 
ing grounds of the Potawatomi of his Waukesha village. 
They were very particular about their hunting territories 
and would never permit any other tribe to trespass on them. 
This may have been true before the white settlers came to 
this region. The Menomini certainly also hunted about the 
lakes in the early forties. 

No one remembers seeing any Indian log canoes on Pine 
lake, yet the Potawatomi must have had them as they did 
on Pewaukee, Nagawicka and North lakes. 

Wild animals were numerous in the regions about the 
Chenequa lakes when the first white settlers came. Deer 
were everywhere to be seen. Bear were occasionally killed. 
Among the smaller animals were the wolf, wild cat, musk- 
rat, otter, mink, raccoon, skunk, woodchuck, weasel and 
squirrel. Wild fowl were abundant both in the woods and 
on the waters of the lakes. The lakes were filled with fish. 


The early Wisconsin maps, up to the year 1839, give no 
names for the lakes of the Chenequa group. A "map of 
Wiskonsin Territory, 1839", prepared by Capt. Thomas J. 
Cram, government topographical engineer, gives the name 
of Gay lake to Pine lake, Peekor to Beaver lake, and Ahko 
to North lake. Lake Keesus is here named Meeshel lake. 
Where he obtained these names is unknown. Farmer's 
map, 1848, doubtless copying Cram, gives the name of Gay 
lake to Pine, and Peekor to Beaver. 

The name Gay is probably derived from the Prairie Pota- 
watomi word que (quay), woman, or the Chippewa word 
ikwe or akwe. Peekor, the name given to Beaver lake, may 
be a slight distortion of the Winnebago word pee ka, signify- 
ing "good", or "beautiful". The Potawatomi word for bea- 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 21 

ver is mak or muk, and the Chippewa word amik. Ahko, 
the name given to North lake, is the Potawatomi word for 
doe (ako). 

On a "Map of the Milwaukee Land District, 1840", the 
name of Pine lake appears as the name for that lake. This 
name also appears on the Milwaukee Land District Map of 
1846, Nagawicka, Pewaukee and Oconomowoc lakes being 
the only other northern Waukesha County lakes which bear 
any names. 

Dr. Increase A. Lapham may be credited with having 
first given the attractive name of Chenequa to Pine lake. 
In his book, "Wisconsin", published by P. C. Hall at Mil- 
waukee in 1844, he says : "Pine Lake, lies immediately north 
of Nagowicka, two miles long, three-fourths of a mile wide, 
five and a quarter around, and has an area of six hundred 
and ninety acres; being exactly the same as Nagowicka. 
The Indian name is Chenequa or Pine, given in consequence 
of a few pine trees having been found on a small neck of 
land or island in this lake." 

North Lake (or Shunakee) lies north of Pine Lake in 
the town of Warren, is one mile and a quarter long, three 
fourths of a mile wide, and has an area of five hundred and 
eighty-one acres. The Oconomowoc Creek passes through 
this lake. 

Labraugh (Beaver) Lake lies half a mile east from Pine 
Lake into which it discharges its waters. It is eighty-three 
chains long, sixty-nine wide, and occupying an area of four 
hundred and twenty acres." 

Indians of both the Prairie Potawatomi and Menomini 
tribes had camps and villages at Milwaukee in 1836, and 
Winnebago villages were not far away. He may have had 
his lake names from any of these. Although in Prairie 
Potawatomi territory, Pine lake was visited by Menomini 
Indians who had a village at Menomonee Falls and camps 
elsewhere in Menomonee township only a dozen miles away 
to the east, also by groups of Winnebago, who were on 
friendly terms with the Potawatomi and occasionally wan- 
dered through the region. The Potawatomi word for pine 
is shquak and the Chippewa word jingwak. The pronun- 
ciation and spelling of both words is sufficiently like Chene- 
qua (the name given by him to Pine lake) so that Dr. Lap- 


ham may readily have derived his spelling of the name from 
hearing either of them spoken. The Menomini word for 
pine is aska. 

A distinctive feature of Pine lake are the group of pine 
trees on the Island and several other groups of the same 
formerly and still existing on its eastern shore. These the 
Potawatomi always remembered, and it is but natural that 
they should have named this lake for them. 

Rev. E. P. Wheeler, an authority on Wisconsin Indian 
names, thinks that the name Chenequa may have been de- 
rived from the Potawatomi word gih chih in nah quak",, or 
"big tree grove". John Blackhawk, an authority on the 
language and customs of his tribe, thinks that the name 
might have been derived from the Winnebago word chenu- 
kra, or "the village". 

Huron H. Smith, the ethno-botanist, states that the word 
Chenequa means "Indian woman" or "Indian maiden", and 
the word is a Chippewa rather than a Potawatomi one. 
"Chene" is an abbreviation of "inishinabe", meaning Indian 
and pronounced "shini" or "shunay". Ikwe or akwe is the 
word for woman. 

The Potawatomi of the present day give to the lake the 
name Shquak mbes, or Pine. lake. 

Lapham gives the Indian name of North lake as Shuna- 
kee. This name Simon Kahquados, chief of the Potawatomi 
group near Blackwell and Laona in Forest County, believes 
to be a shortening of the name Shanakoonebis, meaning 
"south cloud water". Shanakoo was a Potawatomi chief 
whose village was at this lake. John Blackhawk says that 
the name may have been derived from the Winnebago word 
chunaka, or "the blue one". 

The name Labraugh given by Lapham to Beaver lake 
John Blackhawk suggests may be a slight distortion of the 
Winnebago word "lubra" or "rubra", meaning beaver. 

There is no doubt but that the Prairie Potawatomi, Me- 
nomini and Winnebago all had names for the Chenequa 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 23 



Trail Village Site. 

An Indian camp site is plainly indicated on the James A. 
Friend property on the northeast shore of Pine lake. Evi- 
dence of this former occupation by the aborigines, consist- 
ing of burned and broken stones from wigwam fireplaces 
and chips and fragments of grey and white flint, the refuse 
of former implement manufacture, occur in the gardens 
of the late Jacob E. Friend; on a piece of level land which 
stretches from the James Friend residence on a prominent 
knoll in its rear down to the lake shore. A portion of this 
field had been fall-plowed during our first visit to this site 
and no doubt camp refuse had been thus turned under, but 
a considerable number of hearthstones of fist-size and 
smaller were found scattered over limited areas in several 
parts of this field. The former sites of at least three wig- 
wams appeared to be thus recognized. Near these places 
the flint refuse and a small piece of red pipestone were also 
found. Doubtless many other hearthstones have been re- 
moved from this site during the years of its cultivation. If 
other parts of this tract, now under sod, are again plowed 
other lodge sites and refuse should be disturbed. 

This site has long been known to collectors of Indian im- 
plements. Mr. Christ. Schwartz is among those who have 
collected here. From these and other sources we learn that 
there have been recovered here a considerable number of 
flint arrow and spearpoints of various forms, several flint 
knives, a number of flint scrapers, a flint perforator, several 
pebble hammerstones, a stone celt or hatchet, and two 
grooved stone axes, one of these with .a blade much worn and 
shortened through long use and re-grinding. No potsherds 
have been found by ourselves or reported found here by 
others. These remain to be collected. They certainly 
should occur, especially if this camp site is a fairly old one, 
as it appears to be. Its early Indian inhabitants may, how- 
ever, have employed bark or wooden vessels in their domes- 
tic arts. 

Years ago scattered deer and other animal bones were 


seen here, also scattered mussel shells. Some of the bones 
had been split to obtain the marrow. If there were any 
refuse pits in connection with this site they have not been 

This land, from the east and west road at its northern 
limits southward to the creek joining Pine and Beaver lakes, 
formed the estate of the late Judge M. F. Tuley. The por- 
tion of it occupied by this camp site was in former years a 
flat covered with forest trees. The fotawatomi claim this 
as a former camp site. They certainly camped here in small 
numbers in early days of settlement, spearing and trapping 
fish in the stream conecting Pine and MucT lakes, and hunt- 
ing deer and other game in the surrounding country. This 
locality was a sheltered one and otherwise favorable for the 
location of an Indian camp. South of it extending along 
the lakeshore is a high wooded ridge upon which is the J. 
V. Quarles home, in its rear is the elevated ground of the 
James A. Friend property, and west of it another promi- 
nent ridge upon which stands the residence of Robert E. 
Friend. A fork of the old Indian trail between Pine and 
Beaver lakes, on its way to the creek crossing between the 
head of Pine and Mud lake, touched or crossed this village 

On the shore of Indian or Outlet bay, at the base of the 
ridge upon which the Robert E. Friend residence is located, 
is a path reported to be a remnant of an old lake-bank trail. 
This can be traced from this point along the bay shore 
northward for a distance of several hundred feet to where 
the Friend garage is located. This continued northward to 
the shore of Mud lake. 

Chenequa Springs. 

On the Pine lake shore at the base of the high wooded 
lake bank a short distance north of the Chenequa Springs 
hotel are several fine springs. These springs the Pota- 
watomi knew and used when encamped in the vicinity. 
Their name for these is reported to have been Tkepmbes, or 
"springs at the lake." A spring on the Rudberg place a 
short distance west of the house was also known to the In- 
dians. It appears in the Waukesha County atlas of 1873 
as a mineral spring. 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 25 

Game was very plentiful in former days on the north- 
east shore of Pine lake. The early settlers killed many 
deer and now and then a bear. Mr. Christ. Schwartz and 
Mr. Charles Rudberg both speak of the great numbers of 
passenger pigeons. Their flights in the spring of the year 
continued all day long, flight after flight. In returning in 
the autumn they roosted in the woods, feeding on the abun- 
dant acorns. Forty years ago Mr. Schwartz shot numbers 
of them from the top of the hill upon which the Chenequa 
Hotel stands. Flocks of the beautiful wood duck as well 
as of other ducks were numerous. Muskrats were numer- 
ous in the marshes. Raccoon were frequently shot. On the 
George Vits place beyond the Tuley log cabin was a small 
marshy area. Here Mr. Schwartz shot many partridges in 
a poplar thicket. Fish were very abundant, the Indians 
occasionally spearing them. In Tuley bay and extending 
across to Niedecken point was a marsh in which the Indians 
speared and trapped muskrats. This has been elsewhere 

Niedecken Point Camp Site. 

In the forties and fifties a few Potawatomi occasionally 
camped on this wooded point on the south shore of Tuley's 
bay. Here the creek outlet of Beaver lake, flowing through 
farm and pasture lands of the John 0. Rudberg estate, en- 
ters Pine lake. This end of the once marshy bay was an 
excellent muskrat hunting ground. The Indians erected 
their lodges on the lands near the mouth of the creek. 

This site must also have been occupied by redmen long 
before the pioneer whites came to this region. The farm 
field adjoining and near the creek has yielded many flint 
arrow points in past years. Evidence of flint working 
(broken nodules, spalls, flakes and chips of white and grey 
and other flint) were also to be seen here. Mr. Christ. 
Schwartz found a Siouan-type red catlinite pipe in the field 
on the south side of the creek. .Mr. Louis W. Jacobson has 
a blue hornstone knife found on this site. Other artifacts 
collected here are a stone celt, flint blanks, a stemmed flint 
scraper, a copper spearpoint with a socket, a bone awl, a 
fragmentary mussel shell pendant, a glass bead .and an iron 
harpoon point. Several small fragments of a pottery ves- 


sel are made of reddish clay, tempered with crushed rock 
and unornamented. 

In a small garden near the Niedecken home we found 
scattered fireplace stones, a pebble hand-hammer, a broken 
flint blank, and numbers of flint chips and spalls. 

Niedecken point is a picturesque gravel knoll, at its high- 
est part fifty or more feet above the waters of the lake. On 
its top are a stand of cedar and other trees. The Niedecken 
home stands on another attractive knoll. 

Swallow Point. 

Adjoining the Niedecken property on the south and ex- 
tending along the Pine lake shore is a fine oak woodland. 
The land rises gradually from the lakeshore, sloping to the 
east, and is rolling in character. It is a part of the John 0. 
Rudberg estate. It is an extension of the old Indian camp 
site at the mouth of the creek at Niedecken point. Here 
the Indian women in early days of settlement gathered 
acorns, the supply being generally abundant. At the south- 
ern extremity of this woodland tract is Swallow point, a 
high rounded point occupied by several summer residences. 
This point was years ago known as Leuthstroms point being 
the place of residence of Dr. C. A. Leuthstrom, a widely 
known specialist in chronic diseases. Mr. Christ. Schwartz 
reports that an Indian burial was disturbed when a ditch 
was dug at that time on the Leuthstrom, now a part of the 
Anna M. Cudahy property. These bones a son of Dr. Leuth- 
strom re-buried. No particulars concerning this burial ap- 
pear to be available. Other Indian burials are said to have 
been made here but these have not been found. 

The Island. 

In Pine Lake, at a distance of over six hundred feet west 
of Swallow point, is a pear-shaped island owned by the Pine 
Lake Yacht Club. This picturesque island is a hog-back 
rising out of the lake with a group of pine and other trees 
growing on its top and sides. Its northern end is produced 
in a long narrow point, its southern extremity rounded. 
Its general direction is northeast and southwest. Its length 
is given as about seven hundred feet and its greatest width 
as about two hundred feet. Some of the deepest water of 
Pine lake (79 to 84 feet) lies off the west shore of this 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. . 27 

island. Between its eastern shore and the mainland its 
depth is 50 feet in places. 

This island, once known as Sands island, belonged in the 
seventies to Josiah J. Sands, who had an estate on the main- 
land at Anchor point the next point south of Swallow 
(Leuthstrom) point. The Indian name for this island is 
given as Shquak mineshe, taking its name from the pine 
trees. Some flint points have been collected on this island 
and picked up along its shore, the latter being probably 
washed up from the lake. Years ago an Indian burial was 
also unearthed on this island. Particulars concerning its 
character are not obtainable. 

Anchor Point Camp Site. 

Another former Indian camp site was on the old Sands 
estate on the shore of Sands bay lying north of Anchor point. 
The Josiah Jones Sands estate in 1873 extended from the 
present north boundary of the Mayer estate northward to 
the north boundary of the present Wahl estate. It included 
in its extent the present Finkler, Hanson, Briggs and Wahl 
(Weld) properties. North of it was the former J. A. Kirk 
estate (Kirkwood), which extended from the present Wahl 
place northward to the Cudahy property, and included the 
present Elser, Ott and Helmer places. Along the front of 
the former Kirk estate the shore bank is high. 

Along the Sands bay shore the land along the lake shore 
is rather level and sheltered by the higher land to the north 
of it. It was in the early days occupied by a fine oak forest 
through which deer and bear roamed. To-day velvet lawns 
slope from the lake shore eastward to the fine homes on the 
higher land a short distance beyond. If these lawns are 
ever disturbed evidence of the former early Indian camp 
site must be found. A few Indian flint points have been 
found here in recent years in preparing flower beds and in 
making other improvements of these estates. Mr. Edward 
Krause, the well-known Hartland collector, reports the find- 
ing of two native copper spearpoints on the former Kirk 
property, on the present Helmer and Ott places. Several 
stone celts and a number of flint arrow points were obtain- 
ed from fields on this estate when Mr. Kirk was its owner. 


Burned stones and ashy soil in one of these fields indicated 
the site of the early location of a wigwam home. 

Anchor point takes its name from its shape which has a 
curved projection on either side of its rounded extremity. 
It is a part of the beautiful Ida Finkler estate. The point 
is a high, narrow gravel ridge covered with a grove of oak, 
cedar and some pine trees. There is an especially fine stand 
of tall pine trees at its base. On the southern side of these 
is a small strip of cattail marsh in early days more exten- 
sive than today. It was a muskrat hunting ground. 

From the point southward the Finkler land along the 
lake shore has high banks and is covered with a fine wood- 
land of oak and other trees. There are a number of pic- 
turesque kettle holes, some circular and others ravine-like. 
At its southern limits a small marshy tract now partly in 
use as a hay meadow extends eastward to the Pine lake 
highway. This was another muskrat hunting ground of 
the early Indians. In the gardens of the Finkler estate 
flint arrow points have been found. A grooved stone axe 
was found in removing a stump on this property. 

Because of the many kettle-hole depressions this land has 
the Potawatomi designation Mttesh wan kquetwen. The 
lake a short distance east of Anchor point attains a depth 
of 55 feet. 

Randall-Koehring Point Camp Site. 

South of the Anchor point property, on the southeast 
shore of the lake, and separated from it by the Mayer estate 
property is a curious T-shaped point, now an island and 
connected with the mainland by a small bridge. This forms 
a part of the Philip A. Koehring and Marjorie G. Randall 
(Rock Terrace) estates on the lakeshore opposite it. The 
T-shaped end of this point is over 1300 feet in length and 
about 300 feet in width at its widest part, near its middle. 
In former years there was a small bay with a cattail marsh 
both on the north and on the south side of the point. This 
has been partly filled in and this area converted into lawns 
and flower gardens. 

In early days of settlement a few Potawatomi Indians 
occasionally camped on this point. The former marshland 

'Mtte is pronounced like che. 

I'ine, Beaver and North Lukes. 29 

(Sheshko wabshkoke, muskrat marsh) at the southern end 
of the lake, a narrow strip of which still fringes the lake- 
shore from the Koehring property southward along the Gib- 
son shore, furnished good muskrat hunting for the Indians. 
A few flint arrowpoints have been found on the Point in 
planting shrubbery and making other improvements. 
Some have been found in the lake itself. 
^ The Koehring and Randall properties were formerly the 
Best estate. On the Koehring place the lake banks are high, 
with pot-holes in their rear. 

Gibson Site. 

The Gibson lands at the southern end of Pine lake are 
rolling in character and largely in use as pasture. Grow- 
ing on top of the high lake banks are oak and cedar trees, 
some of the latter being of quite good size. At their base 
is a narrow strip of cattail marsh. The east and west In- 
dian trail from Pewaukee lake to the Oconomowoc lakes 
passed by the southern end of Pine lake. The Gibson lands 
were a convenient camp ground for Indians passing on that 
trail, or those residing at the village on the northeast shore 
of Nagawicka lake, a half-mile south of Pine lake. 

Some flint arrow and spearpoints have been found in the 
Gibson fields back from the lake bank on the east and west 
sides of the lake. If the present pasture lands are ever 
plowed the finding of additional stone and other implements 
and other evidence of early aboriginal occupation is to be 


Brumder Shore Vilage Site. 

The site of an early Indian village was on the northwest 
shore of Pine lake extending over the present residence 
properties of the several members of the Brumder family. 
This site appears to have extended from near the head of 
Indian bay at the north end of the lake southward along the 
shore of the lake to Oakland point, a distance of half a mile 
more or less. Along this shore the land along the lake bank 
is rather level with wooded hills rising in the rear. Much 
of the land along the lake bank was in former years under 
cultivation as a part of the J. Jacobson farm and in these 


fields, now occupied by the lawns of the Brumder homes, 
the scattered hearth stones, flint workshop refuse, broken 
animal bones and clam shell fragments, scattered by the 
plow and harrow, were in former years to be seen. Here 
many stone and other implements have been collected. 
Others have since been found by workmen in gardening and 
engaged in other work on these properties. 

In a very good archeological collection owned by Louis W? 
Jacobson are ma*ny flint implements and other specimens 
collected from the former cultivated fields at this place. 
Especially notable among these are a grooved stone axe, 
several rude stone celts, stone balls, a flint flaking imple- 
ment, a quartzite scraper, a flattened piece of native copper, 
a rhyolite celt or blank, and several large flint blanks. Of 
flint arrow and spearpoints he has a large number of vari- 
ous forms (leaf shaped, triangular, stemmed, notched and 
barbed) : of perforators, scrapers and knives there are a 
number of specimens. Among many other specimens gath- 
ered here in past years by other collectors are several 
grooved stone axes and two socketted copper spearpoints. 
Flint arrowpoints are still now and then picked up in the 
garden plots near the residences. Several sherds of cord- 
marked earthenware vessels have been found on this site. 
The late Mr. George Brumder is reported to have also pos- 
sessed some specimens from this site. Indications are that 
this is the former site of an early Algonkian village, of just 
what date we may never know. There may have been some 
connection between this site and that on the opposite shore 
of the bay. 

In pioneer days small numbers of Potawatomi ocasionally 
erected their wigwams on this site. Both the fishing and 
the hunting were good at this place. Some fish were 
speared and others caught with seines. Turtles were also 
caught in shallow places and thrown on the banks to be 
killed and the meat removed. At this place the trail run- 
ning between Mud and Pine lakes was intersected by the 
trail along the west shore of Pine lake. 

There probably was a planting ground connected with 
this site but no one appears to now possess any certain in- 
formation concerning it. Some red willow, the bark of 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 31 

which was used by the Indians for smoking, still grows 
here. Their name for this kinnikinnik is pokkeegan. 

West Bay Site. 

Another Indian camp site was located on the shores of 
the fine large bay located on the west shore of Pine lake, a 
short distance south of the site on the Brumder estates. 
This bay cuts into the lands in a well-rounded curve, at its 
opening on the north shore being Oakland point (now oc- 
cupied by Dr. Henry Hitz and Wm. K. Winkler) and on its 
south shore Pritzlaff point. Fronting on this fine bay are 
the Fagg, Vilter, Upmeyer, Messer, Schultz, Geeser, Weigel, 
Lynch, Spiegel, Pritzlaff and other attractive homes. High, 
wooded hills are in the rear of some of these estates. 

This is an Indian site of whose prehistory and history 
we possess only meager information. As the shores of West 
bay are completely occupied by residences, lawns and gar- 
dens there is now no opportunity of recovering much of it 
from the soil. A few flint points are occasionally found in 
garden plots. In past years more implements were found. 
Louis W. Jacobson has in his collection a small well-made 
stone celt or hatchet found on the Winkler place; also a 
notched stone sinker found on the Dorestan place. This 
latter specimen is oval in form and made of a black gritty 
stone. The notches are pecked into the top and bottom 
edges rather than into the sides of the implement as is most 
frequently the case. Flint arrowpoints are from some of 
the neighboring properties. From the Jacobson farm in the 
rear of the estates on the north side of the bay he has a 
number of flint arrow and spearpoints, stone balls, a pebble 
hand-hammer and a grooved stone axe. A small rectangu- 
lar piece of grey steatite (soapstone) from this place is 
about 1 1/8 inches in length, and one-half inch wide with 
flattened edges. It has been perforated in two places and 
has been broken at a third perforation. It is probably an 

In former years a few flint arrows and spearpoints were 
also found on the then J. C. Iverson place on the north shore 
of the bay. Other persons have found in past years on the 
west shore of the bay flint points, a grooved axe and a few 
shell heads. 


The few Potawatomi who camped here from time to time 
in pioneer days were chiefly engaged in spearing and catch- 
ing fish, some of which they dried for future use. The old 
west shore Indian trail passed this site. 

Vogel Bay Site. 

About half a mile south of West bay a smaller bay indents 
the west shore of Pine lake. On its north shore is the sum- 
mer residence of Mr. August H. Vogel and in its rear the 
Vogel farm and Paulines Wood Co. property, likewise the 
summer residences of Mrs. Emilie Nunnemacher, Mrs. Hed- 
wig Earth and Mr. and Mrs. August C. Helmholz. This 
property was the former homestead of William Schuchardt, 
who settled here in 1852, and was sold after his death to 
the late Rudolph Nunnemacher, and purchased by Frederick 
Vogel, Senior, in 1885, whose descendants have resided here 
since that date. The south shore of this bay is high and 
steep with a number of pretty summer homes on its top. At 
the head of this bay hearthstones and a few flint chips were 
found in the rear of a small cottage in a spot from which the 
sod had recently been removed. Others were found on the 
adjoining cultivated field of the Vogel farm. At least one 
Indian wigwam was at some time located here. A few flint 
points and a chert pecking hammer have been picked up in 
this field. The west shore trail crossed these lands. 

Dorner Point Camp Site. 

Scattered stones from an Indian wigwam fireplace were 
found in a vegetable garden and small vineyard on the Fred 
H. Dorner summer residence property. Scattered near these 
were flint chips and fragments and it is evident that the 
manufacture of at least a small number of flint implements 
must have been carried on here at some time by the occu- 
pants of this primitive dwelling site. Inquiry of the em- 
ployes on neighboring properties brought no information of 
other sites on this pretty point. Mr. Edward Krause years 
ago collected twelve flint arrowpoints from the fields of the 
E. Krause farm of which this site formerly formed a part. 

The garden on the Dorner place is on the top of a high 
lake bank. From this place a gravel road leads down to 
a hook-shaped point on the lake bank below. Mr. Louis R. 
Bunde, Jr. states that years ago there was located on this 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 

point, a short distance southeast of the house, a boulder 
heap which he and others undertook to examine. They re- 
moved the stones until they came to a stone-lined excava- 
tion, possibly an Indian burial place, but went no further in 
their exploration. No further information concerning it 
appears to be now available. 

A wooded ravine or kettle hole is in the rear of the Dor- 
ner, Ott and other summer homes on this point. A wild 
cat is reported to have been killed in this locality in pioneer 
days. On the Waukesha atlas map of 1914 the region on 
the west shore of Pine lake from the north line of the Nun- 
nemacher property northward to Dorners point is designat- 
ed as Pine Lake Park. 


Interlachen Camp. 

Mr. Christ. (N. C.) Schwartz, a resident of Chenequa, 
states that in his boyhood, in about the year 1874 and later, 
groups of Potawatomi Indians from Pewaukee lake and else- 
where came to Pine lake. There were sometimes as many 
as fifty Indians, men women and children, in this company 
of prairie folk. They erected their lodges in the sheltered 
hollow on the shore of Beaver lake south of the high knoll 
upon which the Interlachen hotel now stands. This de- 
pression is between the highway (the old Indian trail) and 
the lake bank. These lodges they built of poles which they 
leaned together in the form of a cone, the wooden frame- 
work being covered with skins or cloth. Sometimes there 
were nearly a dozen habitations of this nature in the hollow. 

The Indians seldom remained in camp here for more than 
a week or two, moving on from this spot to Mud, North and 
Okauchee lakes. Some came to hunt muskrats, these ani- 
mals then abounding in the marshes. Their muskrat spears 
were long pointed and barbed iron rods fastened to a wood- 
en shaft. They speared the animals through the roofs of 
their rush and mud house. Muskrats were prepared for 
eating by removing the skins and roasting the carcass in 
the fire or by cooking the meat in a kettle. These kettles 
were of sheet metal and light enough to be transported. 


The nearest muskrat hunting ground was in Tuleys or Wil- 
son's bay, only a few rods away, in a grassy and reedy marsh 
extending from the bank below the Chenequa hotel across 
this Pine lake bay to Niedecken point. These Indians had 
no ponies. They always Jiad a number of dogs of the Indian 
breed. The last Indians whom Mr. Schwartz remembers 
camping in this locality came in 1881. 

Mr. Charles Rudberg, whose father, John 0. Rudberg, 
settled on the northeast shore of Pine lake in 1842, states 
that the Indians came from Pewaukee lake (some four and 
a half males distant to the southeast) over the trail, now 
the road between Pine and Beaver lakes. In his father's 
day they passed over the trail in both the spring and au- 
tumn, sometimes in considerable numbers. They had no 
guns, using the bow and arrow in their hunting. 

There were still many Indians camping about the Chene- 
qua lakes in the late thirties and early forties. Other old 
settlers and their descendants remember that some of these 
natives came from other camps at Keesus and Nagawicka 

Chenequa Country Club Camp Site. 

All traces of a former Indian camp site located on the Bea- 
ver lake shore of the Chenequa Country Club have been ob- 
literated in recent years by the construction of the golf fair- 
ways, clubhouse and road. The only traces of this site 
which remained exposed to view in November, 1928, were 
a few scattered hearthstones, flint fragments and chips, a 
broken flint blank and a small hammerstone which were 
found in a small vegetable garden on a small property (care- 
taker's house) belonging to the George Vits summer home 
on the opposite (west) side of the Chenequa highway. This 
small tract adjoins the southwest corner of the Country 
Club property. Mr. Frank Opithka, the caretaker, has a 
three inch notched spearpoint, made of light brown flint, 
which was recently found in this garden. In preparing the 
golf course a few flint points were found. 

Below this garden and between it and the gravel ridge 
upon which the Interlachen hotel buildings now stand is a 
small hollow where in former years a few Potawatomi In- 
dians are reported to have occasionally camped. It was a 

Pinr, Beaver and North Lakes. 35 

sheltered spot and opens on to the Beaver lake shore. A 
former hotel keeper at Interlachen was Dr. John A. Rice 
whose interest in Indian history and ethnology was well 

Two conical mounds are located on the west shore of 
Beaver lake. These are beyond the limits of Chenequa Vil- 
lage, on sloping ground near the road to the Country Club. 
They are within about one hundred feet of the lake shore. 
Near them indications of an Indian camp site (flint refuse 
and a few arrowpoints) have been found.* 


Mud Lake Camp. 

Mud Lake is a small body of water, between Pine and 
North lakes. It is almost completely surrounded by high, 
wooded hills. The body of open water in its middle is sur- 
rounded by a cattail marsh of considerable extent. This 
pond was in former days, because of the good muskrat hunt- 
ing and for other reasons, a favorite camp ground of the 
Potawatomi who erected their lodges on the lower land at 
the southeastern end of the ridge and a short distance north 
of the end of Indian bay of Pine lake. Here the Indian 
trail on its way to Mouse (Moose) and Okauchee lakes 
passed between Pine and Mud lakes, the present highway 
marking the former course of the earlier Indian pathway. 

In Mud lake the Indian women dug the roots of the arrow- 
head (white potato) for cooking or roasting. Here they 
also cut and dried the leaves of the cattail for the making 
of matting. Old settlers remember seeing some of the In- 
dian women carrying bundles of rushes on their backs. 


North Lake Village Site. 

At the foot of this very attractive lake, about one-half 
mile north of the head of Pine lake, there is an area of marsh 
above which there towers a semi-circle of high oak-clad hills. 

Wis. Archfeologist, 2 1, n. s. 


r l'his cattail marsh was, like thai surrounding Mud lake, a 
favorite rnuskrat hunting ground of the early Indians, who 
rame over I he trails from their villages at IVwaukee, Naga- 
wieka and elsewhere to supply themselves with muskrat 
flesh and skins. Some of the meat, cut in strips, was 
smoked or dried in the sun. A creek connects the southern 
end of North lake with Mud lake lying south of it. 

The site of an early Indian village appears to have been 
on the south shore of North lake extending from the very 
picturesque high point, once known as Riedeburg's point, 
westward along the south shore of the west lobe of the lake, 
on property now owned by Mr. Geo. W. Adams. 

On the point the greater part of the land is turf -covered 
so that no evidence of this village was obtainable at the time 
of its examination. On the Adams subdivision west of its 
base this was also largely the case. Both here and on the 
point numbers of flint implements and some stone axes and 
other Indian tools and weapons have been collected in past 
years when parts of this land were being farmed. . 

In a small garden spot in the rear of a solitary cottage on 
the west bay shore hearthstones, a pebble hammerstone, a 
small triangular flint arrowpoint and a few flint chips were 
found. A short distance west of this wigwam site another 
small site was located in a cultivated field overlooking a 
marsh now partly drained. This level field is elevated about 
thirty feet above the marsh. At two different places near 
the edge of this Held two separate groups of fireplace stones 
were found, doubtless marking two former wigwam loea- 
tions. In this field, which lies to the west of the entrance 
driveway into the Adams subdivision some flint points have 
also been found. 

This locality at the south end of North lake may have 
been the site of the village of the Potawatomi chief Shiina- 
ko6. The only information available concerning him or his 
village is that North lake once bore his name Shanakoonebin 
or "south cloud water", and that his son, Shawananuquot. 
was born here, or near this place. Shunakee is a slight dis- 
tortion of these names. 

From the foot of North lake northward as far as the 
northern boundary of ('heiieqiia Village the east shore of the 
lake is high and with a woodland of oak and some cedar 

Pine, Beaver and Noi-th Ivak.-s. 37 

trees. In its rear are numerous kettle holes. Some at- 
tractive summer homes are perched on this bank of the lake. 
Over these properties ran the Indian trail to the Oconomo- 
woc river at the head of the lake. Other Indian camp sites, 
generally of small extent, are on the other shores of North 
lake. From these, in recent years, many flint points, several 
stone axes and celts, stone balls, a slate gorget and several 
socketted copper points have been collected. Several 
crushed stone tempered unornamented and cord-marked 
potsherds have been found. 


The Indian camp and village sites on the shores of the 
Chenequa lakes have produced a quite large number of stone 
and other implements, weapons and ornaments since the 
cultivation of the first lands in the region by the pioneer 
settlers. Only a comparatively small number of these are, 
however, to be seen in private or public collections at the 
present time. One wonders what has become of the many 
Indian artifacts found on these sites during the past eighty 
or more years. They have been given away to friends, 
some have been sold to collectors and to dealers in Indian 
relics, others have been lost or destroyed. But very few 
have found way into Wisconsin museums. 

In the extensive archeological collections of the Milwau- 
kee Public museum there is a single socketted copper spear- 
point and two flint arrow points from Pine lake and a cop- 
per spearpoint with a single-notched tang from Beaver lake. 
From Hartland, near Pine lake, there is a socketted copper 
spearpoint and another with a rattail tang. Two pieces of 
worked catlinite (pipestone) come from the same locality. 
There are no specimens from North lake. 

In the Logan museum at Beloit College there is a knife 
made of dark brown quartzite, five inches in length, and a 
chisel made of greenstone from North lake, a flint knife 
4 :i/4 inches in length, and a fluted stone axe with faint 
grooves from Hartland, a spud made of black diorite, a cat- 
linite gorget of an oval form with one perforation from Lake 
Keesus, a brown quartzite spearpoint and a spatula-shaped 


copper spearpoint from Merton. In the State Historical 
museum there are several flint arrowpoints from Pine lake, 
a curved-blade scraper made of brown chalcedony from 
Hartland, and three socketted and one spatula-shaped cop- 
per spearpoint from Merton. 

The best collection from the vicinity of Pine lake is that 
of Mr. Louis W. Jacobson. His specimens are largely from 
village and camp sites on its northwest shore. This collec- 
tion contains about five hundred flint implements (arrow 
and spearpoints, knives, perforators and scrapers), flint 
blanks, grooved axes, celts, stone balls, hammerstones, a 
a stone sinker, a steatite ornament, a piece of worked cop- 
per and a single socketted copper spearpoint. 

In private collections at Waukesha, Pewaukee, Oconomo- 
woc and Milwaukee are a few other specimens from sites 
and other places on the shores of the Chenequa lakes. 


Of the trails or Indian pathways which passed through 
the Chenequa lakes region the principal one was the trail 
which ran from the Potawatomi and Menomini villages at 
Milwaukee to the Oconomowoc lakes, and westward to the 
Four Lakes at Madison. This important trail, traveled in 
succession by Indians, fur traders and early white settlers, 
became the early road from the Lake Michigan shore to 
western Wisconsin. It passed through the present villages 
of Pewaukee and Hartland and very close to the southern 
extremity of Chenequa (Pine) lake in its westward course. 
It appears on the Milwaukee Land District map of 1840 and 
on other early state maps. Its course is still largely fol- 
lowed by state highway 19. 

A well-traveled trail ran from the Potawatomi village on 
the Fox river at Waukesha to Chenequa. From Waukesha 
(Prairieville) this Indian path pursued a northwesterly di- 
rection to opposite the western end of Pewaukee lake (Pee- 
waunawkee), continuing then in the same direction to the 
site of a Potawatomi village at the northeast side of Naga- 
wicka lake. From this place it turned northward, a dis- 
tance of about one-half mile to the southern end of Chenequa 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 39 

(Pine) lake, where it intersected the Milwaukee trail. This 
trail appears on the "Map of Wiskonsin Territory, 1839." 

Trails were also located on both shores of Chenequa lake. 
The trail on its east shore followed a northward course 
through the woodlands from the foot of the lake to the creek 
joining Chenequa and Beaver lakes. Beyond this point it 
continued northward near the east shore of North lake and 
on toward Monches, two and a half miles northeast of the 
lake. In the early forties Potawatomi, and occasionally 
groups of Menomini and Winnebago Indians, were constant- 
ly passing over this trail on foot or sometimes with a few 
ponies, going both north and south on their way to their 
camps and hunting grounds, or to trade with the whites at 

Mrs. Charles E. Christenson, the wife of an early Danish 
settler residing on the east shore of Chenequa lake, once had 
an interesting experience with one of the redmen on this 
trail. She was walking through the forest when she unex- 
pectedly encountered an Indian going in the same direction. 
Greeting her he immediately afterward asked her "to be 
his squaw". This very unexpected proposal so frightened 
the young woman that she took the first opportunity to climb 
over a rail fence near at hand and flee to her log cabin home. 

A trail from the direction of the present village of Merton 
on the Bark river passed along the north shore of Beaver 
lake and united with the Chenequa trail beyond. A similar 
trail from the same locality ran along the south shore of 
Beaver lake and united with the same trail near the creek. 

When Mr. John 0. Rudberg, the early Pine lake surveyor 
and settler, was laying out the roads of this region he pre- 
served as nearly as possible the course of these early Indian 

On the west shore of Chenequa lake a trail also ran north- 
ward from the southern end of the lake. It passed the 
heads of the several fine bays in its course through the 
woods, and at the head of the lake and Mud lake intersected 
the trail running toward present Stone Bank, and passed 
northward to the Indian village site on the south shore of 
North lake. 

From the foot, on the west side of Chenequa lake, a trail 
also ran in a northwesterly direction to the Indian camp 


sites on the northeast shore of Okauchee lake. Its course 
was between this lake and Moose (Mouse on the early maps) 
lake and on to Stone Bank. A shore trail also ran along the 
lake shore on the west side of Chenequa lake. This trail 
some of the early settlers knew well. 

Some of the Waukesha County trails are described as 
from 20 inches to 2 feet deep, and more like troughs than 
paths. They were in use in both summer and winter. In- 
dians on snowshoes were occasionally met following them. 


Both the Prairie Potawatomi and the Menomini had 
names for the Waukesha County lakes, the Potawatomi for 
all of them, the Menomini for some. Of the Potawatomi 
names some have survivied. A larger number of lakes in 
this county bear Indian names than in any other county in 
southern or central Wisconsin. The significance of the 
names of several of these lakes has only recently been re- 

Okauchee Okatci, "something small"; Okidji, a "pipe- 

Keestis _ Kisobis, "sun lake" 

Tuckkipping (Lapham), "spring" or "Well" 

Peewaukee Peewaunawkee, "flinty place" 

Pewaukeeneening or Pewaukeenee, "lake of 

shells" or "snail lake" 

Nibeewuhkih, "watery or soggy ground" 

Nagawicka Nagawicke, "sandy" 

Nagamowike, "songstress" 

Nashota Nishota, "twins" 

Nijode, "twins" 
Nemahbin Nahmabin, "shiner" 

Miskonabin, "sucker" 

Namebin, "sucker" 
Ashhippun Kshpun, "raccoon" 

Asepan, Essiban, "raccoon" 

Oconomowoc Koonomowok, "name of a waterfall" 

Crooked Pouack (Lapham) 

Mouse (now Moose) __Wabkerioshques, "mouse" 

Mud Askewee, "mud" 

Silver Joniia or Shoneeah, "silver" 

Golden Wissauwa, "yellow" 

Mishwawa, "elk" 
Muskego Muskikwa, "a sunfish" 

Mashkig, "swamp" 

Muskeguack, "fishing place" 

Little Muskego Monish (Lapham) 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 41 

Other Names 

Mukwanago Mukwa, "bear" (place of the bear) 

Mequariigoick, "ladle" 

Waukesha Wakusha, "fox" 

Wawgoosha, "little fox" 
Walka, "fox" 


In the years 1820 to 1846 there were a considerable num- 
ber of Prairie Potawatomi villages on the banks of the 
streams and lakes in the vicinity of the Chenequa group of 
lakes. Some of these were permanent villages and others 
seasonal or occasional camps. Well-trodden trails across 
the prairies and through the forests connected all of them. 


Of these early Potawatomi villages the largest and the 
most important was the one located on the present site of 
.the city of Waukesha. Its Indian name was Tcheegascou- 
tak, meaning "burnt, or fire-land", a name given to it be- 
cause the broad prairie lands in its vicinity were frequently 
ravaged by prairie fires. The village, which was a perman- 
ent one until the year 1837, was located in the veryheart of 
the present city centering in the vicinity of present Cutler 
Park. It is reported to have been about a mile in extent. 
Some wigwams were also located at the base and also on 
the crest of the wooded ridge on the opposite bank of the 
Fox river. It was surrounded by quite extensive corn fields 
and gardens. The wigwams of the Indians were built of 
bent saplings fastened with strips of bark and covered 
with bark or skins. 

The number of Indian inhabitants of the Waukesha vil- 
lage in 1836 was probably one thousand or more. In 1827 
Ebenezer Childs found four hundred warriors in Tcheegas- 

The chief of this village was Wakusha, the Potawatomi 
name for "a fox". He is described as "tall and athletic, 
proud in his bearing, dignified and friendly". His clothing 
and ornaments were richly decorated skins, strings of beads 
and shells and tufts of feathers. 


In 1837 the Waukesha Indians began to remove from 
Wisconsin to the reservation provided for them by the Gov- 
ernment in Kansas. In the forties small parties of Pota- 
watomi, who apparently never left the state, camped on the 
ridge on the north side of the river. 


Several Potawatomi Indian camps were located on the 
shores of Okauchee (Okatci) lake. One of these was in the 
forties on its northern shore. In 1845 there were twenty- 
five or more Indians in camp here. Some continued to 
camp in this locality until the year 1876. 

Another group of these Indians had a camp on Railroad 
bay on the south shore of the lake. A third camp was situ- 
ated on the west shore of Garvin lake and the nearby north- 
east shore of Okauchee lake. They also had camps in the 
forties, and perhaps earlier, on the north shore of Moose 
(Mouse) lake, and on the west side of the Oconomowoc 
river at Stone Bank. 


In Oconomowoc there was an Indian camp on the east 
bank of the Oconomowoc river. There was a pond here on 
the Worthington place which furnished good muskrat trap- 
ping. This is reported to have been a Menomini, but it prob- 
ably was a Potawatomi Indian camp. Another camp was on 
Hewitts point on the north side of Oconomowoc lake. At 
Silver lake, one and a half miles southwest of Oconomowoc, 
a Potawatomi village was, up to the year 1837, located on 
its south shore. Here the priests of the Nashota mission 
preached to the Indians. 


On the shore of Nagawicka lake a Potawatomi camp was 
located on the northeast shore of the Bark river entrance to 
the lake. Fifty or more Indians were sometimes in this 
camp. It was a more or less permanent camp the natives 
sometimes remaining through the winter, fishing through 
the ice and hunting small game. 

At the outlet of the lake in present Delafield there was a 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 43 

village of at times from fifty to one hundred Indians. These 
Indians speared fish in both the lake and in the Bark river. 
A favorite camp ground was about a spring on the Warren 
farm, on the east bank of the Bark river, about one-half 
mile south of Hartland. 


At Pewaukee lake the Potawatomi village was on the east 
shore in the present village of Pewaukee. This village was 
in existence as early as the year 1827 and the Indians con- 
tinued to camp here up to as late as 1846. In the former 
year its number of inhabitants was four hundred. This 
number very probably included the inhabitants of several 
other smaller camps on the south shore of the lake. These 
contained from thirty to forty Indians. In these years the 
east end of the lake was marsh thru which a small stream 


At Monches on the Oconomowoc river there was a Pota- 
watomi (?) village of which Monches was the chief. He is 
buried in the Indian cemetery located there. 

Menomini Villages 

At Menomonee Falls, about thirteen miles northeast of 
the Chenequa lakes, there was a village of Menomini In- 
dians. A large Menomini village was located in 1842 on 
the edge of the so-called "Wild Marsh" south of Menomo- 
nee Falls. 

Other Villages 

Other important Prairie Potawatomi villages in Wau- 
kesha County were located at Mukwonago and at Muskego 
lake. An estimate of the total number of these Indians in 
the county at the time of the coming of the earliest white 
settlers places their number at nearly 2000. 

At this time they also had villages at Milwaukee, Racine, 
Kenosha, Burlington, Delavan lake, Geneva lake and Lake 
Koshkonong. North of Milwaukee there were Potawatomi 


villages at Waubeka, Cedar Grove, Sheboygan, Manitowoc 
Rapids, Two Rivers and other places. 

Vieau Trading Post 

"In early times, Waukesha County was a rich field for 
trappers, owing to the large number of lakes within her 
borders. This was known to the early traders who sent 
agents, usually Indians or half-breeds, from Green Bay, or 
across from Prairie du Chien for furs".* Jacques Vieau, 
the Milwaukee trader, visited large Potawatomi villages at 
Waukesha and Mukwonago in 1804-05, in the interests of 
his business. Andrew J. Vieau, his son, acting as his agent, 
established a trading post at Waukesha in 1827. His log- 
cabin store was located where St. Josephs Catholic church 
now stands. 

To his post came nearly all the Waukesha County Indians. 
In exchange for the muskrat, mink, otter and other skins, 
which they brought to him, he provided them with cloth, 
beads, jewelry, axes, hoes, firesteels, knives, awls, guns, 
powder and shot, and other articles which they required. In 
1837 he sold his stock of goods to Solomon Juneau. He also 
visited during the ten years nearly all of the Indian villages 
and camps in Waukesha County. 

After the removal of the Prairie Potawatomi to the Mis- 
souri river in Iowa some Indians are reported to have re- 
turned over the trails, all the way to Waukesha County, to 
trade with favorite traders. 


The information presented in this report on the Indian 
history of the Chenequa Lakes region was obtained from an 
investigation of the portions of the shores of the three lakes 
which lie within the boundaries of the Village of Chenequa, 
made at the request of prominent residents of the Village; 
also from the records of the Wisconsin Archeological So- 
ciety, through interviews and correspondence with old set- 
tlers and the descendants of pioneers and with Wisconsin 
Indians, through the examination of local and other private 
archeological collections and those in the museums at Madi- 

Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 45 

son, Milwaukee and Beloit, through a study of the maps, 
manuscripts and literature in the State Historical Library 
at Madison, and from other sources. A more detailed and 
attractively printed and illustrated report is being printed 
by the Village officers for its residents. 

Acknowledgment is made elsewhere in this monograph 
to some of the many persons, including Wisconsin Indians 
of the Potawatomi and Winnebago tribes, who have con- 
tributed valuable assistance in its preparation. All others 
who have helped are also requested to accept our grateful 


Ufll. in Sanitary, 1931 Nn. 2 






10 3amtarn, 1931 No. 2 







Accepted for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Ses. 1103, 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

, His 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing- the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Charles G. Schoewe 


R. J. Kieckhefer Dr. A. L. Kastner 

W. W. Gilman Mrs. Theo. Koerner 

Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand W. C. McKern 

A. W. Pond A. P. Kannenberg 


Dr. S. A. Barrett A. T. Newman Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

H. H. Smith E. F. Richter T. L. Miller 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz L. R. Whitney Geo. A. West 


G. M. Thorne 
National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


STATE SURVEY Dr. A. L. Kastner, J. P. Schumacher, W. F. 
Bauchle, Geo. F. Overtoil, M. F. Hulburt, T. M. N. Lewis, Dr. E. 
J. W. Notz, O. L. Hollister, Dr. F. G. Logan, T. T. Brown, Dr. B. 
T. Best, S. W. Faville, Col. R. S. Owen, G. L. Pasco. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Frank Weston, 
Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, Dr. Orrin Thompson, Mrs. F. R. Melcher, 
Col. Howard Greene, Rev. 0. W. Smith, M. G. Troxell, H. W. 
Cornell, W. P. Morgan, Dr. E. G. Bruder, A. H. Griffith. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS L. R. Whitney, Col. Marshall Cousins, 
Mrs. Arthur C. Neville, Geo. A. West, W. M. Babcock, R. N. 
Buckstaff, Prof. J. B. MacHarg, Dr. P. B. Jenkins, Rev. F. S. 
Dayton, A. P. Kannenberg, Mrs. May L. Bauchle, B. M. Palmer. 

MEMBERSHIP Louis Pierron, Paul Joers, A. R. Rogers, Arthur 
Gerth, Dr. W. H. Brown, Rud. Boettger, A. P. Cloos, Dr. H. W. 
Kuhm, Mrs. Anna F. Johnson, K. Freckman, Geo. Wright, Mrs. 
Hans A. Olson, Carl Baur, C. G. Weyl. 

D. S. Rowland. 

PUBLICITY J. G. Gregory, A. O. Barton, E. R. Mclntyre, R. K. Coe. 
BIOGRAPHY H. H. Smith, G. M. Thome, C. E. Brown. 

These are held in the Trustee Room in the Public Museum Build- 
ing, in Milwaukee. 

During the months of July to October no meetings are held. 

Life Members, $25.00 Sustaining Members, $5.00 

Annual Members, $2.00 
Junior Members, $ .50 Institutional Members, $1.50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
or to the "Wisconsin Archeologist" should be addressed to Charles E. 
Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, State Historical Museum, Madison, 
Wisconsin. G. M. Thome, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Mil- 


Vol. 10, No. 2, New Series 


Suggestions on Technique in Archaeology, Alonzo W. Pond 45 

Old Beach Camp Sites in Winnebago County, George Overton 54 

A Macgregor Bay Cemetery, Geo. R. Fox 61 

Fire-Steels, C. E. Brown 65 

Red Metal, James K. Jamison 69 

Large Copper Implements 72 

New York Stone Pestles, P. L. Worth 74 

Preservation of the Old Indian Agency House 77 

The Mound-Builders 80 

Archeological Notes 83 


Charles G. Schoewe Frontispiece 

Plate Facing Page 

1. Ringing Rock, La Cloche Island 61 

2. Prehistoric Burial, La Cloche Island 63 

3. Fire-Steels__ _ 66 


I 'resident. Wisconsin Archeolo.u'ical Society 

Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin Archeologicnl Society 

VOL. 10. MADISON. WIS., JANUARY, 1931 No. 2 

New Series 


Alonzo W. Pond 

The 1930 Logan-African Expedition of Beloit College 
depended on college students, most of them undergraduates, 
all but one of them without previous experience, to collect 
data from the shell mounds of Algeria. These untrained 
students, excavated, sorted, treated with preservatives and 
packed in three months over 36,000 artifacts and thirty 
human skeletons besides several packing cases of animal 
bones. They made the necessary notes concerning the work 
so we are able to report ten times the scientific results we 
could have accomplished in the same period without the 
help of students. 

The experience with students, conversations with a num- 
ber of enthusiastic amateurs and the recollection of my own 
early problems are my excuse for attempting this paper on 
technique in prehistoric archeology. 

First let me say that the amateur archaeologist is an es- 
sential help to the science. He can and does gather data 
which materially adds to our knowledge. There are many 
problems which he can solve more efficiently than the pro- 
fessional. There are often problems located in his own 
locality on which he can spend his spare time for several 
years if necessary. Finally, with an intimate knowledge 
of his region he can explain those peculiarities of cultures 
which are influenced by the special conditions of his 

Many amateurs begin their work in Archaeology as col- 
lectors only ; by that I mean their interest is centered in se- 
curing beautiful specimens or specimens different from 
those in some other collection. All of us admit a thrill of 


pleasure in the exceptional specimen and such pieces have 
an important place in science, but they are not all import- 

The real archaeologist whether amateur or professional 
recognizes that broken and unfinished specimens often 
throw more valuable light on scientific problems than the 
most beautiful or perfect specimens ever found. 

Probably Mr. Skavlem's experimental work on the prim- 
itive methods of working stone is the best example of the 
value of broken and unfinished pieces. It was through a 
study of such specimens that he learned his technique of 
making stone tools and has been able to answer some of the 
most puzzling questions asked by amateurs and profes- 
sionals from Alaska to Australia. 

Many consider that archaeology is a cultural science ; 
that it is studied merely for the pleasure it gives; that 
knowledge of its facts only satisfies man's cultural curi- 
osity. I like to think of it as the foundation of the larger 
study, Anthropology, which may be described as the science 
'of understanding human beings. That gives the anthropol- 
ogist a big place in the world but there is constant evidence 
of his need wherever modern civilization comes into con- 
tact with primitive people. The anthropologist learns to 
understand the uncivilized people who work under him. 
Through that understanding he is able to get them to co- 
operate to a greater extent than those who try to .force their 
own way of doing things without a knowledge or consider- 
ation of the primitive customs with which they conflict. 

As a background or foundation for understanding human 
beings and their doings archaeology has an excuse for be- 
ing, even in a practical world of affairs. It helps to answer 
those age-old questions, "where do we come from?" and 
"where are we going?" It answers them by tracing the 
steps over which we have climbed to our present state. It 
reveals the many false starts and abandoned lines of effort 
which mark the road from yesterday to tomorrow. The 
scientist with the knowledge of those efforts can help prog- 
ress to profit by the experiences of the past. 

The archaeologist who is only a collector, who is inter- 

Technique in Archaeology. 47 

ested only in the most perfect specimen is accordingly miss- 
ing half the fun. He is contributing little to the science 
and often destroys more than he contributes. There are 
hundreds and thousands of problems to be solved. All of 
them are of some importance, for the whole story of the 
past will never be complete until all those problems are 
solved. Each solution adds something, no matter how little, 
to the chain and when all the archaeologists, amateurs and 
professionals realize the real importance of the science they 
will be less likely to be satisfied with only the collector's 

While working with fourteen college students in the 
shell mounds of Algeria, there was one rule repeated almost 
every day. It is the first rule of all sciences and must be ad- 
hered to. GET ALL THE FACTS! If one is working a 
village site in Wisconsin or in the Sahara Desert, if he is 
excavating a Mound Builder tumulus or a Snail Eater 
shell mound every fragment of flint, bone, stone, charcoal 
or other material has some significance and the scientist 
working it must know that significance before he discards 
any fragment. 

My students handled 360,000 fragments of flint last 
spring. All of them were examined at least three times be- 
fore ninety percent were thrown away. Thousands of bone 
fragments were examined to be sure that no fragment was 
discarded which had any possibility of being identified by 
the paleontologists or which gave any evidence of being 
worked or used by man. Hundreds of hearthstones were 
handled to be certain they had no story other than that 
they had been in the fire. Tiny fragments of charcoal were 
collected so that the paleobotanist will be able to tell what 
sort of plants or trees were used as fuel by the Snail Eaters 
thousands of years ago. Great collections of snail shells 
were made to determine the different species eaten by those 
ancient people. As far as we were able we tried to get all 
the facts. To do that we sifted every shovel full of dirt and 
ashes that was excavated from the mound. Our methods 
enabled us to collect hundreds of tiny flints not over half 
an inch long and we sifted about ten cubic yards of ma- 


terial each day to get them. Hunting for the needle in a hay 
stack really isn't an impossible job provided, of course, 
that the needle is going to throw some tiny ray of light on 
the problems of archaeology. 

Another rule of our African camp was at first hard to 
enforce. It was LABEL EVERYTHING. Some students 
would bring in their material intending to label it in camp. 
By the time they got around to it again they had forgotten 
whether it came from the vicinity of Skeleton #10 or level 
three. Occasionally bags of material got mislaid for sev- 
eral days without a label. Such material was thrown away 
unless there were characteristic specimens in it which could 
be given to camp visitors as souvenirs but it was never in- 
cluded in the collections for study. After the first few days, 
however, the students saw the importance of labeling. 

Light canvas bags 11 inches long by 71/2 inches wide were 
provided in quantities. For the fragile specimens the usual 
accumulation of match boxes and small tin cans found at 
any camp were used. Everyone in camp had indelible pen- 
cils and by wetting the canvas bags with water or saliva 
they could mark the location of the material beyond, any 
danger of confusion. Paper labels were also placed inside 
the bag so that often only a number appeared on the out- 
side. Large stones etc., which were too big for the bags 
were given a number with indelible pencil on the specimen. 
Often a small piece of white adhesive tape was stuck to the 
specimen and the number of other label written indelibly on 
its white surface. 

When it came to sorting the material the rule was still 
in force. A paper label was made out bearing the site 
number as well as the classification of the material in each 
sorting can. Trays were provided for grouping and hand- 
ling the cans. Excellent sorting boxes can be made by cut- 
ting condensed milk cans in two with a knife and hammer 
or a pair of heavy shears. The sharp edges can be bent 
over with pliers and battered down with axe and hammer, 
so that there is little danger of cutting one's self. But above 
all else material must be kept labeled at all times. 

One of the questions I am most often asked even by ama- 

Technique in Archaeology. 49 

teurs who have good sized collections is, "How do you know 
where to look for material?" Most prehistoric peoples 
whose only records are archaeological, were to a large ex- 
tent nomad hunters dependent on food supplies which they 
did not control. To find these records the archaeologists 
must search for the localities most likely to have been fav- 
orable to their camp sites. Naturally such places can not be 
too far from water. In North Africa we hunt along ancient 
stream beds. Any place which looks like a good camping 
place, which was at the time of habitation near water and 
fuel is a good locality to examine carefully. 

In the Gobi Desert, Mongolia, we found the most likely 
places were solidified sand dunes in valleys. Probably these 
dunes were active at the time they were inhabited by pre- 
historic people. They furnished shelter from the hard winds 
and supplied fuel as there was more vegetation on the dunes 
than on the plain. 

In Wisconsin we know that the junction of two streams 
was usually a favorable habitation site for prehistoric man. 
Strategic points on lake shores and stream banks were 
suitable localities. 

Once the general type of spot most favored for a camp 
in any given region is known there is only one way to find 
evidence of prehistoric habitation. That is to go back and 
forth with eyes on the ground. Quarter the region like a 
dog hunting for a scent. If the land is under cultivation and 
can be examined without damage to the crop, the most fav- 
orable time is after a rain. Then flints etc., i^ill be washed 
free of dirt and are more easily recognized. If vegetation 
covers the region, about the only likely method of search 
is to follow the banks of streams examining them carefully 
for flints, pottery, bones, etc., which are always plentiful on 
village sites. Mounds are generally visible even on vegeta- 
tion covered land. Like village sites, they are found only by 
careful search, aided by questioning the inhabitants of the 

When the habitation site or mound has been located the 
next step for the scientist is to record it. If possible this 
should be done as accurately as may be on the largest scale 


map obtainable. If no map is available one can make a 
sketch including the important geographical features by 
which the place can be found again. 

Notes should be taken even if the sketch is drawn to scale. 
At least one and preferably two or more fixed points should 
be included. Trees die, creeks and rivers change their banks 
so that if possible it is well to include section corners or 
other surveyors points in the notes and sketch. Give the ac- 
curate distance and directions from such fixed points and 
tell how they were arrived at, pacing, measuring or estim- 

If excavations are to be undertaken photographs should 
be made of the site first, and an accurate drawing made be- 
fore dirt is removed. For the drawing, cross sectioned paper 
is most desirable. A base line should be run through the 
nearest point (section corner, etc., corner of large founda- 
tion to building, center of spring, bridge buttress, any- 
thing likely to be permanent or of sufficient importance that 
even if removed its location can be found in later years), 
and a second base line run at right angles to the first. 
Example first line is north and south; second east and 
west. These base lines can be marked at stated intervals 
with stakes. Five foot intervals, 1 yard or 1 meter inter- 
vals are handy. If both base lines are outside the area 
mapped references are more easily made as all are in the 
same quadrant. For instance A. is 4.5 N, 3 E and is located 
as quickly as a point on a map where latitude and longitude 
are given. When it is desired to mark the exact location of 
an object in an excavation the point can be given as above 
and its distance from the bottom of the excavations or from 
the surface recorded in the notes unless the worker cares to 
make cross section drawings to show each find of import- 

If the whole of a given area is to be excavated and that is 
the desirable thing to do whenever possible, a trench should 
be started outside the site along or parallel to one of the 
base lines. The surface of the site should always be cleared 
ahead of the trench which should be extended or widened 
in the direction of the second base line. As soon as an 

Technique in Archaeology. 51 

archaeological stratum (pay dirt) is reached extreme care 
must be exercised. 

All of the non archaeological deposit above the pay dirt 
should be removed and the interesting stratum attacked 
from above. In this way all skeletons, pottery, flints, axes 
or other furniture can be exposed so that photographs and 
drawings can be made to show the relation of each article 
to all others. In working from above there is no risk of 
specimens falling out of place before one is ready for them 
to be removed. 

Skeletons or parts of skeletons should not be removed 
until the whole has been exposed and photographed. Care 
should be taken not to move any bones before a photograph 
showing the whole skeleton in place is made. 

For ordinary trenching and for removing the dirt above 
an archaeological deposit pick and shovel may be used, but 
as soon as pay dirt is reached small hand trowels, small hand 
picks, whisk brooms and two-inch wide paint brushes are 
better tools. Pocket and case knives are also handy. With 
such tools carefully handled the most fragile skeleton may 
be exposed for photographing. Expose all objects from 
above so that they may finally be lifted out of the deposit. 

Bones, both human and animal are often extremely frag- 
ile. To remove them at all requires care. Once they are 
brushed free of dirt with a fine paint brush they can be 
treated with a dilute solution of shellac. This is sprinkled on 
with a paint brush. Ordinary commercial shellac is about 
"four pound cut." This may be diluted with three or four 
parts of denatured alcohol. That is, one part shellac and 
three or four times as much alcohol. This makes it very thin 
so that it will easily penetrate the exposed bone. When 
the alcohol has evaporated the shellac will hold the part- 
icles of bone in place. If the shellac is well diluted there 
will be no glossy or unnatural appearance to the specimen. 
It must be thoroughly dry before being moved or the speci- 
men will surely fall apart. 

Either ordinary or white shellac may be used but the 
white is less likely to color specimens. If a piece is espec- 
ially fragile it may be desirable to treat it with a less dilute 


solution. However, the thin solution should be applied first 
to strengthen the central portions and the thicker solution 
applied later. If too concentrated, the shellac leaves a glassy 
surface which can be removed with a soft cloth or brush 
soaked in alcohol. 

After a specimen has been photographed and is ready 
to be taken from the deposit every care to keep it from be- 
ing broken is necessary. Pieces well hardened with shellac 
may be wrapped in excelsior or other packing material and 
then boxed if they are to be shipped. All packages should be 
labeled inside as well as outside. 

There is much more to the 'technique of the science of 
archaeology but if the foregoing will answer some of the 
questions of the amateur it has served its purpose. 

As a summary may I include the rules each student on 
the Logan-African Expedition knew. 


These are the laws of the archeologist. 

TE," Pitard. One job well done is worth a hundred started. 



LOST IN THE FOREST OF TRIFLES. (Don't let trifles blind 
you to the importance of the general problem.) 





in the deposit you are working which you do not understand is 

Technique in Archaeology. 53 

an uncertainty. Report it to headquarters camp and see that it is 
so protected that headquarters can study the problem on arrival. 

everyone away from your diggings. Expose the complete skele- 
ton yourself, carefully and meticulously. Use a camel's hair 
brush. It's fragile. Don't break it. Send for your nearest col- 
league as soon as you are sure that you have a skeleton. Notify 
headquarters camp immediately. Don't dare to leave the skele- 
ton until precautions for its preservation have been taken. Keep 
everyone away from the trench even if you must use force. 


Your problem will be solved only when you know the relation- 
ship of every item in a deposit to everything else in the deposit. 
The primary object of the expedition is to know the relationship 
of each one of hundreds of sites to all of the others. 

Mohammedanism holds millions of followers because seven times 
each day they repeat. "Allah is great, Allah is all powerful, there is 
no God but Allah and Mohammed is His Prophet." Archaeology is 
less exacting. Read its laws once a day. 



George Overton 

The student of archaeology who has followed the action of 
the natural elements, as well as the manipulation of natural 
resources by aggressive man, can bear true witness to the 
changes wrought in a lifetime. For students who seek old 
camp sites I shall relate my observations having played and 
worked much on the adjoining waters. 

Our Lake Region consists of a group of three lakes above 
and to the westward of Lake Winnebago Lake Butte des 
Morts, three miles west of Lake Winnebago, is about five 
miles long. Lake Winneconne, six miles above, is about two 
and a half miles across. Lake Poygan is about three quar- 
ters of a mile west of Lake Winneconne, but the connecting 
river was about two miles long. A long narrow point along 
the south side of the lake separates lake and river. 

In 1847 the outlet of Lake Winnebago was first harnessed 
for power. The charter for the first dam provided that 
there should be no raise in the level of the lake. Gradually, 
however, the dams were built up several feet which raised 
the levels of all the lakes. The lakes overflowed their na- 
tural banks and the low lands adjacent were converted into 
marshes while the old marshes were washed away. 

The crowding and heaving of expanding ice in early win-: 
ter, the pounding and grinding of the spring breakups, fol- 
lowed by the monstrous waves of the spring gales tore the 
natural barriers away. The undertow of the wave action 
on the soft bottom lands carried all the lighter particles out 
into deep water. Roots, stems and partly decomposed veg- 
etable matter were washed ashore and deposited in ridges 
along a new margin. All the heavier material such as 
stones, pebbles and other debris together with the coarser 
sand was left practically undisturbed. The old beaches be- 
came mere sandbars covered by from two to four feet of 
water according to the season. Back of these bars were 
mud flats which during summer were generally covered by 
aquatic plants. The fringe of bulrushes which in the old 

Old Beach Camp Sites. 55 

era bordered the lake persisted under the changed condi- 
tions. To this day they may be seen growing out in deep 
water, from a quarter to half a mile from the present shore, 
indisputably marking the former outline of the lakes. 

Beginning in 1889 and continuing during the next four 
years the mills drew the water down to practically its orig- 
inal stage. The old beaches appeared as smooth hard packed 
sand with here and there a trace of the old shingle on their 
outer margin. 

My first archeological find happened on the north shore 
of Lake Winneconne in the fall of 1889. I was hauling a 
rowboat across a stretch of shingle. Between my feet I 
noticed a stone with a groove across it. I picked up the first 
stone ax I had ever found. Crude and badly battered, but 
none the less a prehistoric artifact which I proudly cherish 
to this day. Immediate search was soon rewarded by find- 
ing another, and then the hunt was on. We were working 
on the lake at the time and had some leisure every day to 
search the beach. We found two or three more axes and 
several celts all within a distance of ten rods from the place 
of the original find. 

Farther down the beach we found a number of arrow 
points and an occasional perforator. Broken deer bones and 
fragments of antler were very much in evidence. Potsherds 
were quite abundant but in our youthful ignorance few 
were preserved. When the fall winds came on and drifted 
the sand pickings were better. My first copper was a very 
perfect awl pointed at both ends. 

The next fall (1890) I was again living in the same vicin- 
ity. Our first trip to the beach after the water went down 
netted a pocket full of arrow points, a socketed copper 
spear five and a half inches long, a copper arrow point, and 
a seven inch slender square-butt flint spear point. 

Several trips during the next few weeks resulted in re- 
covering about a dozen coppers, three more axes, four celts, 
numerous arrow points, a very thick brown quartzite pike 
head, several perforators and two large chalcedony arrow 
points one of which is practically perfect. 

The beaches by this time had been exposed for two seas- 


ons and the wind had blown away much of the lighter 
sandy deposit. We now learned where to look for relics. 
When we found a place where finely crumbled rotted stone 
and pebbles were mixed with the sand we knew the old 
beach was exposed, and careful search seldom went unre- 

The beach I have described is located on the south half 
of section 32, Town 20, Range 15 east. It is on the farm of 
the late Jas. Clark estate. 

A very fruitful beach was on the east side of Lake Winne- 
conne. This beach extended from the mouth of Mud Creek 
south the whole length of the Olen farm. Here C. T. Olen, 
as a boy, started the Olen Collection which is the largest 
and most representative collection of Winnebago County 
prehistoric implements. 

South of Lake Winneconne, on the extremity of the nar- 
row ridge which separates it from the Wolf River, now 
called Goose Island but then a part of the main ridge, C. T. 
Olen came upon a camp site near a small spring. He found 
several coppers and also twenty flint arrow points grouped 
in a small space, evidently a cache that had been washed 

Scattered around a spring on a small island in Kenneley's 
Bay, an enlargement of the Wolf River between Lakes Win- 
neconne and Poygan, Fred Clark found four copper points, 
several flint arrow points and other debris indicating an 
old camp site. 


The south shore. of L. Poygan did not yield a great amount 
of material in any particular locality such as would in- 
dicate a large or long used camp site. A birdstone came 
from near the Pay Grounds. Coppers, flints, celts, axes, 
hoes, ceremonials and a scattering number of trade imple- 
ments were found by various residents and relic hunters. 
It is impossible to detail a list of finds or give an accurate 
description of the individual pieces at this late date. I am 
convinced from what evidence, first hand and hearsay, that 
I have been able to gather that a considerable amount of 

Old Beach Camp Sites. 57 

material was collected at different times and places during 
the years of low water. 

The one outstanding find on the south shore was the 
Sacred Spring near the Bohn farm where Loren Leaman 
and three companions raked out an immense quantity of 
prehistoric material that had evidently been thrown in as a 
sacrificial offering to the spirit who made this pool his 
habitation. (Vol. 7, No. 4, Wisconsin Archeologist.) 

The west shore of Norwegian Bay yielded a very large 
number of pieces. This site differed from the others in this 
respect, a large and evidently a populus village occupied 
the high land just back of the beach, at the upper or north- 
ern end. The late Chas. Freer who lived in that vicinity 
worked this field very thoroughly. He discovered and ex- 
plored two sacred springs in that locality. The Freer Spring 
yielding the largest amount of well preserved material of 
any spring so far recorded in Wisconsin. A large part of his 
finds are on display in the Mitchell Collection at the Oshkosh 
Public Museum. (Vol. 7, No. 4, Wisconsin Archeologist.) 

The east shore of Haulover Bay showed a camp site of 
considerable magnitude. This bay gets its name from the 
fact that the head of the bay was only a short distance from 
the channel of the Wolf River. By making a portage here 
more than three miles could be saved nearly all of it against 
a strong current in the river. This cutoff was especially im- 
portant in windy weather when the lake was rough at the 
mouth of the Old River. The camp site was very probably 
used by voyageurs when the lake below was unsafe for their 
canoes. Haulover Bay and vicinity was a splendid rice bed 
which also made it an excellent hunting ground. 

Haulover Bay was a favorite camping place for later 
white travelers and hunters. The late Henry Heuer and his 
.sons had a trapping lodge at this point for many years. 
C. T. Olen informed me that while camping here he col- 
lected several hundred arrow and spear points of flint, sev- 
eral coppers including a fine knife and a number of axes 
and celts. A large number of the arrows found were ap- 
parently a cache that had been washed out during previous 
high water. 

r,s WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIftT. Vol. 10, No. 2 

The east end of Lake Poygan was one continuous camp 
site for nearly three quarters of a mile. The eastern end of 
the lake was subjected to more severe pounding by the 
waves and ice than the shores on the shorter diameter. The 
old shores were pushed back farther and the silting in of 
the old beaches was deeper. It took longer for wind action 
to dig down to the original strata. It was not until the early 
'90s that the beach proved prolific. 

Mr. C. T. Olen reported the finding of a cache of 600 
flints largely arrow points, also a number of coppers and 
other artifacts, a perfect three-barbed bone harpoon per- 
forated for a line, and several other fragmentary bone har- 
poons and awls. He also picked up a very large grooved ax. 

Fred Clark told of finding a copper knife and several 
awls and points as well as numerous flints. 

Two commercial fishermen, who had a shanty on the NW. 
quarter of Sec. 6, T. 19, R. 15 E., picked up a great many 
flints near their landing. The late Chas. Richter told me of 
their having, as he described it, "a peck of artifacts". He 
spoke of the perfection and beauty of shape of many of the 
points but could not identify the stone they were made of 
other than to say they were of "all kinds." 

In my early searches I did not get to this site very many 
times and finds were meager. 

I still have in my collection about seventy-five good ar- 
row points all from the Clark Beach. The patina on many 
of the points is of a peculiar reddish tint. Iron occurs be- 
tween the strata of an outcrop of Lower Magnesian lime- 
stone nearby. This iron in the sand may have given the 
red coloring. Some broken pieces, repointed by flaking, 
showed the flint to be a grayish cream color. 

The lateral edges of the barbed arrow and spear points 
were convex. This made them appear broad and blunt. 
Even the square-butt type had this characteristic. The 
quartz, quartzite and chalcedony points did not have this 
reddish cast and were straight edged. 

The following are some of the characteristic pieces: 
1 Black flint scraper, 2 Vz " long by 1 V 2 " wide. 

OM B<-;,rh Camp s 59 

1 Butt end of knife, 3 J /" long by 2" wide, "turkey-tail" very thin. 

1 Red quartzite celt, 4" long by 2" wide. 

1 Red quartzite pike head, 3%" long, 1 Vz " w., 1" thick. 

1 White quartzite spear, 5" long, 1 % " wide. 

1 Red patinated spear, 4%" long, 2" wide. 

3 Winged hand drills from 1" to 3" long. 

Several broken drills, beautiful chipping. 
1 Chalcedony turtleback scraper. 
1 Grooved stone hammer. 
1 Grooved net weight. 
8 Grooved axes. 
1 Grooved ax, fluted. 
6 Celts. 

1 Copper socketed spear, 5 Vz " long, 1 V " wide. 

3 Copper awls, double pointed, 5 Vz " long, to 6 Vz " long, square sec- 
tion 5/32" to 3/16" wide. Very sharp. 
6 Copper socketed arrow heads, 1 % " to 2 % " long. 
1 Copper arrow, long flat tang, 3 *A " by % ". 
1 Copper arrow, flat tang, 1 % " by % ". 
1 Copper arrow, notched, beveled edges, 2 Vz " by % ". 
1 Copper knife, 3 l /z" long. 
1 Copper knife, broken, 2" long, curved, ornamented by six punch 

marks % " apart. 
5 Copper awls, square, pointed one end. 2" to 3Vs" long. 

Several badly corroded fragments of knives, awls and arrows. 

The few large potsherds are practically all shell tem- 
pered. The heavier ones are burned red and the thin pieces 
of a clay that came out black. The black sherds are from 
one-eighth to three-sixteenths of an inch in thickness. One 
large piece, nearly flat, is three-eights of an inch thick. One 
piece is ornamented with broad incised lines making 
squares one and a quarter inches across. All others are 
plain except that the rims are scalloped by the fingers. 

A 'study of the geographical location of these camp sites 
reveals the fact that they were never located on a direct 
line of travel. There might be a small camp site, perhaps 
used in time of peace, on a line of travel as that at Goose 
Island or the smaller island above. The large sites were off 
to one side of the main route often a mile or more. Their 
location on low alluvial ridges with low land or marsh back 
of them forebade their use as permanent village sites. They 
were submerged a few weeks every spring by the floods of 
the Wolf River. The Camp sites were always near large 


rice beds. The name Poygan, a Menominee word, was orig- 
inally Pwa-a-con-nee abbreviated to Poygan, and meant 
threshing place (for wild rice). 

The camp sites were always near the best fishing grounds. 
Broad sandy shallows just off the beaches made ideal con- 
ditions for 'jack light' spearing. I know that Indians 
made a practice of spearing fish at night. I think we may 
safely assume that the custom was handed down from re- 
mote times. Adjacent marshes provided waterfowl and 

The fascination of searching these Old Beach camp sites 
remains with a few of us "old timers", though nearly forty 
years has passed. They were exposed with all their wealth 
of archeological lore for a few years for a brief time in the 
autumn. We young fellows roamed over their sandy 
stretches marveling at the abundance and perfection of our 
finds. We were interested in hunting relics giving little 
heed to gathering material which would piece out the story 
of the old aboriginal struggle for existence. They were 
swallowed again by the water which is now stringently 
regulated by the Federal Government in the interests of 
navigation, perhaps for all time. 

Plate 1 

A Macgregor Bay Cemetery. 61 


George R. Fox 

Commander Eugene F. McDonald had for some years 
known of an Indian site in the Georgian Bay region in Can- 
ada. This burying ground was reported as of the fur-trade 
period with chances of its having also been used by the pre- 
historic inhabitants of the region. 

On August 8, 1930 an expedition organized to investigate 
this aboriginal burying ground and consisting of the writer, 
Commander McDonald, Dr. Alvin W. La Forge, Mr. Hal 
Strotz, and five others left Chicago for this locality. 

On its arrival at Little Current, the principal town on 
Manitoulin Island, the helpful services of Father Papineau, 
the resident priest, were secured. He lead the party to the 
site and pointed out the location of the graves. Through him 
permission from the Canadian government and from the 
Jesuits, who exercise control in the region, was obtained to 
undertake investigations. Evidence of the looting of graves 
was to be seen on every hand. It was believed, however, 
that some of the graves had not been disturbed. 

The cemetery was located at the eastern end of La Cloche 
Island. Its name (meaning "The Bell") comes from a large 
boulder found near the burial place and the village site 
which it served. This rock when struck, rang like a bell. 
Tradition said that the sound could be heard for three 
miles. Dr. La Forge, who conducted extensive experiments 
with the rock and others, found that half a mile was the 
limit at which the sound of a blow struck on this boulder 
could be heard. His work proved that not one but many 
ringing stones were scattered over the plain within a mile 
of this village site. All were glacial boulders. Only a few 
possessed the peculiar vibratory quality of The Bell rock. 

La Cloche was the name of the Indian trading post once 
located here. From this the name was given to the entire 
island, and later to a water passage, to a river, and finally, 
to the chief mountain range of the region. 

La Cloche Island lies neither in Georgian Bay, nor in 
Back Bay, the water lying between the mainland and Man- 


itoulin Island, but in a bay named Macgregor lying between 
the two. This region is one of the most interesting geologic- 
ally in America. On La Cloche Island the bedrock, fos- 
siliferous limestone, is bare in nearly every direction. Prim- 
itive man could not have buried there, unless in a cave, for 
he had no tools with which to penetrate the rock strata had 
he not been aided by a glacier. As the ice melted away a 
lake many feet higher than the present level of Lake Mich- 
igan was formed. This nearly, but not quite covered the 
island. Along the northern edge is an old beach some thirty 
feet wide and from twelve inches to three feet in depth. 

This beach afforded an ideal place for burials; it was 
easily excavated and clean. At its eastern end the inhabit- 
ants of the fur-trade village deposited the bodies of their 
dead. There were more than fifty such interments. Stones 
were used in covering the remains. 

The graves were dug down to the bed-rock. In the bottom 
were placed strips of cedar bark and on top of these birch- 
bark. The body dressed in all of its finery and accompanied 
by its cherished possessions, wrapped in a woollen blanket 
and then in a felt blanket, was placed in this 'grave. Lime- 
stone slabs were then placed over the body and the hole 
filled with sand. By the use of a steel probe the members of 
the expedition located the grave, then dug down and re- 
moved the stones. Many artifacts made by the Indians 
were found but more commonly the materials accompany- 
ing the burials were articles supplied by the fur traders. 

One grave yielded a mirror, a decayed pouch once con- 
taining red paint, a silver bracelet, copper bells, brass but- 
tons, head ornaments, thimbles, remains of an iron kettle, 
painted wooden objects, beads, and various iron objects so 
badly rusted as to make their original nature undetermin- 
able. One was probably a sword. The skull was crushed. 
On one side was a hole made by a bullet. On the burial plot 
by far the most common objects were trade beads. Two 
hundred and ninety-nine of these were obtained from a 
single shovelful of sand. 

On this site there have been found pieces of uniforms, 
coins and medals connected with the English military ac- 

Plate 2 

A Macg'regor Bay Cemetery. 63 

tivities in Canada at about the time of the war of 1812. 
Epaulettes were found on the shoulders of one body. With 
this burial were also two King George III silver Indian 
medals. These are of two different issues, one bearing the 
date 1814. Thimbles were common, usually perforated for 
attachment to robes as ornaments. Many small cone-shaped 
sheet copper "tinklers" were also found. 

On a small peninsula having a magnificent outlook over 
the bay and the mountains was found a section of the beach 
ridge with a depth of over three feet. Because of the 
beauty of the view and knowing the predilection of prim- 
itive man for burying his dead in such attractive places, it 
was felt that there should be a grave or graves here. 

After hours of patient probing, during which over fifty 
stonebeds were unearthed, a cairn was discovered. When 
the last stone of this heap was removed, the skeleton of a 
man, somewhat crushed but otherwise intact, was revealed. 
He was buried on his left side with limbs drawn up. This 
was no Indian of the fur trade period. Dr. La Forge deter- 
mined that this native had died when about twenty-five 
years of age. The burial was probably made not less than 
three hundred years ago and probably nearer five hundred 
years. One thousand years would be the extreme limit. 

Under the right hand of the skeleton were three fine 
chert spearpoints, at his feet a huge blade. About his neck 
was a string of three shell gorgets supposedly cut from Gulf 
of Mexico conch shells, and a necklace of more than 35 
shells from which the tips had been cut to permit of their 
being strung. The small shells appear to have been painted. 
A single stone bead, an inch in length hung at the throat. It 
had been reduced to a form roughly cylindrical by hours 
of patient rubbing. Perforated by a hole formed of two 
funnels meeting at the center, it bespoke not only hours 
and days of labor, but skill in the manipulation of the reed 
drill, twirled by hand while immersed in sand and water. 

On the breast hung his breast-plate made of a bear's jaws 
and teeth. Each tooth and each fragment of jaw had been 
ground away and pierced with a hole for inserting it on a 
pin, probably of wood, thrust through the hide breast or- 


Vol. 10, No. 2 

nament. Traces of what may have been red paint were 
found in this grave. 

Many minor discoveries were made by the expedition. 
Numbers of former wigwam hearths were located. Two 
huge stone beds, made of flags laid edge to edge were un- 
covered. Roughly circular and twelve feet in diameter the 
purpose of the first was undetermined. The sand burned 
black for a depth of a foot or more beneath the stone in- 
dicated that the second may have been the site of some clan 
or tribal feast. 

Indians still live in numbers in the region about Mac- 
gregor Bay. After many days of extensive work and in- 
vestigations in this region the "Mizpah" sailed away, leav- 
ing much exploratory work to be done. On the last days of 
our stay at Macgregor Bay reports of the location of two 
mound groups were received and another cemetery was 
found. We sailed north into Lake Superior for a brief visit 
at Isle Royal and returned to Chicago on September 1. 

Fire-steels. 65 


The use of the fire-steel as a means of producing fire was 
early introduced to the Indians of the Old Northwest by the 
French traders. All or most of these early fur merchants 
regularly carried at least small numbers of fire-steels in 
their trading stocks both for trading with the natives and 
for the convenience of the employees of the trading posts 
established in the Wisconsin forests. 

At this time the Wisconsin Indians were producing fire 
by means of at least two fire-making devices of their own, 
the most effective of which was probably the fire-drill. This 
consisted of a short wooden bow strung with a strip of raw- 
hide, buckskin or bark cord, a short dull-pointed wooden 
drill or shaft and a block or piece of wood called a hearth, 
hearth-board or fire-board. The bow revolved the drill in a 
shallow depression at the edge of the hearth. Powdered 
wood was ground off and ignited by the friction and con- 
ducted by means of a small cut to the edge of the hearth. 
Here the coal fell on the tinder of pounded cedar bark or 
other easily ignitable material. The fire was then encour- 
aged by blowing or faning until a flame was produced. The 
drill may also have been used without the bow, the shaft 
being revolved on the hearth with the hands. 

The Wisconsin Winnebago, Menomini, Potawatomi, 
Sioux and Sauk and Fox all used the fire-drill in fire-mak- 
ing. Fire sets of this nature have been collected from the 
modern descendants of all of these tribes. Among the Win- 
nebago and Potawatomi this appartus is still in use on some 
ceremonial occasions. Fire-making sets occur in Winnebago 
war bundles unless lost or removed. The number of black- 
ened depressions along both long edges of some of these 
hearths show how often they have been used. 

The hearth in one of these bundles is a piece of flat ash 
wood 11 inches long, 2 inches wide and % f an i ncn thick. 
The ash drill is 9 inches long and % of an inch in diameter. 
Both extremities are roundly pointed. Another drill is 6 
inches in length. 

Among the Winnebago fire was considered a sacred pos- 


session of the Thunderbird clan. A myth tells how the Thun- 
derers made the first fire with their fire-sticks. 

The Chippewa used the fire-plow in their fire making. 
This rather simple device consisted of a piece of wood with 
a shallow groove traversing its length. In this groove the 
fire-stick was pushed rapidly back and forth. "The fire they 
started by friction, always carrying with them a thorough- 
ly dried black-ash stick with a groove worked in one side 
of it and a dry piece of white cedar to match the groove. 
When they wanted to start a fire they would lay a piece of 
dry rotten wood or punk on top of the black-ash stick, hold- 
ing it there with one hand, and with the other would rub 
the cedar stick in the groove of the ash block with all the 
rapidity they were capable of until it created sparks, which 
would ignite the punk and from this a fire was soon kin- 
dled."* They also used the fire-drill. 

"Three methods of obtaining a spark of fire were used 
among the Chippewa: The simplest method was the strik- 
ing together of two stones, the "punk" being held in the 
same hand as one of the stones. Next in probable develop- 
ment may be placed the striking together of stone and 
metal, and in later times the obtaining of a spark by fric- 
tion between two pieces of wood, the apparatus comprising 
a bow, a stick of ash, and a cedar hearth with shredded 
bark" to catch the spark". Birch and cedar bark were used 
but the latter was considered the more inflammable of the 

The obtaining of fire by use of flint and steel was the 
more common of the three customs above noted. The form 
of the steel varied from a broken file to a well-shaped piece 
of iron, suggesting the work of a blacksmith." 

"A Chippewa said: The greatest wonder that ever came 
to the Indians was fire. Like everything else it came to 
them through the Hide.' Some one asked, 'What do you 
want us to do with this?' A man replied, This is for warmth 
and for cooking.' The Indians were afraid of it at first, but 
soon learned that it was useful. f They found that the fire 
burned them, causing pain, but the Mide provided a 'medi- 
cine' which they could put on their hands and on the soles 

Plate 3 

Fire-steels. 67 

of their feet, after which they could thrust their hands into 
the fire or walk in the flames without being hurt. A song 
was sung when this 'fire-charm' was used." 

In Wisconsin French accounts of 1721 fire-steels are 
priced at 108 livres a gross. A livre was equal to about 20 
cents. In 1804 at the Lac du Flambeau trading post six 
fire-steels were priced as equal to a "plus", or one good 
beaver skin. At this post, as well as at others, fire-steels 
were given to the Indians among other things such as cloth, 
cheap jewelry, etc. as presents to gain their good will and 
trade.* Some American traders later priced fire-steels at 
two shillings, or twenty-five cents, in trade. 

No mention is made of the furnishing of any flint to the 
Indians with the fire-steels. No doubt the large gunflints 
carried by all of the traders were much employed for this 
purpose. "Steel boxes" are mentioned in some trading in- 
voices. These were boxes designed as receptacles for the 
carrying of the fire-steel, flint and "punk". 

The fire-steels furnished by the traders to the natives 
were cheaply made. A blacksmith would take a piece of 
iron, heat and flatten it and bend it in an oval or other 
form. One of the largest of these oval steels has a central 
opening large enough to permit of the insertion of the 
three middle fingers of the hand. 

Many rusted, and broken, fire steels have been found on 
Indian village sites in Wisconsin and on old trading post 
sites. Some have been obtained from Indian graves. 

In the accompanying illustration the forms of some Wis- 
consin Indian and other fire-steels are shown. 

No. 1 Carcajou village site, Lake Koshkonong. Length 2 % inches. 
No. 2 Carcajou village site, Lake Koshkonong. Length 2 % inches. 
No. 3 Grignon-Porlier fur-trading post, Butte des Morts. Length 3 % 

No. 4 From a Colonial tinder box, Lexington, Massachusetts. Length 

2% inches. Name "Harris" stamped on one face of the 


No. 5 Carcajou village site, Lake Koshkonong. Length 2 % inches. 
No. 6 Brought to Wisconsin in 1848 by a settler from the Rhine 

Valley, Germany. 
No. 7 Chippewa Indian fire-steel. 
No. 8 Chippewa Indian fire-steel. 


The writer will be pleased to hear from members of the 
Wisconsin Archeological Society or from other friends who 
possess specimens of these or other forms of Indian, or 
other fire-steels. Thus it may be possible to some time con- 
tribute another article on this subject. 


* Benjamin Armstrong, Life Among the Indians, Ashland, 1892. 
f Frances Densmore, Chippewa Customs, Bull. 86, Bu. Am. Ethno. 

Red Metal. 69 


The following account of the discovery of copper in the 
Ontonagon country in northern Michigan is obtained from 
a pamphlet, "Red Metal" printed by James K. Jamison, 
the historian of this region, in 1930. 

"In 1847 Mr. Samuel Knapp paused now and then to 
scratch his head in a quandary. He was slowing working 
across the south slope of a hill, tracing out a long line of 
slight depressions. He wondered about those depressions; 
he didn't understand just why they were there. 

"Mr. Samuel Knapp was up looking for copper. He put 
up with Jim Paul at the Mouth for a spell and then went up- 
river to look around a bit. Thus he had prospected here and 
there until at last he was on the south slope of that hill, 
tracing out that singular line of depressions and scratching 
his head. 

"One of the depressions aroused his curiosity to the point 
where he turned speculation into action. He put a shovel 
into it. He cleaned out the brush and the leaves and he dug 
out a considerable quantity of loose earth. He didn't find 
what h was looking for, not immediately. He made a dis- 
covery but he was a very surprised man. What he discov- 
ered, what he began throwing out of that hole was a quan- 
tity of stone hammers. Not just a few, but dozens, scores of 
them. I imagine Mr. Knapp's curiosity mounted. I imagine 
he dug with considerable ardor. Pretty soon he realized 
that he was at the bottom of that particular hole, that he 
had struck solid rock. What he found when he cleaned that 
hole up a bit was a vein of pure copper. There it was and 
anybody could see for himself that chunks of copper had 
been knocked off that vein with these stone hammers. 

"Samuel Knapp realized now what that regular line of de- 
pressions meant : they marked the vein for several hundred 
feet. To prove it he went to the bottom of every one of 
those pits. One of them impressed Knapp especially. It 
was twenty-five feet deep, filled with accumulated drift. At 
eighteen feet, he hit a mass of copper ten feet long, three 
feet wide and two feet thick. This mass resting on timbers 


of oak, crudely hewed, and this bridging built up cob-wise, 
was holding it several feet off the floor of the excavation. 

"Somebody, Mr. Samuel Knapp realized, had preceded 
him. That was a busy winter for Samuel Knapp. I suppose 
in a sense he had discovered the Minnesota Mine: but as a 
matter of fact he had only opened up a mine already dis- 
covered by someone else. Nobody was quicker to admit that 
than Samuel Knapp himself. Indeed he gathered all of the 
evidence he could find to prove it: more than ten wagon- 
loads of those stone hammers, hardheads of greenstone, 
and porphyry, weighing from one to ten pounds each. 

"He gave some time to the question of the age of these 
ancient diggings. In one of the depressions he found the 
stump of a pine tree thirty inches in diameter. The tree 
itself was fallen and gone and the stump was so decayed he 
could break it up with his hands. Well, the hole had to fill 
by natural causes before the pine seed could have germinat- 
ed there. And, of course, some time must have elapsed be- 
for the seed was cast on a possible growing place. Perhaps 
the tree would disintegrate and the stump decay in a cen- 
tury, thought Samuel Knapp. Since this is 1847, that would 
put the breaking off of the pine at about 1747. How long 
had it taken the tree to grow to a diameter of thirty inches ? 
Two centuries, perhaps. That would mean that the seed 
germinated there about 1547. Why there was not an Eng- 
lish colony in America then, Samuel Knapp reflects, and it 
was only a few years before that Columbus discovered 
America. But wait, says Mr. Knapp to himself. How long 
a time might have elapsed after the hole was filled \\ith 
drift before the seed was dropped there? That, Mr. Knapp 
considered, was a matter of pure guessing. It might have 
been one year or five centuries. And how long had it taKen 
the excavation to fill by natural causes, a twenty-five foot 
hole up on a hill ? Do the Indians know anything about min- 
ing, asks Samuel Knapp. No. No we have no stories, no 
legends handed down by generations about that business, 
these Indians tell him. Mr. Knapp gives it up, as well he 
might. He was not ungrateful; he was willing to acknow- 
ledge the activities of these stone hammer gentlemen. He 

Red Metal. 71 

could afford it: they showed him a property that paid sev- 
eral million dollars in dividends. 

"Knapp went ahead. In 1848 he started six tons of cop- 
per down the river. In 1852 he paid thirty thousand dollars 
in dividends and by 1860 his mine had struck its stride. 
One of the chief problems was the cutting up of masses 
into pieces small enough to hoist to the surface. There was 
one in particular. It weighed four hundred and twenty 
tons. These stout Cornish and Irish miners were at it 
for months with chisels and sledges. Here was the Federal 
government clamoring for copper to fight the War of Re- 
bellion, glad to pay sixty cents a pound for it. That single 
mass at that rate was worth a half million dollars. 

"The Minnesota Mine became a lordly concern, the pride 
and pattern of all the Lake Superior mines. It built for 
itself a glorious tradition and in its hey-day its 'operative 
organization was almost feudal. In 1852 it paid a ten dol- 
lar dividend, in 1853 a twenty dollar dividend, in 1854 a 
thirty dollar dividend. Between 1852 and 1856, it doubled 
its investor's money." 




Among the recently found native copper implements 
which nearly every year find a resting place in some Wis- 
consin collection there are always a few pieces which are 
of exceptional size and craftmanship. 

One of these specimens was added during the past sum- 
mer to the rich and extensive collection of Mr. Joseph 
Ringeisen, Jr., the widely-known Milwaukee collector, and 
a member of the Wisconsin Archeological Society. 

This fine specimen of aboriginal copper-smithing is a 
long, slender harpoon point with a single sharply-pointed 
barb projecting from one side. It is the kind of an imple- 
ment which was very probably employed by the pre-historic 
redmen of Wisconsin in harpooning sturgeon and other 
large fish. It is a long rod of copper, circular in section and 
tapering to a point at each extremity. Its length is 12% 
inches. Its width near its middle is about 5/16 of an inch. 
The barb is about 31/4 inches from one extremity. This 
harpoon point is in perfect condition as found, not having 
been mutilated or "cleaned" by its finder. It was found near 
Ogdensburg, Waupaca County. Weight 4 ounces. 

Twenty-seven years ago, when we first described harpoon 
points of this nature, the largest known example was in the 
collection of Mr. William H. Ellsworth at Milwaukee. Its 
length was 10% inches.* Quite a number of additional 
specimens have since then been found. These both Mr. Geo. 
A. West and the writer have described.** 

A large copper pike recently found near Aztalan, Jeffer- 
son County, is 11% inches long. One extremity tapers to 
a point and the other is bent in the form of a small curved 
hook. The latter is a rather uncommon feature in pikes. 
This pike is likewise curious in that the heavier and thicker 
portion of it, from its point to near its middle, is square 
in section, and the remainder of the implement, from its 
middle to the hook-shaped extremity, circular in section. 

* 3 Wis. Archeologist, No. 2. 

** Bull. Milw. Pub. Museum, V. 10, No. 2; 7 Wis. Archeo., No. 1. 

Large Copper Implements. 73 

At its middle this pike is % of an inch wide. Its weight is 
11/4 pounds. This fine implement is in the collection of Dr. 
L. V. Sprague, a Madison member of the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society. 

The largest known copper pike is in the collections of 
the Field Museum of Natural History at Chicago. Its length 
is nearly 40 inches. Its weight is given at 5*4 pounds. The 
second largest specimen, in the Henry P. Hamilton col- 
lection in the State Historical Museum, is 29 inches long. 
It weighs 2% pounds. 

Some knives, spearpoints and chisels are among the cop- 
per implements of exceptional size which have recently 
been found. 



In visiting museums and some private collections in the 
State of New York archaeological investigators from Wis- 
consin cannot help being impressed with the large size, 
graceful form and state of perfection of some of the stone 
pestles obtained from Indian sites in that state. A few of 
these may be mentioned. 

In the fine archaeological collections of the museum of 
the Buffalo Historical Society there is to be seen in the Dr. 
A. L. Benedict collection a fine 15 inch pestle of the long 
tapering form. This is labeled as from an Iroquois site. 
Stone pestles and mortars of ruder form are in the same 
collection. The collection of stone pestles in the New York 
State Museum at Albany is especially fine. Some of these 
are very large and heavy. Some have carved animal heads 
at the handle ends. Four exceptionally long cylindrical pes- 
tles come from Green Island. The largest of these is about 
26 inches long and 31/2 inches in diameter at its middle. It 
tapers from the middle toward both ends. Another stone 
pestle from "Albany and Renssalaer" is about 28 inches in 
length. Another long, tapering cylindrical pestle was ob- 
tained in the Hoosick Valley. Other large stone pestles are 
from a site or sites at the Big Bend of the Hudson River in 
Warren County. One has an animal head. The mortars are 
of a ruder character, some being merely stone slabs with 
shallow depressions. In the Alvin H. Dewey collection in 
this museum there may be seen two large, highly polished 
stone pestles of the graceful bell shaped form. One is about 
8 inches high and 6 inches in diameter at its base. 

The American Muesum of Natural History in New York 
City exhibits large stone pestles from Pennsylvania and 
from Maine. Other New York museums also possess large 
and fine pestles from 15 to 25 or more inches long. Private 
collectors in several cities have others quite as large and as 
well fashioned. Some of these ancient pestle-makers were 
certainly masters of their craft. Of the stone pestles from 
the Eastern United States shown in the United States Na- 
tional Museum some are over three feet in length. They also 

New York Stone pestles. 75 

are Indian tools worthy of the admiration of the archeolo- 

Dr. Wiljiam M. Beauchamp, writing in 1897,* had this to 
say of the pestles of the New York Indians: "Pestles are 
everywhere found, as might be expected, but were very 
sparingly used by the Iroquois, who preferred their wooden 
pestles and mortars, as they do still. The Jesuit mission- 
aries among the Hurons expressed the same preference, al- 
though they had a hand mill which the Indians delighted 
to turn. Mr. Fowke thinks the cylindrical pestle was used 
as a rolling pin, but has taken no notice of the long, flat- 
tened pebbles, so frequent in parts of New York. It may be 
they were sparingly used elsewhere. Stone mortars are 
more common towards the coast and the ordinary pestle 
or pounder must often have been used with them. Prof. G. 
H. Perkins described a pestle with a carved head in Ver- 
mont, and there is one of these in the State Museum at Al- 
bany. Mr. Wagman had a fine one of this kind from Lake 
George, with an animal head at one end. It was 24 inches 
long and two thick. Several have been seen in the central 
part of the state. Mr. Wagman had 23 long pestles, varying 
from seven to 21 inches long. They are quite as large else- 
where, but vary in form." 

He describes, among others, a number of large pestles, 
these being from 14 to 26 inches long. 

Arthur C. Parker, when state archeologist of New York, 
had this to say about New York stone pestles.** "Cylin- 
drical pestles were worked out by a chipping, pecking and 
abrading process. Some are more than 2 feet in length, 
others not more than 8 inches. Some are well rounded and 
polished and others only roughly chipped to form. Diame- 
ters vary from li/ 2 inches to 3 or even 4 inches. One class 
of cylindrical pestle has the upper end carved in the shape 
of some conventionalized animal head. These have been 
found in the Seneca River region, the Hudson valley near 
Albany and near Glens Falls. 

* Bull. N. Y. State Mus., V. 4, No. 18. 
** Bull. N. Y. State Mus., Nos. 235, 236. 


"Cylindrical pestles are found almost entirely on Algon- 
kian sites of all periods. A few very early Iroquoian sites 
in the State have cylindrical pestles but they do not appear 
in later sites. To the contrary, pestles are found on the 
most recent of Algonkian sites and frequently old colonial 
families still have in their possession pestles that are found 
in the cabins of Algonkian Indians on their estates, or 
given them with the stone or wooden mortar. 

"Bell pestles are comparatively rare and most specimens 
have come from the Genesse valley above Mount Morris. 
A considerable number were found by Mr. F. C. Crofoot at 
Sonyea. Bell pestles are generally found on old sites that 
may or may not be Algonkian. They seem to belong in 
some cases to the mound-builder culture." 


Preservation of the Old Indian Agency House. 77 


The idea of the preservation of the old U. S. Indian 
Agency House as a State historical monument originated 
with Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand and Dr. Louise P. Kellog. Both 
had visited the locality and had become impressed with the 
desirability and possibility of saving this historic building 
to posterity. They secured the interest of Mrs. Charles E. 
Buell, chairman of the History and Landmarks Committee 
of the Wisconsin Federation of Women's Clubs. Mrs. Buell 
labored diligently and enthusiastically for the fruitition of 
the cherished project. Several meetings were held on the 
grounds. The assistance of Mr. Burt Williams, Col. Howard 
Greene, Col. Fred C. Best, Mr. Theodore T. Brown, Mr. and 
Mrs. Andrews, Mrs. H. J. Puffer, Mr. C. E. Brown, Mrs. 
Jessie R. Skinner, Col. Marshall Cousins, Miss Amelia 
Stevens, Mrs. Hobart Johnson, Mr. L. S. Hanks and other 
friends in Madison, Portage and Milwaukee was secured. 
A committee was appointed and the Old Indian Agency 
House Association, a non-profit sharing company, incor- 
I^prated under the laws of the state. Mrs. Buell herself se- 
cured many subscriptions from members of the Women's 
Clubs. Citizens of Portage also raised a considerable sum 
of money through stock subscriptions. Through the activ- 
ity and generosity of Mrs. Hobart Johnson and Mrs. Arthur 
N. Holbrook the Wisconsin Colonial Dames undertook the 
duty of raising the balance of the money required to com- 
plete the purchase of the property. 

This historic building, constructed of hand-hewn timbers, 
stands on the bank of the Fox River across that stream 
from the former location of the famous old frontier Fort 
Winnebago, at Portage. It was erected in 1831 for U. S. 
Indian Agent John Harris Kinzie and his charming wife, 
Juliette Magill Kinzie. They were its occupants for three 
interesting years. 

In the front yard of the old building are tall elm trees, in 
its rear a collection of barns, sheds and other buildings, and 
about it cultivated fields and pasture lands. 


In the day of its erection Major David E. Twiggs, a sol- 
dier, who afterwards fought in the Mexican War, was in 
command of Fort Winnebago. Jefferson Davis was sta- 
tioned there as a lieutenant. At the Agency House there 
gathered in those days the noted Wisconsin Winnebago 
chiefs, Four Legs, Yellow Thunder and other chiefs with 
their tribesmen. From the fields all about the old building 
hundreds of Indian stone and other implements and orna- 
ments have been collected in the years from 1831 to the 
present date. The character of these indicates that the site 
has been occupied by redmen as a dwelling place since pre- 
historic time. 

In its long life of a hundred years the old building has 
had many vicissitudes of fortune. It was for a time a tav- 
ern where many travelers were entertained. During re- 
cent years it served as a farm house. 

While in residence in this historic building Mrs. Kinzie 
obtained the material for her delightful book, WAU-BUN, 
or the "Early Day" in the Northwest. "What happened to 
her, what she experienced, enjoyed, and endured she has 
embodied in her book. Wau-Bun is thus in part an auto- 
biography, the account of the years 1830 to 1833 spent at 
Fort Winnebago and the journeys thither and thence. It' 
was not written at the time the events occurred ; it is found- 
ed on memories, the memories of an unusually intelligent 
actor and observer." Her book was completed in 1855 and 
published the following year simultaneously in New York 
and Cincinnati. The six illustrations were from the au- 
thor's own drawings. A second edition appeared in Chi- 
cago in 1857. In 1873, a third edition was printed in Phil- 
adelphia. This without illustrations. Two editions were 
printed in Chicago in 1901. One was printed by the Caxton 
Club of Chicago, Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites being the editor. 
The other was prepared by Mrs. Kinzie's eldest daughter, 
Eleanor, wife of Geneeral William W. Gordon of Savannah. 

In order to further assist in the purchase, repair and re- 
furnishing of the Old Indian Agency House Dr. Louise P. 
Kellogg very generously undertook in 1930 the preparation 
of a sixth edition of this classic volume. This has now been 

Preservation of the Old Indian Ag-ency House. 79 

printed in most attractive style by the George Banta Pub- 
lishing Company of Menasha, Wisconsin. Mr. Banta, who 
is himself greatly interested in the preservation of the Old 
Indian Agency House, is very generously contributing all of 
the profits of the publication to the Indian Agency House 

The cost of the book is $2.50. Every member of the Wis- 
consin Archeological Society will wish to obtain a copy of 
Wau-Bun for his home library. Orders for copies should be 
sent to Mr. George Banta, Jr. at Menasha. 

The site of the Old Indian Agency House has already 
become a place of pilgrimage for all persons interested in 
Wisconsin history. It is expected that thousands of visitors 
will gather there during the present year. Plans for the re- 
pair and re-furnishing of the building are now receiving 
consideration. No doubt a caretaker for the building and 
grounds will be appointed. 

Persons who wish to contribute to the cost of the im- 
provements may communicate with Mrs. C. E. Buell or Mrs. 
Hobart Johnson at Madison. 



In his book, The Mound-Builders, but recently off the 
presses, Henry Clyde Shetrone, has made a notable, wel- 
come and very useful contribution to American archeolog- 
ical literature. It is introduced to those interested in arch- 
eological history as "a reconstruction of the life of a pre- 
historic American race, through exploration and interpre- 
tation of their earth mounds, their burials and their cul- 
tural remains." After reading it none will perhaps deny 
that its author has not made the most of his experience 
and knowledge in its preparation for the use of the student 
and other interested readers. 

Mr. Shetrone was for years the active and experienced 
chief assistant of the late lamented Dr. William C. Mills, 
until his death in 1928, director of the Ohio State Arch- 
aeological and Historical Society and for many years the 
acknowledged "leading exponent of scientific mound ex- 
ploration" in America. After his death Mr. Shetrone suc- 
ceeded his former chief as director and archeologist of the 
Society and of its museum at Columbus. He has also been 
for some years a member of the Committee on State Arch- 
eological Surveys of the National Research Council. 

In the preface of his book, Mr. Shetrone states that The 
Mound-Builders "is dedicated to the average man and wom- 
an who, although fully awake to the human interest in their 
story, lack time and opportunity for digesting the rather 
extensive but often unavailable literature on the subject. 
This volume is intended to afford a belated answer to the 
oft-heard query 'Where can I find a book that will give me 
the important facts regarding the Mound-builders?' If the 
professional prehistorian also finds the book a handy com- 
pendium of the archaeology of the general mound area, its 
publication will be more than justified. 

"In a sense, the preparation of The Mound-Builders has 
been a pioneer undertaking, in that it attempts to combine 
scientific accuracy and popular presentation. Difficulties ad- 
mittedly have been numerous; but the recent gratifying 

The Mound-Builders. 81 

tendancy to popularize science and the encouragement and 
assistance tendered by the author's co-workers in the field 
have removed all cause for hesitation. 

"Planning the book with the idea of obtaining something 
of order and sequence and of sustaining human interest was 
not the least of the problems involved. Considerable license 
admittedly has been taken in attempting to effect the de- 
sired result. Outside of a few restricted areas the mound- 
building complex has been only partly analyzed, and there- 
fore is difficult to compass as a whole. Technical archaeo- 
logical method, with its emphasis on culture groups and 
areas, with their present lack of definition, proved to be im- 
practical for popular use. "Cultures," so-called, and "cul- 
ture areas" are adaptable as working bases, but they defy 
specific application in a presentation of this character. 

"The scheme of mound areas herein employed is the au- 
thor's method of meeting the difficulties which impose 
themselves. While these assumed areas have considerable 
basis of justification, they are not ultimately satisfactory 
an admission which emphasizes the need of concerted and 
exhaustive exploration of the mound area as a whole and 
coordination of resultant findings." 

There are twenty chapters in Mr. Shetrone's 508 page 
volume. The titles of these may be mentioned: "Early 
Theories as to Origin And Identity", "Distribution and 
Classification of the Mounds", "Architecture and Engineer- 
ing", "Agriculture, Commerce and Industry," "The 
Mound-Builder Burial Complex", "The Mound-Builder as 
an Artist", "Tobacco Pipes and Smoking Customs", "The 
Ohio Area: 'I, Adena and Fort Ancient Cultures", "The 
Ohio Area: II, The Hopewell Culture", The Ohio Area: 

III, Fortifications and Effigy Mounds", "The Ohio Area: 

IV, Marginal Subareas", "A Tour of the Ohio Mound 
Area", "The Great Lakes Area", "The Upper Mississippi 
Area : I, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Dakotas", "The Up- 
per Mississippi Area: II, Northern Illinois, Iowa and Mar- 
ginal Districts," The Lower Mississippi Area:I, Southern 
Illinois, Western Kentucky and Tennessee, Southern Miss- 
ouri and Arkansas," "The Lower Mississippi Area: II, 


Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama," "The Tennessee- 
Cumberland Area", "The Pennsylvania Area", and "Sum- 
mary and Conclusions". 

"The Mound-Builders" is not only well written, it is very 
well printed and profusely and finely illustrated. There are 
299 figures. Opposite the title page there appears a fine 
colored plate, a reproduction of the life-size figure by the 
sculptor, Edwin F. Frey, representing "The Prehistoric 
Sculptor", now on exhibition in the Ohio State Museum at 

Opposite page 28 there is a very useful map showing the 
"Distribution of Mounds and Earthworks in the Eastern 
United States." 

The value of Mr. Shetrone's book is added to by the 
printing at its close of a bibliography of works on general 
anthropology, the American Indian, and the archaeology 
of the mound area. 

As we were among those who encouraged Mr. Shetrone 
in his purpose of preparing this very interesting and use- 
ful book we wish to now congratulate him on the very 
successful manner in which he has carried out this arduous 

The Mound-Builders is printed by D. Appleton and Com- 
pany, New York City. Its cost is $7.50, carriage prepaid 
$7.75. We heartily recommend its purchase by members of 
the Wisconsin Archeological Society and its friends. It is 
the kind of a book that is not likely to slumber on one's 
library shelves. 

Archeological Notes. 



Meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological Society held at the Mil- 
waukee Public Museum on Monday evening, October 20, 1930. There 
were thirty members in attendance. President Charles G. Schoewe 
presided. Mr. Huron H. Smith acted as secretary. 

Dr. E. J. W. Notz exhibited a Potawatomi Dream Dance pipe ob- 
tained by him during the past summer and gave an account of its 
history and use. Mr. Paul Joers exhibited a beaded buckskin pouch, 
and Mr. Joseph Ringeisen a fine copper harpoon obtained in Waupa- 
ca County. Mr. Louis Pierron showed a collection of lantern slides 
made between 40 and 50 years ago and illustrating old cycling days 
in Milwaukee. 

Mr. A. P. Kannenberg exhibited three volumes of photographs of 
Wisconsin aboriginal earthenware vessels representing the Algonkian, 
Siouan and Cahokia cultures. He gave an account of the manner in 
which these were obtained. Dr. Kastner, Dr. Notz, Dr. Kuhm and 
other members took part in the discussion of his report. Mr. Kan- 
nenberg stated that one copy was to become the property of the 

Mr. Geo. A. West gave an account of an expedition made by a 
Milwaukee Public Museum expedition to Nevada and Utah. Mr. West 
joined the party after they had completed their work at the Yose- 
mitee. They visited Zion Canyon, Brice Canyon, Red Canyon and 
Cedar Breaks. These localities he described as beautiful beyond de- 
scription. They visited Gypsum Cave, where an expedition of the 
Southwest Museum was conducting explorations. They crawled into 
the 300 rooms and saw seven different layers of deposits some con- 
sisting of bones of the giant sloth, camel, sabre-tooth tiger and moun- 
tain sheep. 

In their trip to the Lost City they viewed the ruins of 2000 build- 
ings and collected many pottery fragments. Cemeteries were also 
visited. Rock salt had been mined there by the aborigines to a depth 
of several hundred feet. Deposits of mammoth and other ancient 
animal bones were seen. Death Valley and the Boulder Dam were 
also visited. Of these he gave interesting descriptions. The Cliff 
Palace and other ancient ruins in southern Colorado were visited at 
the close of the expedition. 

President Schoewe announced the deaths of Most Rev. Sebastian 
G. Messmer, a charter member of the Society, and of Chief Oliver 
Lemere, an Indian member. Obituaries of both were being prepared 
by Secretary Brown. 

Mr. G. M. Thorne, treasurer, stated that a report on the fund 
raised for the entertainment of the Central Section, A. A. A., was 
being prepared. 

Mr. Kannenberg invited the attendance of the members of the So- 
ciety at the unveiling of a marker at the Indian mounds preserved 
in Elisha D. Smith Park at Menasha. This was to be provided by the 
Winnebago County Archeological and Historical Society. 

Because of the very large attendance of 200 or more members and 
visitors the November 17, 1930 meeting of the Wisconsin Archeolo- 
gical Society was held in the auditorium of the Milwaukee Public 
Museum. President Schoewe conducted the proceedings. 


Secretary Charles E. Brown presented a report of the business 
transacted at the meeting of the Executive Board, held earlier in the 
evening. At this meeting there had been elected to annual member- 
ship E. Ralph Guentzel, Boscobel; P. M. Flatten, Green Bay; Perry 
J. Stearns, Milwaukee, and Ellison Orr, Waukon, Iowa. Mr. Alonzo 
W. Pond of the Logan Museum, Beloit, had been elected a member of 
the Executive Board to take the place of Mr. Vetal Winn, resigned. 
Mr. Louis Pierron, chairman of th'e Membership Committee had been 
requested to conduct a membership campaign. Mr. West, chairman 
of the special Committee on the Marking of Local Sites, had been 
requested to urge upon the village of Shorewood the preservation 
and marking of the small mound group located on the Milwaukee 
River bank at the old White City location. The Darien Woman's 
Club had placed a marker on the old Chicago to Madison trail, Mr. 
Pond delivering the dedication address. Articles and papers were 
requested for the January issue of The Wisconsin Archeologist. Mr. 
Kuhm had offered to undertake a study of the works of American 
artists who have been prominent in painting or drawing Indian sub- 

Mr. Alonzo W. Pond of the Logan Museum, Beloit College, de- 
livered a lecture on "Archaeological Explorations in Algiers," giving 
a very interesting account of the several Logan Expeditions conduct- 
ed by himself in that very interesting and fruitful North African 
country in the search for remains of Dawn Man. These expeditions 
had been very successful, thousands of stone Palaeolithic and other 
stone implements and other significant and valuable remains having 
been brought back to this country for study. A group of young in- 
vestigators from the University of Wisconsin, Beloit College and 
other cities had been among the active workers of the 1930 expedi- 
tion. Mr. Pond illustrated his very interesting and instructive lecture 
with three rolls of movie films. After the lecture many members 
asked questions which the lecturer answered. 

Mr. Brown reported on the publication by D. Appleton and Com- 
pany, New York, of the book, "The Mound-Builders," by Henry 
Clyde Shetrone, director of the Ohio State Archaeological and His- 
torical Society. He also told of the printing of the Geo. Banta Pub- 
lishing Company, Menasha, of Mrs. John H. Klinzie's classic book, 
"Wau-Bun, or the Early Day in the Northwest." Members were 
urged to secure copies of both. Mr. Harry E. Cole's book, "Stage- 
coach and Tavern Tales of the Old Northwest" (The Arthur H. 
Clark Company, Cleveland), was also now on sale. Mr. Cole had 
been for many years a very active officer of the Society. 

Members were urged to see the movie film, "The Big Trail," now 
being shown at a Milwaukee theatre. 

At the close of the meeting Mr. Ringeisen exhibited a very fine 
pipe made of rose quartz, from Pennsylvania, and Mr. Arthur Gerth 
gome fine Sioux and Chippewa quill and beadwork ornamented arti- 
cles. These were greatly admired. 

The December 17, 1930 meeting of the Wisconsin Archeological 
Society was held in the trustee hall of the Milwaukee Public Museum. 
President Charles G. Schoewe in the chair. There were 80 members 
and visitors in attendance. 

Secretary Brown reported the election by the Directors of the So- 
ciety of the following new annual members: Arthur J. Ivens, Otto 
Halvorson, Herbert Currie and H. R. Dineen, Milwaukee; Geo. Foeh- 
ringer, Cassville; H. S. Sherwin, Black Falls, and E. A. Bright, 
Prairie due Chien. The Eli Lilly Co., Indianapolis, had been elected 

Archeolog'ical Notes. 85 

an industrial (library) member. Messrs James W. Wampum (Pota- 
watomi), Blackwell, and Francis Lemere (Winnebago), had been 
elected Indian members. Governor-elect Philip LaFollette had been 
elected an honorary member. The death of Chief Simon Kahquados, 
a Potawatomi Indian member of the Society, had been announced. 
Kahquados was to be buried in Peninsula State Park in Door County. 

President Schoewe discussed briefly a fine native copper spud ex- 
hibited by Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., and a hawk feather from a 
Winnebago war bundle brought to the meeting by himself. Mr. Mc- 
Kern stated that there was being offered for sale by Ulysses S. White, 
an Indian member, a Winnebago war bundle. He briefly discussed 
its contents. 

Mr. John W. Gosling (White Feather), a Chippewa member of the 
Society, who was present, gave a short talk on the present poverty- 
stricken condition of many Wisconsin Indian families and the de- 
sirability of creating a greater interest among white residents of the 
state in their control by the Federal government, their health, edu- 
cation, etc. He told a Chippewa Indian folktale of the creation by 
Manabus of the white, red and black races. 

Mr. Charles E. Brown gave an illustrated lecture on "Paul Bun- 
yan and His Logging Crew," being a collection of the tall tales of the 
exploits of this mythical prince of the American lumberjacks form- 
erly told in the Wisconsin logging camps. Next to those of the Ameri- 
can Indian these exaggerated stories of the old-time lumberman were 
now considered an important contribution to American folklore. He 
traced the westward spread of these folktales from Maine and New 
Brunswick to Ontario, Michigan and Wisconsin, and from this region 
to the forests of Oregon, Washington and California. Closely related 
to them were the Tony Beaver tales of the South, and the Pecos Bill 
yarns of the western cowboys. Wisconsin men and women who had 
collected and published collections of Paul Bunyan stories in book 
or pamphlet form were Eugene S. Shepard, Bernice Stewart, Luke 
S. Kearney, Prof. E. R. Jones and Wm. W. Bartlett. Mr. Brown in- 
troduced to the members Mr. Matt. Stapleton, Mr. Luke S. Kearney, 
and a number of other former Wisconsin and Ontario lumberjacks 
who were present at the meeting. 

Members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society have two spring 
meetings to look forward to the annual Joint Meeting of the So- 
ciety with the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, to be held during the 
Easter recess of the University of Wisconsin, and the meeting of the 
Central Section, American Anthropological Association which will 
meet at the Chamberlain Memorial Museum, Three Oaks, Michigan, 
in May. Announcement of both meetings is made long in advance 
of their dates in order that members may have ample time to pre- 
pare papers to be included in the programs. Both promise to be very 
interesting gatherings and as largely attended as in previous years. 

Reminders for Members 

The Wisconsin Archeological Society is seeking new members in 
every part of Wisconsin. Present members are requested to enlist 
as annual, sustaining, or life members any persons of good reputa- 
tion who are interested in the collection and study of Indian imple- 
ments, in the preservation and marking of Indian mounds, sites and 
monuments; in Indian history; in Indian and other folklore; in local 
aboriginal surveys and explorations, in the improvement of conditions 
of our living Indians; in ethnological researches; in the advancement 


of our city, county and state museums, and in all other departments 
of American anthropology. All will find in the ranks and in the 
meetings of the Society a fine and helpful fellowship. Not only active 
members but patrons of anthropological science are wanted in every 
city and village in Wisconsin. If you lack for application blanks ad- 
dress the Secretary or Mr. Louis Pierron, chairman of the State 
Membership Committee, 3133 Downer Avenue, Milwaukee. 

Interested persons in adjoining and other states may also become 
members or patrons of the Wisconsin Society. Its priveleges are also 
extended to them. 

Members of the Society who are in doubt about the genuineness 
of any stone, metal or other Indian artifact which may be offered 
for sale to them by alleged finders or dealers in Indian relics, or be 
in their collections, may communicate for advice and service with 
Mr. Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., chairman of the Society's Committee on 
Fraudulent Indian Implements. His address is 1804 Third Street, Mil- 
waukee. Mr. Ringeisen is one of the Society's active members and is 
himself a collector of long experience. A Wisconsin state law makes 
it possible to prosecute all makers of and dealers in fraudulent 
Indian implements. Offenders should be promptly reported to Mr. 
Ringeisen or the Secretary. Mr. E. F. Richter and Mr. Geo. A. West 
of Milwaukee are members of the Society's Committee. Both are 
experienced collectors and reliable judges of fraudulent Indian arti- 

It is reported that there are just now ranging through Wisconsin, 
Illinois, Iowa, and other Middle West States, men who claim to be 
collecting Indian implements for the Chicago World's Exposition to 
be held in that city in 1933. These men are trying to purchase, loan, 
or obtain by other means Indian artifacts which they propose to ex- 
hibit at the Exposition. One of their modes of procedure will prob- 
ably be the same as that pursued in Wisconsin and other states 
previous to the World's Columbian Exposition, held at Chicago in 
1893, when many owners and collectors of Indian implements were 
given a silver dollar and a printed receipt for specimens delivered to 
an alleged Exposition agent and told that they could redeem their 
relics after the close of the Exposition by presenting the receipt. 
The Exposition management has not authorized anyone to act as its 
agent in the collecting of Indian artifacts, and will not do so. Ex- 
perienced collectors will not be taken in by such frauds, but other 
people may be. Members of the Society are requested to be on the 
alert for the detection and apprehension of such "agents," and to 
warn others of their presence and methods. These same men may ask 
the permission of farmers to "dig up" an Indian mound, or "open" 
an Indian grave under the pretense that the "relics" will be shown 
at the Exposition, with the generous owner's name appearing on the 
label. We ask our members to aid in preventing such destructiveness. 

During the coming season every member of the Wisconsin Arche- 
ological Society who has any spare time on his hands is urged to as- 
sist in the work of the State Archeological Survey by conducting 
some survey and exploration work in his home locality or elsewhere 
in the State. There is no region, no matter how carefully it may 
have been worked by some previous investigator, that cannot be re- 
examined with interesting results. An unrecorded camp or village 

Archeological Notes. 87 

site, workshop site, spring shrine, graves, remnant of a trail, or even 
an Indian mound or mounds may be located. Take a small region 
and work it thoroughly, the banks of a stream or a lake will furnish 
a good laboratory for the investigator. 

The Society furnishes a guide book for amateur investigators. 
Copies of this pamphlet and of printed blanks to be used in reporting 
results of investigations and in preparing field maps can be obtained 
from the Secretary's office at Madison. Reports should be filed with 

Members are requested to lend -their assistance to the municipal, 
county and state museums in their home neighborhoods. There are 
nearly a hundred museums in the state at present. It is desirable 
that these be given every encouragement, and that others be estab- 
lished in cities where there are none at present. Thus we may be 
able to save to future citizens of Wisconsin representative collection^ 
illustrating local archeology, ethnology and history. Collectors should 
be encouraged to place their accumulations in these institutions and 
to see to it that these are properly recorded, exhibited and labelled. 
Past and present members of the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
have been directly responsible for the establishment of many of the 
present Wisconsin museums. 

The preservation to the public of additional groups or examples of 
Wisconsin Indian mounds, of plots of Indian corn hills and garden 
beds, of Indian cemeteries, and of spirit stones, and of other features 
of the State's Indian prehistory and history is greatly to be desired. 
With the help of city and county officials and local organizations 
these should be secured, and, if possible, preserved in city and county 
parks. The importance of their preservation must be apparent to all 
intelligent citizens. Trails and river fords should be marked with 
proper tablets. All members of the Society are requested to promote 
and to assist in such undertakings in their home neighborhoods. Much 
has been accomplished by the Society in this direction but very much 
remains to be done. The attention of those who feel that they need 
inspiration and encouragement can be directed to what the State of 
Ohio has accomplished, and is doing, to preserve its Indian monu- 

Other Notes 

Mr. Mark G. Troxel, a Madison member of the Wisconsin Arche- 
ological Society, died in his office on December 20, 1930. He was 
managing editor of The American Thresherman, a periodical pub- 
lished in his home city. Mr. Troxell was a fine type of a man, widely 
known and liked for his helpful friendship. He was interested in 
everything that pertained to the American Indian. He served at dif- 
ferent times as a member of the Society's standing committees. 

Two other recent deaths of old and valued members of the Society 
were those of Mr. George W. Ogden and Mr. Henry R. King of Mil- 
waukee. Both were old settlers of the city. 

Mr. Louis Pierron, chairman of the Membership Committee, has 
undertaken a campaign for increasing the Society's membership in 
Milwaukee and the State. All members who have prospective mem- 
bers in view are requested to secure their applications at this time. 


Opposite the opening page of this issue of The Wisconsin Arche- 
ologist there appears a picture of Mr. Charles G. Schoewe, president 
of the Society. Mr. Schoewe is in winter garb prepared for a snow- 
shoe hike over one of the trails in the Moose Lake region in Wauke- 
sha County. Mr. Schoewe has been for years active in the Society's 

The Geneva Lake Historical Society is preparing to celebrate dur- 
ing the present year the Centennial of the discovery of Lake Geneva 
by the whites in 1831. Dr. Paul B. Jenkins has been appointed chair- 
man of the committee on organization. 


UuL 10 April, 1031 








W. C. McKern (Editor), Ira Edwards, H. W. Kuhm, 
Charles E. Brown, Charles G. Schoewe 

Accepted for mailing- at special rate of postage provided for in Sec. 1103, 
Act, Oct. 3, 1917. Authorized Jan. 28, 1921. 

n Ardjenlogtral 

Incorporated March 23, 1903, for the purpose of advancing the study and 
preservation of Wisconsin antiquities 



Charles G. Schoewe 


W. C. McKern Dr. H. W. Kuhm 

Dr. A. L. Kastner E. F. Richter 

W. W. Gilman Paul Joers 

R. J. Kieckhefer 


Joseph Ringeisen, Jr. Dr. E. J. W. Notz T. L. Miller 

Dr. S. A. Barrett Huron Smith L. R. Whitney 

George A. West Mrs. Theodore Koerner Alonzo Pond 

A. P. Kannenberg 


G. M. Thorne 
National Bank of Commerce, Milwaukee, Wis. 


Charles E. Brown 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wis. 


Life Members, $25.00 Endowment Members, $500.00 

Sustaining Members, $5.00 Annual Members, $2.00 

Institutional Members, $1.50 Junior Members, $ .50 

All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society 
should be addressed to Charles E. Brown, Secretary and Curator, Office, 
State Historical Museum, Madison, Wisconsin. Contributions to the Wis- 
consin Archeologist should be addressed to W. C. McKern, Editor, Public 
Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, or to the Secretary. Dues should be 
sent to G. M. Thorne, Treasurer, National Bank of Commerce, Milwau- 
kee, Wisconsin. 



STATE SURVEY T. L. Miller, Walter S. Dunsmoor, G. L. Pasco, 
T. M. N. Lewis, Dr. A. L. Kastner, J. P. Schumacher, Alonzo 
Pond, Geo. F. Overton, M. F. Hulburt, W. M. Maier, O. L. Hoi- 
lister, Dr. F. G. Logan, David A. Blencoe, S. W. Faville, Col. 
R. S. Owen, Robert R. Jones. 

MOUND PRESERVATION Mrs. E. H. Van Ostrand, Frank Wes- 
ton, Dr. Louise P. Kellogg, Dr. Orrin Thompson, Mrs. F. R. 
Melcher, Col. Howard Greene, Rev. O. W. Smith, J. J. Knudsen, 
H. W. Cornell, Dr. E. G. Bruder, A. H. Griffith. 

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS Milwaukee Public Museum (Dr. S. A. 
Barrett), Wisconsin State Historical Museum (Dr. Joseph Scha- 
fer), Oshkosh Public Museum (Niles J. Behnke), Green Bay 
Public Museum (T. T. Brown), New London Museum (Rev. F. 
S. Dayton), Lawrence College (Prof. J. B. MacHarg), White- 
water Museum (Prof. N. F. Heyer), La Crosse State Teachers 
College (Prof. A. H. Sanford), Kohler Museum (Miss Marie 
Kohler), Logan Museum (Dr. Geo. L. Collie), Minnesota State 
Historical Museum (Willoughby M. Babcock), St. Francis Mu- 
seum (Rev. Dr. A. J. Muench.) 

MEMBERSHIP Louis Pierron, Dr. E. J. W. Notz, Paul Joers, 
Arthur Gerth, Dr. W. H. Brown, W. F. Yahr, Mrs. Anna F. 
Johnson, K. Freckman, Geo. Wright, Mrs. Hans A. Olson, Carl 
Baur, C. G. Weyl, A. R. Rogers. 

er, R. P. Ferry, D. S. Rowland, Walter Holsten. 

PUBLICITY J. B. Gregory, A. O. Barton, E. R. Mclntyre, R. K. 


BIOGRAPHY H. H. Smith, G. M. Thome, Milo C. Richter. 

FRAUDULENT ARTIFACTS Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., E. F. Richter, 
Geo. A. West. 

POTTERY SURVEY A. P. Kannenberg, Ray Van Handel, R. N. 

PROGRAM H. H. Smith, Milo C. Richter, Joseph Ringeisen, Jr., 
Dr. A. L. Kastner, R. J. Kieckhefer, T. L. Miller. 

man, Dr. Paul B. Jenkins, L. R. Whitney. 

PUBLICATION W. C. McKern, Dr. Ira Edwards, Dr. H. W. Kuhm. 


Vol. 10, No. 3, New Series 


Superimposed Aboriginal Implement, Geo. A. West 89 

Silver Ornaments from Grand Butte, Geo. Overton 91 

The American Indian in Painting and Sculpture, Herbert W. 

Kuhm 99 

Lake Poygan Indians, Arthur Gerth 102 

Vertebral Pathology of Prehistoric Wisconsin Indians, Alton K. 

Fisher 105 

An Unusual Type of Copper Knife, W. C. McKern Ill 

A Wisconsin Bird-stone, Charles G. Schoewe 114 

The Joint Meeting at Ripon, Charles E. Brown 116 

Archeological Notes 119 

A Re-worked Copper Gouge or Chisel Frontispiece 

Plate Facing Page 
1. Copper Knife from Juneau County 112 

(Milwaukee Public Museum Print) 

Published Quarterly by the Wisconsin ArcheoloKiVnl Society 

VOL,. 10. MADISON, WIS., APRIL, 1931 No. 3 

New Series 


Geo. A. West 

Stone artifacts are frequently found indicating re-work- 
ing or repair. Arrow points occasionally show evidence of 
having been re-chipped or re-pointed. Stone axes with bro- 
ken cutting edges have been pecked into shape for further 
use. But there is no way of determining if the repairs 
were made by the original owners or by subsequent ones who 
found them perhaps centuries later, repaired them and put 
them into service. 

The village sites of the aborigines of Wisconsin were usu- 
ally located convenient to some lake, waterway or spring. 
These sites were successively occupied for centuries before 
white men came, and now many of them are occupied by our 
cities and villages. 

The ancient village sites have produced a large percent- 
age of the aboriginal products of the past which we have 
recovered, and it is reasonable to suppose that the suc- 
cessive occupants of these sites in centuries past have 
found, used and lost again many of the specimens that fill 
our cabinets of today. 

Evidences of superimposed work on an aboriginal copper 
implement is undisputably shown upon the object herein 
figured and described (Frontispiece). 

This interesting object was found in November, 1928, 
about twelve inches below the surface, on the Tripoli Golf 
Grounds, township of Granville, near the city limits of Mil- 
waukee, by Mr. W. C. Neilson. It is of beaten copper and 
would usually be classified as a chisel or gouge. Its length 
is seven inches with an inch or more of the narrowest end 
missing. Its cutting edge is one and one-half inches in 
width and is bevelled entirely from one side, which is slight- 
ly concave from end to end. Its maximum thickness is 


about three-eighths of an inch. It is very heavily coated 
with verdigris and deeply pitted in places. It has all indica- 
tions of great age and of having been in contact with the 
soil for a long period of time. 

This specimen might not be considered exceptional were 
it not for the fact that it shows unmistakable evidence of 
having been fabricated, lost and, probably, after the lapse 
of centuries, recovered by some Indian, reworked and again 
lost. It then remained undisturbed for possibly hundreds 
of years, until recently found and now installed in my 

The alteration of this implement, before it was lost the 
second time, consisted in the hammering of a groove around 
its mid-section, evidently by the use of a stone hammer, and 
the breaking off of its smaller end which was then smoothed 
by grinding. The object of the groove was evidently for 
the attachment of a handle, thus converting it into an adze, 
or possibly a very serviceable tomahawk. The breaking off 
of the smaller end was likely accidental as it was broken at 
an angle that left one side of the object one-fourth of an 
inch longer than the other. 

Both the groove and the broken end are of a dark mahog- 
any color, with traces of verdigris, in contrast to the re- 
mainder of the instrument which is heavily coated with 
the carbonate of copper, and contains numerous pits and 
ridges in relief, the result of erosion. 

The story of this specimen, as one reads from it, is that 
its metal was obtained in the usual way from the prehistoric 
mines of the Lake Superior District, transported with all 
the accompanying hardships and dangers to some village in 
Eastern Wisconsin, where it was fabricated and used, per- 
haps for generations. It was finally lost and, after hundreds 
of years, as its eroded surface would indicate, recovered by 
some later Indian who re-worked it and put it to a use for 
which it was not originally intended. After an indefinite 
period of use, it was again lost and remained undisturbed 
long enough for the accumulation of a foot of soil above 
it and the first step in erosion to be made. White men un- 
earthed it in an age when its usefulness as an implement 
had ceased, but its value as a record of the past is inesti- 

Silver Ornaments. 



Geo. Overton 

The Grand Butte des Morts has long been clothed in a 
glamour of romance. Legends are related of painted and 
highly decorated warriors drifting about in their high- 
prowed canoes or lolling at ease among their wigwams of 
rushes ; of rollicking voyageurs pushing the heavy boats of 
the trader up a smiling river. Black robed missionaries are 
pictured preaching to attentive groups of painted savages 
or being instructed in the directions for reaching the great 
Father of Waters. There are tales of levying tribute and 
retaliation; siege and surrender; councils and smoking the 
calumet of peace. There are stories of terrible battles be- 
tween whites and savages in which hundreds were slain 
and their bodies gathered and buried in a great mound, the 
hill upon which the village now stands. 

Patient research among documents, records and old let- 
ters fails to reveal the slightest evidence to substantiate 
any of these highly colored legends. The only battle any- 
where in this vicinity between the French and the Indians 
was the second engagement of the Morand expedition 
against the Foxes. This action was fought on the Robert 
Grignon place nearly four miles up the Fox River. 

Legends giving many different locations as the place 
where the "great battle" was fought between two Indian 
tribes are related by descendents of early settlers as having 
been told to them by Indians. Most of these stories are 
probably true. Not one but scores of battles have been 
fought in this territory between various tribes. The abun- 
dance of easily procurable food, clothing and shelter sup- 
plied by the forests, marshes and waters made this region 
highly attractive to the aborigines. The numerous village 
sites, the extensive garden beds and corn hills are mute 
evidence of a numerous population. Situated as it is on a 
thru route of travel and being known far and near as a 
land of plenty, it is inevitable that there would be con- 
troversy and battle between rival tribes. 


The builders of the mounds apparently did not occupy 
this site as the nearest mounds, the Overton Group, are a 
mile and a half down the river. The south shore of Lake 
Butte des Morts, four miles distant, originally had more 
than fifty mounds, some of which are very fine effigies. 

The Winnebago are supposed to have been the earliest 
inhabitants of this part of Wisconsin. For a time the 
Outagamis were in control. Following the downfall of the 
Outagamis the Menomini took possession and lived on the 
banks of the Fox River, its tributary streams and their 
expansive lakes. 

Butte des Morts Hill of the Dead has always been re- 
vered as sacred ground by the Indians. Here they erected 
the long wikiup and made medicine with elaborate and long 
drawn-out ceremonies. Here were held the dances and 
feasts to their various dietties. The stately, mournful 
booming of the Dream Dance drum or the jolly rhythmic 
beat of the tom-tom and water drum led the chant of their 
songs, ritualistic or convivial. 

Each nation in turn buried its dead on or near the low 
hill that rises abruptly from the north bank of the river 
opposite the great marsh. The bodies of those who perished 
on hunting or other expeditions were placed on scaffolds, 
or otherwise secured from harm, till the party returned 
when they were brought back to the Grand Butte and in- 
terred with fitting ceremony. 

Bundle burials show that the dead were not always 
brought back the same season. The fact that they were 
eventually brought back and buried indicates conclusively 
the veneration in which this ground was held by these peo- 
ple. Menepoos was there! Menepoos would watch over his 

The Indian code appears to have recognized absolute 
ownership of personal property. Long drawn out probate 
proceedings were not necessary nor required to dispose of 
the deceased's implements, weapons or ornaments. No 
covetous heirs .squabbled over his earthly possessions. They 
were buried with him that he might have them to use in his 
future abode. The hereafter is to the Indian an absolute 
reality. He was provided with everything needful for his 

Silver Ornaments. 93 

journey to, and for his life in The Happy Hunting Ground. 

Since the settlement of Butte des Morts in the '40's of 
the last century, and the consequent cultivation of gardens, 
many graves have been uncovered. Practically every plot 
near the river has yielded its quota of remains. I excavated 
a bundle burial under the northeast corner of the Butte 
des Morts garage. E. L. Benedict found a burial which con- 
tained many specimens of Indian culture. The outstanding 
piece was a string of crude prehistoric copper beatfs. The 
beads were about half an inch in diameter and perforated 
thru the solid copper. Thos. Petford relates having ob- 
served as a boy the exhuming of a large number of bodies 
by the Indians when a road was relocated across one of 
their burying grounds. These bones were later taken up the 
river and reinterred (Wis. Arch, Vol. 8, No. 3). Early set- 
tlers told of the abundance and variety of the finds that 
followed the annual plowing of gardens. The finders usu- 
ally were loath to part with their relics but in the end some 
persistent beggar carried them off piecemeal. Any attempt 
at this late date to enumerate this material or to even esti- 
mate the amount and kind, further than to say that there 
was a great deal of it, would be so wholly devoid of ac- 
curacy as to be valueless. 

In the spring of 1930, Mr. Albert Berg erected a resi- 
dence on lot 11, block 13 of the original plat of Butte des 
Morts. On April 17 Robert Kitz, while excavating for a 
porch post, dug up a large silver ornament. Further work 
revealed a burial very rich in silver trade goods. With the 
assistance of Walter Buyeski they uncovered the largest 
find ever made in this vicinity. Museum workers were 
notified and came, but the grave had been stripped of every- 
thing. The metal ornaments and weapons were piled in one 
box and the broken bones had been thrown in another. 
Careful work with a sieve on the excavated material re- 
sulted in the recovery of about two dozen small silver ring 
brooches, largely damaged by shovels. Next morning the 
material that went thru the sieve yielded 95 semi transpar- 
ent porcelain beads and a few of wampum. 

Workmen digging a sewer to the river found grave No. 
2 about four feet south of grave No. 1. In spite of requests, 


pleadings and even supplications, that in case of another 
find, things be left intact till expert hands could do the un- 
covering, the former misguided, ruthless destruction was 
repeated. Each tried to see who could pick out the most 
pieces in the shortest time. As a spectator put it; "The 
whole thing was a grab fest." 

A few feet nearer the river a skull was found in the 
isewer trench. This grave, No. 3, was carefully excavated 
by workers from the Oshkosh Public Museum. Measure- 
ments and photographs were taken. The only thing of in- 
terest in this grave, other than the position and condition 
of the bones, was a small broken pot. This pot has been 
restored and is now in the collection of the Oshkosh Public 

Graves Nos. 1 and 2 were prone burials, heads to the 
west. The bodies did not lie exactly east and west, the feet 
being a few degrees to the north of due east. They were 
an adult male and a female, respectively. No. 3, a young 
adult male, lay with the head to the east, the body extended 
toward the southwest with the legs partly flexed. Grave 
No. 1 was placed 19 inches below the original surface at 
its deepest point. However, this lot had been used as a gar- 
den for many years and had probably washed considerably. 
No. 3 was right on the brow of the escarpment and was 
deeper than the others. In my opinion this burial had no 
connection with the others being merely a chance juxta- 

Grave No. 1, inventories as follows: 

Silver Arm band ($5.33 per pair). 

2 in. wide by 9 in. long. Raised line of beading along each 
side. The outside edge is folded under iV in. to form a small 
bead. The corners and the ends are not perfectly square. Two 
holes are in each end. 

A conventional Dragon is engraved on the face of band. This 
figure is 2 in. long by % in. high. Mouth open, tongue protrud- 
ing. Upper jaw has five fangs and low has three. Horns similar 
to a cow. Front legs have paws and hind legs talons, and the 
tail is like that of a panther. 

Marked on one end "MONTREAL," and on the other "RC." 

Silver arm band. 

2 in. wide by 9 in. long. Beading % in. wide along each side. 
A broad bead outside and two narrower beads inside. Corners 
are rounded. Three holes iV in. in diameter in each end. Has 
an engraved bird, with a hooked beak, probably an eagle, 1% 
in. long. No hall mark. 

Silver Ornaments. 95 

Silver Brooch 

4% in. in diameter, concavity % in. deep. Line of engraving 
TG in. wide. & in. from the edge. Between this line and the 
outer edge is a serpentine line of similar engraving the undula- 
tions of which are % in. apart. The central figure is a crude 
swan 1 V 2 in. high by 1 % in. long. Above the swan are two but- 
tons or bosses fs in. diameter; the shanks extend thru the plate 
and terminate in ^4 in. loops at the back. Hall mark very in- 
distinct, resembles CA. 

Boat-shaped brooch. 

2 % in. long by V 2 in. wide at middle, tapering in a curved line 
to p in. at the ends. The face is convex and the back flat. 
i 3 6 in. thick at the middle and iV in. at the ends. The brooch 
has an outward curve of % in. Made of thin silver, hollow, the 
ends originally ornamented by the ball of an ear-bob held in 
place by a thong drawn thru the inside of the brooch. Hall 
marked II. 

Diamond-shaped brooch (Cut out). 

Ii 3 e in. long by 1% in. wide. The diamond is % in. long 
by % in. wide. Each point surrounded by a cut-out crescent 
showing the points of the diamond. Has a tongue across middle. 
Hall mark RC. 

Double heart. 

Itk in. long by 1 in. wide. Made, of about 20 gauge silver, 
by cutting out two overlapping hearts from one piece. The in- 
ner part of the hearts is cut out leaving a strip > in. wide. 
The left heart has the edges indented and the right has an en- 
graved line on its face^. The whole is surmounted by a Royal 
Crown having the outer edge indented. Hall mark RC. 

Small Crosses. 

Silver ear bob with three "Small Crosses" attached to the wire 
ring. Crosses are liV in. by % in. Hall mark RC. 

"Small" silver ear bob. 

2 "Large" silver ear bobs. 

2 Silver finger rings. 

Silver hair band. 1% in. long by & in. wide. One edge beaded. 

Silver hair band. 3 in. long by 1 in. wide. One edge beaded, corners 
clipped. Hole in one end. 

Circular brooch. % in. in diameter. Circle re in. wide. Marked RC. 

Small circular brooch. Same as above but % in. in diameter. No 

Silver ring brooches. There were more than 150 in all. 90 of these, 
in four sizes, % in., TG in., % in. and % in., are preserved in- 
tact. Many are still fastened together by the original ribbon. 
The others are damaged or were lost. 

15 Hammered copper cones. 

These cones varied from % in. to % in. long and were about 
1 A in. in diameter at the large end and T S G in. at the small 
end. The cones were crudely hammered out of native copper. 
These coppers are generally listed as 'tinklers' for the adornment 
of medicine bags and other like uses. Those found in this burial 
had tufts of hair in the large end, some quite well preserved. 
From their position in the grave they were probably a necklace. 

Copper fish hook. 

2 1 /4 in. long. Shank flattened 32 in. wide and s 3 2 in. thick, 
tapering to a point at the upper end. 


Large bone beads. 

Six perfect and two fragmentary bone beads, 1% in. long by 
% in. in diameter. Found near skull. Part of feather head dress. 

Part of bone awl. 

1 % in. long, */4 in. square, pointed, butt broken off. 

Four large metal buttons. 1 in. in diameter. Badly corroded. 

Two hundred porcelain beads and a few of wampum. 

Fragments of a pouch of some sort of fine-grained skin. 

Trace of red paint. Near pouch. 

Two gun flints and a painted flint scraper. 

One painted flint arrow point. 

Steel scalping knife. 9 in. long over all, blade 5 in. long. Badly cor- 

Iron spear head. 

8 in. long, blade 6}4 in. long and 2% in. wide at base. Sides 
of blade taper straight to the point. Tang % in. wide with a 
deep notch on each side % in. from the end. 

Fire steel. 3% in. long. Oval in shape. 

Squaw hatchet. 5% in. long, 2 x /4 in. wide at the bit. Eye, 1% in. 
in diameter, still has traces of wood. 

Grave No. 2. Adult Female 

Two silver double crosses ($10.33 per C). 

These are the "small double crosses". They are 2% in. long, 
with lower bar 1 Vs in. and the upper bar 1 in. long. The bars 
and the upper part are & in. wide; the lower part is & in. 
wide. Cut out of sheet silver of about 20 gauge. One cross is 
ornamented with punch marks and the other by engraved short 
curved lines and X marks. Hall mark RC. 
Silver bracelet. 

6% in. long by % in. wide. Edges ornamented by lines of 
beading. Ends cut round. Hole in each end. No mark. 
Silver bracelet. 

5% in. long by H in. wide. Ends cut in segment. Hole in 
each end. Hall mark RC. 

2 Hair bands. 

3y 8 in. and 3iV in. long and y 2 in. wide. A bead iV in. 
wide, l /s in. from each edge. One end is square and the other 
is rounded, with a hole in the rounded end. Made flat by ham- 
mering. Hall mark very indistinct, SI or SJ. 
Cover of a 'Patch Box'. 

Oval, 1% in. long by 1 % in. wide. Convexity 1 A in. deep. 
The hinge had been broken off. Other part of box missing. 
Diamond-shaped brooch. 

Similar to that in grave No. 1. 

3 Small silver cones, % in. long by ^4 in. Very thin sheet. Crude. 

Evidently Indian made. 
Ear bobs. 

% in. silver wire ring with six large ear-bobs s